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^010 ft#t Collectttt» 




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^* Oportet E tfcl ci iMti ciun, qnando Miadct aliqiiid quod ifniduBi cat, noa to. 
lam doorre at instruct, ei delectare ut tcncat. irer^m Kum flactart ut TincBC** 

Aug. de DuctrinA ChrutiuiA, lib. 4. cap. 13. 











Chap. I. Man's being, to be employed in working: ihit working it 

directed unto Mine good, which n God : that good a free tod 

Tolantary reward, which we here enjoy, only in the right of a 

promise : the seal of which prombe is a sacrament ... 5 
Chap. II. Sacrameou are eamcats and shadows of oar expected 

glory made unto the senses . .7 

Chap. III. Inferences of practice from the former obsenratioot 10 

Chap. IV. Whence sacraments derive their value and being, namely, 

from the author that instituted them .13 

Chap. V. Inferences of practice from the Author of this sacrament . 15 
Chap. VI. Of the circumsunces of the institution, namely, the time 

and place . . • '9 

Chap. VII. Of the matter of the Lord's Supper, bread and wine, 

with their analogy unto Christ .24 

Chap. VIII. Practical inferences from the materials of the Lord's 

Supper . • ^ 

Chap. IX. Of the analogy and proportion between the holy actions 

used by Christ in this Sacrament, and Christ himself who is 

the substance of it .38 

Chap. X. Of the fourth action, with the reasons why the Sacrament 

is to be eat«^ and drunken . -37 

Chap. XI. Of other reasons, why the Sacrament u eaten and drunken, 

and of the manner of our union and incorporation into Christ 49 
Chap. XII. Inferences of practice from the consideration of the 

former actions -49 

Chap. XIII. Of the two fim ends or effecU of the Sacrament, 

namely, the exhibition of Christ to the Church, and the union 

of the Church to Christ. Of the real presence . .64 

Chap. XIV. Of three other ends of this Holy Sacrament, the fel- 
lowship or vnion of the faithfk), the obtignation of the Core- 

nant of Gftec, ami ihc •brogation of the Pamottf • 77 



Chap. XV. The last end of this Holy Sacrament, namely, the cele- 
bration and memory of Christ's death. A brief collectNm of 
all the benefits, which are by his death conveyed on the Church. 
The question touching the quality of temporal punishments 
stated ^ • . . .87 

Chap. XVI. Of the manner after which we are to celebrate the ' 
memory of Christ's passion .... 104 

Chap. XV 11. Inferences of practice from the several ends of this 
Holy Sacrament . . . • .111 

Chap. XVI II. Of the subject, who may with best benefit receive 
the Holy Sacrament, with the necessary qualification thereunto; 
of the necessity of due preparation .... 194 

Chap. XIX. Of the form or manner of examination required, whieh 
is, touching the main qualification of a worthy receiver, ianU : 
The demonstration whereof is made, first, from the causes ; 
secondly, from the nature of it . . . .132 

Chap. XX. Of the third and last means for the trial and demonstra- 
tion of faith, namely, from effects or properties thereof .154 



Sect. I. £phraim*s blessings and judgements answerable to his 
name ...... 173 

II. When judgement purposed against obstinate sinners, mercy pro- 

claimed to penitent . . . .174 

III. How good and bad are alike involved in outward judgements. 
Judgements make no difference, but of penitent and impenitent. 
Penitent sinners, in all kinds of trouble, have a refuge to some 
promise or other . . .176 

IV. Conversion must not merely be philosophical or political, but 
spiritual, and that full and constant . .179 

V. Motives unto conversion, meioy and judgement, especially inter- 

woven ........ 180 

VI. Great preparation due in our addresses unto God. The rule, 
matter, principle, and power of prayer. How sin is taken away 182 

VII. When God tbreateueth juttgements, we must pray agaiast 
sins . . . . . • .. 186 

VIII. Judgements may be removed in anger. Repentance makes 
afRictions precious, as sin doth corrupt blessings . 186 

IX. No affliction comes in anger, but with respect to sin . .189 

X. One sin, generally unrrpented of, may undo a kingdom ; we 

must pray against all, an(l die unto all . . . 19I 

XI. Sense of sin. The wrath of God beyond the fears of man . 1 94 

XII. Confrwifwi of tin. foil aod free. Out wmkneu am comaiU 
tin, MMie b«i God's pow«r OKI ranofe U . • • li)7 

XIII. WhatGod woffkethio ttt^kcabareqaifcibofits. Sin bou 
daiBgefoiu id gmc men, to ilmitclTet amI the pubUck . . 109 

XIV. How iniquity is to be takca out of the land • tOO 

XV. God tbeaoihorofgood^ thtOMlcnr of erti • .009 

XVI. From cooTcnioo to tilTatioOy ffee fvaec woffkodi • 904 
XVU. No worklmlygood^btttMdcriicd fffomGod .905 

XVII I. Puieoce in soflering evil, in doing duly. Uiuniliiy Um 
ooiBfMoioo of gnce, pride of cmplioeM. CootMiod deptadiuioe 
oaGqd. Fiddity in aemccft. The imoty of divtsioos . . ?<»7 

XIX. In temporal jodgemenu pray for tpiritnal meretes. No Mps 
can avail «a ^giwnH God'« tngtr, bal his grace . • tl I 

XX. Comal pf«y«ft proroke God» when men make leligion •erre 
uwaa. Piety the foondauoB of proftpcriiy .813 

XXL Jodgemeou are then truly sancli6ed» when ihey make oa 
more in lore with gnee. Pnyer the more heavenly* the more 
prevalent . « .915 


Sect. L $piriunl edds of legal cetcinooies and sacrilweA. We teinro 

nothing to God» hot words for meioies • .218 

U. A rrooonctng carnal confidence in the Assyrian, horses, idols. 
How the Ckmrch an orphan -919 

lil. Penitents not only pray, bat covenant. Circumcision a cove- 
ojot. Circumcised in onctrcumcision. Gcniiles converted, arc 
called Jews: Jews onconverted. Gentiles. Baptism, how the 
answer of a good conscience. The covenant perpetual . .991 

IV. God btndeth himielf to ns by promise, by oath : we Ire his by 

his sovereign iniefcst, and our own voluntary c o n e eot . 993 

V. PicUenese of the heart hi duty, and sluggithncM to It . . 995 
VL Ootiet in combination strongest .... 996 

VII. Eoemiea combine: military oaths. How truth a girdle, doctri- 
fially, morally ..... 997 

VIII. Wicked men, like wttchet, in covenant with the DevO, doing 
service for wages ....... 998 

IX. P r ayLf Ttin withont obedience. God's covenant to tu, ours to 
him ... 931 

X. The outerial cante of a covenant, our persons ; onr services, in 

ttfcn of necessity, expediency, and praise . 933 

XI. The formal and efieieot cause ; Knowledge, wOlingness, power 

of promise and performance .... 936 
XIL Onatgerefoevennntii^ in ilus dark only . .937 

Xill. And on the laek .938 

XIV. When we promise duty, we must pray for grace, ^tht final 
eanae ..... 939 

XV. The folseness and perfidionsness of the bean ; how it is unsta- 
ble at water ... . • '^ 


XVI. God's fiuthfiilnets and mercies: our baptism, faith, s|Hrits, 
hopes, are all obligalions to fidelity • 842 

Sect. I. SacriBces propitiatory and encharistical . • 944 

II. Praises the matter of a coTehant, a staple commodity for com- 

merce with Heaven . . ib« 

III. Praises the fruits of repentance • . . 24f 

IV. An argument in prayer: God forceth his glory out of wicked 
men» but is glorified actively by the godly . , . . 248 

V. A principle of obedience ; difference between the obedience of 

fear and of love . . . . 25 1 

VI. An instrument of glory to God* Praises of the heart and of the 
lips. Communion of sinners. Communion of saints . . 253 

VII. Converts report God's mercies to others. No true praises 
without piety. Sins against mercy soonest ripe • • 256 

VIII. The more greedy, the less thankful. God's greatness matter, 
of praise. Things strongest when they are nearest their original. 
Other creatures guided by an external, reasonable by an internal 
knowledge ..... 257 

IX. God's goodness matter of praise. Kirowledge of God notional 
and experimental. Praise the language of Heaven. Sacrifices 
were God's own. Love of communion above self-love . .260 

X. We are wide to receive, narrow to acknowledge. The benefit of 

praises is his own . . . . • 26s 

XI. Wherein the duties of praising God stand . • 263 

XII. Repentance careful of obedience . • 265 

XIII. This care wrought by godly sorrow. Present sense. Holy 
jealousy. Love to Christ. Sons by adoption and regeneration 2G6 

XIV. Repentance sets itself most against a man's special sin . . 271 

XV. fiy this sin God most dishonoured. By thb repentance sincerity 
most evidenced ..... 275 

Sect. I. Repentance removes carnal confidence: naturally we affect 

an absoluteness within oursehes . . . 279 

II. This failing, we trust in other creatures . .281 

III. When all fail, we go to God in ways of our own inventing. 
Repentance the cure of all this • .28V 

IV. Confederacies with God's enemies dangerous. Take heed of 
competition between our own interest and God's . 282 

V. The creature not to be trusted in, it #ants strength and wisdom . 283 

VI. Idols not to be trusted in, they are lies. Ground of confidence, 

all wanting in idols . .285 

VIL God only to be trusted absolutely in the way of his eommands 
and provideoce .... 287 


VLLL Tbe way lo macj b to be dthcdctt: fnikam ni ovntlvct 

m^es us trek help abore ountlvet . f^^ 

IX. Sin healed by pardoo, porting, dcfivcfaacc, oofliftirt. Why 
back-eliding panhooed bj nana . fg^ 

X. Oar coQTcruoo gnmndcd oo fraa giaca. No gmk too graac lor 

love to paiT^o. God*t angar will eoDMal wkh bit lore . . sgs 

XL CooTenioQ and bcaliog go tngeiber. Sin a iickocaa and % 

wound ...... fiQ7 

XII. The pcoper paaaioot of tickneta agree to tin, viz. Plaao, weak- 

D«M, coQsamptioo, deformity .... SQi 
Xill. Stn a woonid; the hnportaat, wilM» and dcfpcrme eaae of 

this patieot . . 30ff 

Xi V. The mercy of thb pbyiiciaa .... 30# 

XV. Goilc cannoc look on Mj^fcaty. ApptebemoM of nerry tbe 
groands of prayer ...... 305 

XVI. Sense of mieery works ettimation of aoerey . 3o5 

XV II. Back-eliding formally oppoaiie to hiik and repen ta nce. 
Apostasy two-fold. What it is to speak against the Son of 
Man, and againu the Spirit. How a tin b said not to be fbr- 
gzrea in thu world, nor in the world to come. Free lore 1^ 
specu not persons, nor free paidon, sins . JM 

XVI II. From the beginning to the end of saKatioo, all b ftee 
grace ..•••. 91^ 

XIX. In jodgeoienta, God'a anger nwre to ba noted than out tnffBf> 
ings ..... 315 

Sect. I. Blessings are large to the penitent, as canes to the ioipeoi. 

tenty and answer all our wants .318 

II. God aoswereth prayers, beyond the petitions of his people . , 390 

III. We may pray according to the knowledge and love we hare of 
ourselves. God aniwen according to hit knowledge and love .321 

IV. God answers prayer not only with respect to our wants, but his 
own honour. God's ultimate end in working, our strongest as- 
gument in prayii^ ...... 323 

V. Encouragement to prayer. God's shekel double to us . , 3?4 
VL Prayer may be ambitious and beg great things . 3f^ 
Vlh Fnc love pots forth itself in various blessings . . 317 

VIII. Grace as dew of a celestial original, fruit of a serene heaven . 39g 

IX. Abundaniy insensible, insinuating and searching, vagetating 
and quickening. Refreshing and comforting . .331 

X. Peace no blessing, except it come as dew from heaven . 394 

XI. All wants must be stipplied from Heaven. Christ all beauties to 
hb Chnrch. The root and stability of the Church, foundation 
doctrinal, personaL Blghtecwsoess of redemption stronger than 

of creation ...... 339 

XII. Growth of the Church under the law, national i under tbe go^ 
pel, uoirersaL Christ tbe oht e-tree, original of graae 10 his 
Church ...... 339 


XI [J. Our refuge and shelter. Our power above af&ictions . 340 

XIV. All Christ's graces, fruits of Lebanon, the best of all others.: 
Creature-helps, liars either by falseness or impotcncj » • 342 

XV. Promises should beget duties. God promiaeth beauty to his 
Church ; we should labour to adorn it . ... ^,349 

XVI. He promiseth stability ; we should be rooted ia truth and. 
grace ; all our gifts should serve the Temple • , / • 344 

XVII. He promiseth growth ; we should grow ourselves, and endea- 
vour the growth of others. Christ both the end and beginning 

of the Church's growth .... 346 

XV HI. Compacture and unity in the Church, necessary to the 

growth of it. Divisions hinder it . . . . 348 

XIX. In the body compacted, there are several distinct members, 
each to act in hia own place, and joints fastening members to the 
head, and to one another. A different measure of virtue for se- 
veral offices. A mutual supply and helpfulness one to another. 
An eternal faculty in each part to form and concoct the matter 
subministered unto it . • • • . 360 

XX. He promiseth the fruitfulneas of the olive, which we should . 
show forth in works of grace and peace • • • 353 

XXI. He promiseth the smell of Lebanon ; the ointment of the got* 
pel, the graces of which we should express . ' 353 

XXH. He promiseth protection and conversion ; we should make 
him our shelter, and from his. protection learn our duty of con- 
version ....... 354 

XXIII. He promiseth reviving out of afflictions, profiting by them. 
We should not be discouraged by temptations, but amended } . 
they have many times mercy in them . . , 357 

XXIV. The virtues of heathens, grapes of Sodom ; the graces of ' 
Christ, grapes of Lebanon. Whatever we present unto God, 
must grow in Emmanuel's land . . . 359 


Sect. I. God's promise enabling, is our confidence to engage. Idols 
sorrows. God's observing us, a note of care, counsel, honour, 
hearing prayers . .361 

II. Sum, division of the text . . • 364 

III. Man's seal to God*s promise, only a confession ', God's seal to 
man's covenant, a confirmation . • * • 36( 

IV. Man's covenant of obedience, hath its firmiiess in God's pro- 
mise of grace. Indissolvable dependence of all second causes . 
on the first ....*. 365 

V. In sins of men, God kath an influence into them as actions, a pro- 

vidence over them as sins. In gracious actions, God's inftuence 
necessary both to the substance and goodness of them . . 36? 

VI. Of the concord between God's grace and man's will. Free-will, 
natural, theological. Innate pravityand corrupt force, which 
resisteth grace ; the remainders thertof in the xegencrate . OCQ 


Vfl. The will of God't preecpu and of bu purpofc .371 

Vlil. T>iey who are called exleroally only, nuu and pertth: ibey 
who cternallj, are made willing and obedient . 379 

IX. By an act of spiritnal itaching .... 373 

X. By aa act of cfiectoal dedioing and delennining the will, pfo- 

rcnting, assisting tobseqaent grace . 375 

XI. We may not tnut in oar own tticngth, bat be ever jeakma of 
oar orii^nal impotency onto good, oar natural antipathy againat 
it ; and of the frequent decays and abatemcnu of the giaoe of 
God in us . . • 37i 

XII. By prayer and frith get a heart fixed upon God . 381 
XTIL Great comfort that oar cooTertion and obedience dependeth 

on the power of God. Th'is no ground of supine neglect of 
duties ; for grace so worketH in us, as that it disposeth us unto 
working, the means being decreed as well as the end . 389 

XIV. Other men's wills are in God's keeping. He the author and 
ordcrer of our troubles . .385 

XV. Repentance breaks off sin, and makes haste out of it . . 387 
XVL God beareth only penitents. Our persons, accepted before 

OUT prayers. A wicked man may pray a prayer of nature, not 
of £uth. Two wills in prayer, oar's and God's. When a 
wicked man prays for mercy, he prays against God's will : when 
for grace, against hb own .... 389 

XV^IL When we pray for oatward things, our aims must be spi- 
ritual . The way to hare all our other ends, is to make God our 
chief end . . . . . 39I 

XVIII. Prayet the key of obedience. The piinciplcs of scrricc, are 

the fruiu of player ..... 308 

XrX. Words ammunition against arms ; that way as prayer goes, 

Ood goes ...... 3Q9 

XX. Sound conversation engageth God*s protection, and yieUlcth 

comfort in all conditions of lilc .... J{)3 

Sect. I. The seal of the Prophet's doctrine. Interrogation, deny nig, 

wishing, demonstrating, awakening .... 39^ 
II. In spiritual things, menul knowledge seconded with practical 

ivMrlom 1A7 

ill. The ways of the Lord, his providence, his precepts . 398 

J V. Few men wise to salvation .... 399 

V. The weaker part more than the wiser. The Word a sweet savour 

to all. Humorous singubriiy sinful ; pious singularity necessary 400 

VI. Tf«e wisdom poodcreth all God's ways. Wisdom particular, 
general ...... 408 

Vjl. Wicked men shape their own end, and apply sinful means by 
a sinful wisdom unto it. God only the last cud of righteous 
tntn .*...• 40.) 

VI II. All wisdom is for obtaining of good, avoiding of evil. The 
excellency of <very thing in beauty and use - 4o4 


iX. Wisdom of angdt conversant about the Word. Scripture the 
best counsellor : the plenituile thereof. The pernicious influ- 
ence of corrupt doctrines upon the present state of the Church 406 

X. Two-fold knowledge of judgements and blessings • • 406 

XI. The rectitude of God's ways in their equity and reason, able- 
ness» their perfect harmony, their directness to their end, their 
conformity to the will of God, their plainness and perspicuity 410 

XII. We are apt to pick quarrels at the Word . .413 

XIII. Wicked men set up their wills against God's, and invent dis- 
tinctions to reconcile God's will to theirs . .414 

XIV. Ministers may not stamp God's mark on doctrines of human 
invention, nor superindaoe any thing upon the Scripture. Peo- 
ple have a judgement of discretion to try the Spirits .415 

XV. Obedience the end of the ministry. Ordinances, not obeyed, 
ripen and increase sin, and hasten judgements . .417 

XVI. ^lone but righteous men will obey the Word. Every wicked 
man doth, in something or other, gainsay the truth .418 

XVII. The right ways of the Lord are unto wicked men matter of 
scandal ..*... 421 

XVIII. They stumble at the profoundness of the Word, as being 
above reason ..... 422 

XIX. At the strictness of it, as being against their peculiar lust 423 

XX. At the searching power and simplicity of the Gospel . 424 

XXI. At impossibility of fulfilling the law, which is but accidental. 
To regenerate men the law is evangelically possible. Wicked 
men hardened willingly, as well as judicially . • 425 

XXII. At the grace of the Word, by presumption ; at Uie threat- 
enings and judgements of it, by stubbornness . . 427 

XXIII. Wicked men stumble at the Word, not only unto scandal, 
but unto ruio ... ... 429 






VOL. 11U 





Saimt Jerome having, in the heal of kin youth, written an 
allegorical exposition npon the prophet Obadiah, did, in hit 
riper age, solemnly bewail onto his friend Pammacliius, both 
bis rashness in that attempt; and his infelicity farther herein, 
that what be thought had been buried amount his private 
papers, was gotten into the hands of a certain young man, 
and saw the light The selfsame complaint am I forced 
to make, touching this little manual of " Sacramental Medi- 
tations,^ which 1 humbly put into your hands. It was writ- 
ten with respect only to mine own private use many years 
since, when I was a young student in the university, as my 
first theological essay. And now lately, by means of a pri- 
vate copy, long ago communicated unto a friend, it had, 
without my knowledge, received a license for the press. 
My earnest care was, upon the first notice thereof, wholly to 
have suppressed the publication : but the copy which had 
been licensed, being, by I know not what miscarriage, lost, 
I have found it necessary, for fear of the like inconvenience 
again, to review a broken copy which I had by me, and have 
rather chosen to let it pass forth with some brief and sudden 
castigatioDS of mine own, than once more run the hazard of 
a surreptitious edition. Mine apology shall be no other than 
that of the good Father ; " Infans eram, nee turn scriberc 
noveram : Nunc, ut nihil aliud profecerim, sallem Socrati- 
cum illud habeo, Scioquod nescio." — And now Kinre I find 
that the oblation of the first-fruits, though haply tlu*y were 
not always the best and ripest, did yet find favourable nc- 
reptance with Qod himself; 1 have bctii einbuUlciitil to pre- 



sent this small enchiridion (the very first fruits of my theo- 
logical studies) unto the hands and patronage of so greatly 
learned, eloquent, and judicious a person : — and that upon 
this assurance; That as many times aged men, when they 
walk abroad, lean upon the hand of a little child, so even 
in this little and youthful treatise, such comfortable truths 
may be, though weakly, delivered, as may help, in your jour- 
ney towards a better country, to refresh and sustain your 
aged thoughts. The blood of Christ, and the food of 
life, are subjects worthy of all acceptation, though brought 
unto us in an earthen vessel. Elisha^ was not a whit the 
less valued by that noble Naaman, though it were a hand- 
maid which directed unto him. Neither was David^s "" com- 
fort in rescuing of his wives, and recovering of the spoils 
from the Amalekites any jot the smaller, because a young 
man of Egypt made way for the discovery. The sovereignty 
of the gospel is herein most excellently set forth, in that it 
many times leadeth the soul by the hand of a child"*, and is 
as truly, though not as abundantly, powerful from young 
Timothy ', as from Paul the aged. As Christ can use weak 
elements to exhibit, so can he also use a weak pen to ex- 
press, the virtue and comforts of his body and blood. 

In this confidence, I have made bold to prefix your name 
before these meditations ; that therein I might make a pub- 
lic acknowledgment of my many deep engagements for your 
abundant favours, and might, with most hearty prayers, 
commend you and yours to that blood of sprinkling, which 
speaketh better things for us than that of Abel. In which 
desires I daily remain. 

Yours, in all humble observance, 

Eow. Reynolds. 

^ 2 Kings V, 2, 3. 2 Sam. xvii. 17. c i Sam. xxx. 13. ^ Itai. zi. 6. 

• 1 Tim. iv. 12. 





MauM being io be employed in working ; thai working directed 
unio tome good, which is God ; that good^ a free and volun^ 
taiy reward^ which we here enjoy only in the right of a 
promise ; the seal of which promise^ is a sacrament. 

The almighty power and wisdom of God hath giren unto 
his creatures a triple degree of perfection, their being, their 
working, and their good ,— which three are so subordinate to 
each other, that working is the end and scope of being, and 
good is the end and scope of working : but no being can 
produce any work, no work reach unto any good, without 
something that may be a rule of working, and a way to 
iTood. And therefore Almighty God, in tlie work of the 
creation, imprinted in each creature a secret principle, which 
should move, govern, and uniformly direct it to its proper 
work and end ; and that principle we call a law, which, by 
assigning unto each thing the kind, measure, and extent 
of Its working, doth lead it on, by a straight and infallible 
line, unto that good for which it worketh. All other crea- 
tures below the sphere of reason, being not only, in the 
quality of their nature, of a narrow and strait perfection, but, 
in their duration, finite and perishable ; the good unto which 
this law of their creation directs them, is a finite good like- 
wise. But men and angels, being both in nature more ex- 
cellent than all others, and, in continuance, infinite and im- 
mortal, cannot possibly receive from any thing, which is a 
mere creature, and less perfect than themselves, any com- 


piete satisfaction of their desires ; and therefore must, by a 
circle, turn back unto God, who is as well the Omega, the 
end and object of their working, — aa the Alpha, the cause 
and author of their being. Now God being most free, not 
only in himself, but in the diffusion and communication of 
himself, unto any thing created (which, therefore, he cannot 
be naturally or necessarily bound unto), and being also a 
God infinitely beyond tlie laigest compass of the creature'^s 
merit or working,— it follows, that neither men nor angels 
can lay any necessary claim unto God, by a debt of nature 
(as a stone may unto the centre by that natural impress^ 
which directs it thither) ; but all our claim is by a right of 
promise and voluntary donation: so that that which, in 
other mere natural creatures, is called the term or scope, is, 
in reasonable creatures, the promise or reward of their woit- 
ing. " Fear not, Abraham ; I am thy exceeding great re- 
ward/* So then we have here our good, which is God,— to 
be communicated unto us, not in the manner of a necessary 
and natural debt, but of a voluntary and supernatural re- 
ward. Secondly, We have our working required, as the 
means to lead us, in a straight line, unto the fruition of that 
good. And inasmuch as man's will, being mutable, may 
carry him unto several operations of different kinds, — we 
have. Thirdly, A rule or law, to moderate the kind and man- 
ner of our working, whereby we reach unto our desired good : 
which rule when it altereth, as in the new covenant of grace 
it doth, — the quality of that work, whereby we reach unto 
our desired good, doth alter likewise. Now, Fourthly, We 
must farther observe. That between our working, which is 
the motion towards our good, — and our fruition, or resting 
in it|-^there is a distance or succession of time. So that 
while we are in our estate of working, we do not enjoy God 
by any full real presence or possession, but only by a right 
of a covenant and promise ; which makes the apostle say. 
That, in this life, " we live by faith, and not by sight.^' 
Now promises or covenants require to have annexed unto 
them evidence and certainty, so far as may secure the party 
that relies upon them ; which, in human contracts, is done 
by giving our words and setting-to our seals for confirma- 
tion. And now. Lastly, Inasmuch as that duty, on condi- 
tion whereof God maketh this promise of himself unto us, is 


liie work of the whole man, — the cfideiice aud confirmaiioo 
of the proBiise is, by God, made unto the whole man like- 
viae, and to each faculty of man: which it pleaaeth him in 
mercy the rather to do, because of that dependence of oor 
soub on the inferior and subordinate powers, and of that 
Beceaaary coanexion which there is between the inward 
reason and the outward senses. God then (pre-supposing 
erer the performance of conditions on our part) doth secure 
his chnicli, and give evidence for the discharge of his co? e- 
Baot and promise, — First, To the soul alone by the testimony 
of his Spirit, whkh is both the seal and the witness of God^s 
coTeoant ; and, Secondly, Both to the soul and to the sensea 
by thai double bond, his Word written or preached, and his 
seal visibly exhibited to the eye and taste, but especially 
unto the taste, in which objects are, more really and with 
less fallibility, united to the faculty, in which there appear- 
eth a more exquisite fruition of delight in these good things 
which are pleasing: and. Lastly, In which the mystical 
anion of the church to its head, unto the making up of one 
body, is more naturally expressed. And these seals, annexed 
unto the Word or patent of God's promise, have been ever 
{mspoaed unto the church in all its estates, and are nothing 
else but that which we call *' a sacrament."* So that as the 
testimony of the Spirit is an invisible seal, and earnest to 
the soul; so is the sacrament a visible seal, and earnest to 
the sense: both, after a several manner, ratifying and con- 
firming the infallible expectation of that future reward, which 
as well the senses as the soul shall, in God^s presence, 
really enjoy, after they have fulfilled the service which God 


S^crameidi are earnest i and ihadamt of our expected glortf^ 

made ymto the sensee. 

Thb promises and Word of grace with the Sacraments, arc 
all but as so many sealed deeds, to make over, unto all 
successions of the church, — so long as they continue 
legitimate children, and observe the laws on their part re- 
quired, — an infallible claim and title unto that good which 


is not yet revealed, — unto that inheritance which is as yet 
laid up unto that life, which is hid with God, and was never 
yet fully opened or let shine upon the earth. Even in Para^ 
dise there was a Sacrament : a tree of life indeed it was, but 
there was but one. Whereas Adam was to eat of all the 
fruits in the garden, he was there but to taste sometimes of 
life ; it was not to be his perpetual and only food. We read 
of ' a tree of life* in the beginning of the Bible, and of ' a 
tree of life' in the end too : that was in Adam's paradise on 
earth; this, in St. John'^s paradise in Heaven : but that did 
bear but the first-fruits of life, the earnest of an after fulness ; 
this, bare life in abundance; for it bare twelve manner of 
fruits, and that every month; which shows both the com- 
pleteness and eternity of that glory which we expect. And 
as the tree of paradise was but a Sacrament of life in Hea- 
ven, so paradise itself was but a Sacrament of Heaven. Cer- 
tainly, Adam was placed amongst the dark and shady trees 
of the garden, that he might, in an emblem, acknowledge 
that he was as yet but in the shadow of life, the substance 
whereof he was elsewhere to receive. Even when the church 
was pure, it was not perfect: it had an age of infancy, when 
it had a state of innocence. Glory was not communicated 
unto Adam himself, without the veil of a Sacrament : the 
light of God did not shine on paradise with a spreading and 
immediate ray : even there it was mixed with shadows, and 
represented only in a sacramental reflex, not in its own 
direct and proper brightness. The Israelites in the wilder- 
ness had light indeed, but it was in a cloud ; and they had 
the presence of God in the Ark, but it was under several 
coverings ; and they had the light of God shining on the 
face of Moses, but it was under the veil ; and Moses himself 
did see God, but it was in a cloud : so incapable is the 
church, while encompassed with a body of sin, to see the 
lustre of that glory which is expected. Certainly as the 
Son of God did admirably humble himself, in his hyposta* 
tical union, unto a visible flesh, — so doth he still, with equal 
wonder and lowliness, humble himself, in a sacramental 
union, unto visible elements. Strange it is, that that mercy 
which is so wonderful, that the angels desire to look into it, — 

• 1 Pet. I. 12 


SO oDCOneeiTable, as that it hath not entered into the 
thoaght of man ; of such height, and length, and breadth, 
and depth, as passeth knowledge, — should yet be made the 
object of oar lowest faculties : That that which is hid from 
the wise and prudent in man's little world, his mind and 
gpint, — should be revealed unto the babes, his senses. It 
were almost a contradiction in any thing, save God's mercy, 
to be so deep, as that no thought can fathom it, and yet 
so obrioos, that each eye may see it: ^' Handle me and see **; 
for a spiritual substance hath not flesh,'* was sometimes tlie 
argument of Christ : and yet " handle and see. take and eat, 
for a spiritual grace is conveyed by flesh, '^ is the sacrament 
of Christ. So humble is his mercy, that, since we cannot 
raise our understandings to the comprehension of divine 
mysteries, he will bring down and submit those mysteries 
to the apprehension of our senses. Hereafter our bodies 
shall be over-clothed with a spiritual glory, by a real union 
unto Christ in his kingdom : mean time, that spiritual glory 
which we groan after % is here over-clothed with weak and 
visible elements, by a sacramental union at his table. Then 
shall sense be exalted, and made a fit subject of glory; here 
u glory bumbled, and made a fit object of sense: " Then 
shall we see as we are seen, face to face ; here we see but 
as in a glass darkly '* ;" in the glass of the creature, — in the 
glass of the word, — in the glass of the sacraments. And 
surdy, these are in themselves clear and bright glasses ; yet 
we see even in them but darkly, in regard of that vapour and 
steam which exhaleth from our corrupt nature, when we use 
them: and even on these doth our soul look through other 
dark glasses, the windows of sense. But yet, at the best, 
they are but glasses, whose properties are to present no- 
thing but the pattern, the shadow, the type of those things 
which are, in their substance, quite behind us, and therefore 
out of sight. So then, in general, the nature of a sacrament 
is to be the representative of a substance, — the sign of a 
covenant, — the seal of a purchase, — the figure of a body, 
— the witness of our faith, — the earnest of our hope,~the 
presence of things distant, — the sight of things absent, — the 
taste of things unconceivable,— and the knowledge of things 
that are past knowledge. 

^ Luke xsiv. 3:1. • 2 Cur. t. 2, 4. I Cot. iv. 24. •• I Cot. xiii. 12. 

10 MKDlTA'flONS ON Tilt 


Inferettcts of practice from the former observations. 

Here then we see, first, the different state and disposition 
of the church here in a state of corruption ; and, therefore, 
in want of water in baptism to wash it : in a state of in- 
fancy ; and, therefore, in want of milk in the Word to nou- 
rish it: in a state of weakness ; and, therefore, in want of 
bread, the body of Christ, to strengthen it : in a state of 
sorrow; and, therefore, in want of wine, the blood of Christ, 
to comfort it. Thus the church while it is a child, it speaks 
as a child, it understands as a child, it feeds as a child, 
here a little and there a little ; one day in the week, one 
hour in the day, it is kept fasting and hungry. But when 
it is grown from strength to strength, unto a perfect age, 
and unto the fulness of the stature of Christ ; then it shall 
he satisfied with fatness, and drink its full of those rivers of 
pleasures, which make glad the city of God. It shall keep 
an eternal sabbath, a continued festival : the supper of the 
Lamb shall be without end, or satiety: '* so long as the bride- 
groom IS with them,^ (which shall be for ever) " they can- 
not fast.^ 

Secondly, We see here, nor see only, but even taste and 
touch, how gracious the Lord is, in that he is pleased even 
to unrobe* his graces of their natural lustre, to overshadow 
his promises; and, as it were, to obscure his glory, that 
they might be made proportioned to our dull and earthly 
senses ; to lock up so rich mysteries, as lie hidden in the 
sacraments, in a bason of water, or a morsel of bread. When 
be was invisible, by reason of that infinite distance between 
the divine nature and ours, he made himself to be seen in 
the fiesh : and now that his very flesh is to us again invi- 
sible, by reason of that vast distance between his place and 
ours, — ^he hath made even it, in a mystical sense, to be seen 
and tasted in the sacrament. Oh then, since God doth thus 
far humble himself and his graces, even unto our senses. 

let oot uh, by au odious ingratitude, bumble tbeui yet lower, 
even under our feet. Lei us not trample on the blood of tbc 
covenant, by taking it into a noisome sink, into a dirty and 
earthy heart He that eats Christ in the sacrament with a 
fool mouth, and receives him into an uncleansed and sinful 
soul,— doth all one as if he should sop the bread he eats, in 
dirt, — or lay up his richest treasures in a siuk. 

Thirdly, We learn, how we should employ all our senses. 
Not only as brute beasts do, to fabten them on tbc earth, 
but to lift them unto a more heavenly use, since God hatli 
made even them the organs and instruments of our Hpiritual 
nourishment. Mix ever with the natural, a heavenly use 
of thy senses. Whatsoever thou seest, behold in it his 
wonder ; whatsoever thou hearest, hear in it his wisdom ; 
whatsoever thou tastest, taste in it the sweetness, as well of 
his love, as of the creature. If Christ will not dwell in a 
foal house, he will certainly not enter at a foul door. Let 
not tfaoae teeth that eat the bread of angeU, grind tlie face 
of the poor; let not the mouth which doth drink the blood 
of Christ, thirst after the blood of his neighbour; let not 
that hand which is reached out to receive Christ in the sacra- 
ment, be stretched out to injure him in his members; let 
not those eyes which look on Christ, be gazing after vanity ; 
certainly, if he will not be one in the same body with a 
harlot*, neither will he be seen with the same eyes, lie is 
really in the heaven of the greater world ; and he will be no- 
where eUe sacramentally, but in the heavenly parts of man, 
the lesser. 

Lastly, We see here what manner of conversation wc 
have : The church on earth hath but the earnests of glory, 
the earnest of the Spirit, and the earnest of the sacrament ; 
that witnessing^, this signifying; both confirming; and scal- 
ing our adoption *. But we know not what we shall be **; our 
life is yet hid *, and our inheritance is laid up for us ''. A 
prince, that is haply bred up in a great distance from his 
future kingdom in another realm, and that amongst enemies 
where he suffers one while a danger, another a disgrace, 
loaded with dangers and discontents, — though, by the 
assurance of blood, by the warrant of bin Father^s own hand 

• 1 Cor. fj. 15. ' Rom. viii. Iti. R Horn. i\. 11. K^)hc^. iv. .iO. 11« ^1 John iii. 2. • Cot. lit. .1. k i |*cc. i. 4. 


and seal, he may be confirmed in the evident right of his 
succession, — can hardly yet so much as imagine the honour 
he shall enjoy, nor any more see the gold and lustre of his 
crown in the print of the wax that confirms it, than a man 
that never saw the sun, can conceive that brightness which 
dwelleth in it, by its picture drawn in some dark colours. 
** We are a royal people *; heirs, yea coheirs with Christ'";" 
but we are in a far country, '* and absent from the Lord ° ;'' 
in houses ruinous and * made of clay/ in a ' region of 
darkness/ in a ' shadow of death,^ in a * valley of tears.** 
Though compassed in with a wall of fire, yet do the waves 
of ungodly men break in upon us : though shipped in a safe 
ark, the temple of God, yet often tossed almost unto ship- 
wreck, and ready, with Jonah, to be swallowed up of a great 
Leviathan : though protected with a guard of holy apgels, 
which pitch their tents about us, so that the enemy without 
cannot enter, yet enticed often out, and led privily, but 
voluntarily, away by the enchanting lusts'*, the Dalilahs of 
our own bosom. The kingdom and inheritance we expect, 
is hid from usP; and we know no more of it^ but only this, 
that it passeth knowledge. Only the assurance of it is con- 
firmed by an infallible patent, God's own promise, and that 
made firm by a seal, coloured with that blood, and stamped 
with the image of that body, which was the price that 
bought it. What remains then, but that where the body is, 
thither the eagles fly ; where the treasure is, there the heart be 
also ; that we groan after the revelation of the sons of God, 
when the veil of our mortality shall be rent ; the mud wall 
of the flesh made spiritual and transparent; the shadows and 
resemblances of the sacraments abolished ; the glass of the 
creature removed ; the riddle of our salvation unfolded ; the 
vapours of corruption dispelled ; the patience of our expec- 
tation rewarded ; and from the power of the Spirit within, 
and the presence of Christ without, shall be difiused on the 
whole man a double lustre of exceeding abundant glory ? 
The hope and assurance of this is it which, in those holy 
mysteries of Christ's supper, we receive ; which if received 
without dependence and relation on that glory which they 

I 1 Fcter ii. !'. « Rum. viii. 17. n 2 Cor. v. 6. <> Jam. i. 1 1. 

f Eph. iii. *J, 


foreshadow, and on that body which with all the meritji of 
it they obsignate, doth no more good than the seal of a 
king, without any grant or patent whereunto it should be 
joined; in which there is no profit beyond the bare wax, 
and much danger in trifiing with so sacred a thing. 


WhoKt SacramenU derive their value and beings namely, from 

the Author thai insiituted them. 

But why are not the instruments more glorious, where 
the efibcts are so admirable? Whence is it that there 
should lie so much power in the narrow room of so small 
and common elements ? It had been worth the creating of 
a new creature, to be made the pledge of a new covenant. 
The first fruits are of the same nature with their crop ; and 
earnest usetb to be paid in coin of the same quality with 
the whole after-sum. If, then, sacraments are the earnests 
of our glory, why are not the faithful, instead of eating a 
morsel of bread, taken up, with St Paul, into the third Hea- 
rens ? Why are they not, instead of drinking a sip of wine, 
transformed with their Saviour ; and have, with Stephen, a 
vision of him at the right hand of the Father ? How discur- 
sive is foolish pride, when it would prescribe unto God ! 
Vain man, who nndertakest to instruct thy Maker, instead of 
praising him ; to censure his benefits, when thou shonldest 
enjoy them ; wilt thou not receive salvation without thine 
own counsel ? or art thou so foolish as to conceive nothing 
precious without pomp? And to judge of the thing con- 
veyed, by the value and quality of the instrument that con- 
veys it ? Tell me then, why it is, that water, a vulgar ele* 
ment, is held in a cistern of lead, — and thy wine, a more 
costly liquor, but in a vessel of wood ? Tell me the reason 
why that wax, which in the shop haply was not priced at a 
penny, should, by cleaving unto a small parcel of parchment, 
be valuable unto a million of money ? Tell me, why should 
that clay ^ which while it lay under foot, was vile and (IihIio- 

« J«»fan ix. 6. 


noumble dirt^ — when it was applied by Christ unto the eyes 
of a blind man, be advanced unto the condition of a precious 
and supernatural salve ? Is not, even in works of art, the 
skill of the workman more eminent in the narrowest and un- 
fittest subjects ? Are not the Iliads of Homer more admira- 
ble in a nutshell than in a volume '^? Do not limners set the 
highest value on their smallest dmughts ? And is there not 
matter of admiration and astonishment in the meanest and 
most vulgar objects ? And what madness is it^ then, by 
those fMsoos to undervalue fitith, which are the arguments 
to confirm it ! As if the power of an agent were not there 
greatest, where the subject on which he worketh, doth con- 
fer least ; as if the weakness of the. element *, did not add 
onto the wonder of the sacrament. If it were an argument 
of Christ's miraculous power, to feed five thousand with so 
few loaves ; why should not the miracle of his sacrament be 
equal, which feeds the whole church with so slender ele- 
ments ? Certainly, they who any way disesteem the seem- 
ing meanness and emptiness of the sacrament, entertaining 
but low and vulgar conceits thereof, — stumble at the same 
fitone of foolishness, by which the Cventiles fell from their 
salvation. But wilt thou needs know both the reason why 
we use no other sacraments, and why these carry with them 
«o much virtue ? One answer resolvea both : — it is the ma- 
jeaty of the same king that coins bis money, and that values 
it : he that iVames a private mint, or imposeth another rate, 
is in both equally a traitor; in the former by stealing the 
king^s authority, in the other by altering it. The same au- 
thor did both institute the sacrament and value it ; from the 
same power did it r( ceive the necessity of its being, and the 
efficacy of its working \ In covenants or conveyances, the 
articles and instruments may be haply drawn by some law- 
yer; but the confirmations of them by hand and seal, are or- 
dinarily performed by the men themselves who aie interested 
in them. A seci^etary may write tlie letter; but his lord 
will himself subscribe and seal it. 

Thus the patent of God's covenant hath been drawn out, 
for the benefit of God's church, by many selected and in- 

r SenuOf Naturalium Qusest. * August, ep. 3. — Amlros, Hexacn. lib. 6. c. 6. 

Chrysost. Horn. 12. ad Pop. Antioch. — TertuL de Baptis. c. 2. tc contia Marc. 

1. 5. c. 5. t Vide Amir OS. dc Secrament. Hb. 4. cap. 4. 


Bpmd inatmments^ unto whom God did dictate so much of 
fajs viU by diTine suggestion^ €i8 his pletsure was to acquaint 
and edify his churoh withaL But when he comes to confirm 
this gift I7 hand and seal, behold then an immediate pre- 
sence of his own : then comes Qod's** own finger^ that is, in 
the piurase of scripinre, his spirit to write as a witness in the 
sool: and then doth God stretch ont his own hand, and 
icach unto na that suppei which is the seal to obsignate 
•nto the senses, the infallible truth of those covenants, and 
oar cvid^it i&terest in those benefits^ which were before pro- 
claimed in the patent of his word. The apostle ' delivered 
nothing an it were by a second hand to the Corinthians, but 
what he had fonaerly received from the Lord. Divine 
dungs are unto us deposited ^ ; we mast first be receivers, 
befiore deliverers* 


/j^rrcBces ofpractke/rom the Author of this Sacretneni. 

HuRB Iben we ae^ first, both the absurdity and the wick. 
of a will-wQrship ; when the same man who is to per* 
the obedience, shall dare to appoint the laws, implying 
1 pcsemptoiy purpose of no farther observance, than may 
esasist with the allowance of his own judgement : whereas 
Iras obechence ' must be grounded on the majesty of that 
power that commands, not on the judgement of the subject, 
or be a sfi t of the precept imposed. Divine laws require obe* 
i, not so niuch from the quality of the things com- 
(though they be ever holy and good*), as from 
the authority of him that institutes them. We are all the 
servants of God; and servants*" are but living instruments, 
whose property it is to be governed by the will of those, ia 
whose possession they are ^ WilUworship, and services of 

• IfACth. zii. 28. Loke xi. 20. > 1 Cor. xi. 23. 7 1 Tim. i. 1 1. and 

vi 2S. ■ Vid. TertuL de Poenitent. c. 4. & j4ug. de Civit. Dei. 1. i. c. 26. & 

4e GoMt. ad Uc lib. 8. c. 12. • Rmu. 7. 12. k jifist. Polit. Ubu U-^Plw 

lardi ^ Supc rat itione. ^ Accnr^ov fUv 4<m idvoif ri lwrrdTl9ty, 9qvX£p U 

Ti wt C iit H b tf . CJb-yf . in Rom. Horn. 2. 


superstition, well they may flatter God, they do not please 
him. He that requires us to deny ourselves in his service, 
doth therein teach us, that his commands stand rather in 
fear than in need of us ; in fear of our boldness, lest we 
abuse them ; not in need of our judgements, to polish or alter 
them. The conquest of an enemy against the prescript of 
his general, cost a Roman gentleman his life ^, though his 
own father were the judge. The killing of a lion contrary to 
the established laws of the king^s hunting, — though it were 
only to rescue the king himself, whose life was set upon, — 
cost a poor Persian the loss of his head *. The overwise in- 
dustry of the architect, in bringing, not the same, but a fitter 
piece of timber than he was commanded, to the Roman con- 
sul, was rewarded with nothing but the bundle of rods ^ So 
jealous and displeased are even men themselves >, to have 
their own laws undervalued by the private judgements of 
those, who rather interpret than obey them. And therefore 
even those men who erected the fabricks of superstition and 
wilUworship, have yet ever endeavoured to derive the origi- 
nal of them on some divine revelations *". And that great 
Roman captain Scipio, ever before the undertaking of any 
business, was wont first to enter the Capitol, and pretend a 
consultation with the gods, touching their allowance of his 
intended designs, grounding all his attempts and governing 
all his actions by the unerring judgement of their deities. 
And generally in all Uie Roman sacrifices, the minister or 
servant' was to attend a command, before he was to strike 
the beast that was offered. Horrible then, and more than 
heathenish, is the impiety of those, who mixing human in- 
ventions and ceremonies of their own unto the substance of 
these sacred mysteries, and imposing them as divine duties 
with a necessity of absolute obedience, — do, by that means, 
wrench Christ's own divine prerogative out of his own hands, 
and make themselves, shall I say, confounders and joint au- 
thors of his sacraments ; nay, rather, indeed, the destroyers 
of them : — since as he that receives otherwise than Christ 
requires, receives not Christ, but rather damnation '^ ; so he 

d Liv, lib. 8. • hHiion. dc Reg. Pert. lib. 1. ^ A, GelL 1. I. c. 13. 

■ Cyprian, cont. Demetiianutn. ^ Numa, apud Li v. lib. 1. ^ Semper 

agitne rogat : ncc nUi Justus agit. Ovid. Fast. lib. 2. ^ i Cor. zi. 


that gives otberways than Christ institutcc!, d<>t!i not iiidec*! 
gi?e Christ, but an idol of his own making. 

Secondly, We see here^ with how great re vereiu e we <>iit;ht 
to approach God's temple, to receive these deep niy<tteri(.>4 of 
tal\-ation, which it pleased Christ in his own person to in<>ti- 
tute, and with his own presence to exhibit unto the church. 
Was a beast slain for touching the mount ; and bhall not a 
man of beastly and vile affections be punished for touching; 
that table where the Liord is present r Was Muses ' to put 
off his shoes at that bush which represented God^'n power; 
and most not we shake off our earthly and cornipt desires at 
those mysteries which represent his mercy? Were Nadab 
and Abibu destroyed before the I^rd, for offerinir ntrange 
fire at his altar; and shall we plead immunity, if ue present 
strange souls and a false faith at his table ^ Was Adam 
thrust out of paradise for his sin in eating of the tree of 
knowledge; and shall we escape, if we sin in eatini^ of the 
bread of life ? Even unto the institutions of mortal men, 
though often in their substance needless, in their obfiervance 
difficult, and in their end not much beneficial, so long an 
they keep within the compass of indifferent things, — there i* 
required, not only our obedience, but our reverence. Hie 
Word of God, though delivered unto us in earthen vessels, 
by men of like weak and frail affections with ourselves ; yet, 
because of that native preciousness which resides in it, and 
of that derived glory which it brincrs from the spirit that re- 
vealed it, is so far to be honoured, as that the vessels that 
bring it, are to be had in high e^^timation, even for their 
work^s sake. But the sacraments are not cither of human 
authority, as are positive laws ; nor of Divine inspiration unto 
holy men, as were the Scriptures : but they are by so much 
the more the immediate effects of Divine power, by how 
much they are instituted without the least concurrence of 
any other instrument ; being reached out first unto the 
church of God by that immaculate and precious hand, which 
was itself presently stretched forth on the cross, to embrace 
the weary and heavy laden. Let us not, then, venture to re- 
ceive so sacred things with unwashed hands, as matters of 
mere custom, fashion, or formality. Uut let us look unlo 
that high authority tliat ordained them, on that holy mouth 

Heb. xii.2U. 
VOL. 111. (- 


that blessed them, on that arm of mercy that exhibits them ; 
being ever assured, that as Christ hath one hand of bounty 
and redemption, which reacheth forth life to the worthy re- 
ceiver, — so hath he another of justice and power, ready to 
avenge the injuries and contempt, that shall be done to his 
own holy institution. 

Thirdly, We see here the honourable condition of the 
faithful, in that they not only receive Christ, and all the be- 
nefits of his merits and actions, — but all this they receive 
from his own hands. For we may not think, that the actions 
of Christ, in looking up, and blessing, and breaking, and giv- 
ing, were merely temporary, local, or confined actions, ter- 
minated only to the present company that were then with 
him : certainly as the apostles were then the representative 
church, — so was that a representative action, the virtue and 
effect whereof descends and passeth through all successions 
of the church. The arm of the Lord is not shortened, or 
any way shrunk, that it cannot still exhibit what then it did. 
If he can so lengthen the arm of faith in us, as to reach as 
far as Heaven to embrace him, — he can as well stretch out 
his own arm of mercy from Heaven, to present that unto us, 
which he did unto his disciples. It was an admirable and 
unexpected honour that was shown to Mordecai"*, when 
the royal crown and the king's own apparel was put upon 
him, though by the service of wicked Haman : but Christ ^ 
doth not only bestow on us his kingdom in the sacrament, 
which seals unto us our inheritance with him ; nor doth only 
invest us with his own meritorious purple robes, his red 
garments from Bozra, the garments of innocency and of 
unity, but doth all this with his own immediate hand : so 
that our honour must needs be so much greater than was 
Mordecai's, by how much the robes of Christ are more royal 
than the Persian king^s, and his person more sacred than was 
wicked Haman^s. 

a Estbfr vi. 10. > 1 Pet. ii. 9. Rom. viii. 17. 



0/ Ike circumsiances of the inttitiition, vu*ueln^ ihr lime 

and place. 

A9CD as the author, so tiie circumstanceii of the iofttitu* 
tioD, do not a little add unto the excellency of this sacra- 
ment First, For the circumstance of time: it was the same 
night ^ wherein he was betrayed: in the evening, and after 
supper. /« the eveniftg, or night* a time fit to prefi;:ure a 
passion and eclipse, — bis especially who was the Sun of i ighte- 
OQsness, and the light of the world ; a passion > brought 
darkness on the very fountain of light, the sun, rvt-n in the 
mid-day. In the evenings to note that now the fulnchs of time 
was come, wherein Christ was to accomplish the redemptioB 
of the world. Im the evening, or twilight, when the passover 
was celebrated "i. Learn, from the condition of the time, the 
natore as of that legal, so, in some sort, of this evangelical 
sacrament ; it is but a shadow and dark representation of 
that light which shall be revealed. It bath but the glim- 
merings and faint resemblances of that mercy, >vhich re* 
deemed us, — of that glory, which expecteth us. In the even* 
/sg, at the eating of the paschal lamb; to note that Christ's 
active obedience' to the commands of the law, went toge- 
ther with his passive obedience to the curse and penalty of 
the law. He Grst celebrated the passover, that therein he 
might testify his performance of the law ; and then he in- 
stituted his own supper, that therein he might prefigure his 
suffering of the law. In the evening after the passover, to 
signify the abolishing both of the evening and of the pass- 
over, the plucking away of Moses' veil, of all those dark and 
misty prefi^urations of that light, which was within a few 
days to rise upon the wcrld. He would first celebrate the 
passover, and there nullify it, to make it appear unto the 
world, that he did not abrogate that holy ordinance, because 
he oppugned it, but because he fulfilled it : and tiierefore to 

• 1 Cor. zi. Mmnh.zzri. 30. P Chrytost, in M4|tli. i&vi. n Rxod. 
' CfcryjotL Tmh. &. Serm. 80. de proditione Jute. — M faeriAdam tucccnii om- 

VcterkTlMtmiiicntt. jhig. 4e Civ. Dai, 1. 17. c. 20. 

C 2 


the substance he joins the shadow, the lamb of the Jews to 
the Lamb of God, the true sacrifice to that which was typical ; 
that the brightness of the one might abolish and swallow up 
the shadow of the other*. In the evening, at the time of un- 
leavened bread ; to signify that we also (it is the inference 
of the apostle^) should keep our feast, not with the unlea- 
vened bread of malice or of wickedness, but with the un- 
leavened bread of sincerity and truth : that we should not 
venture to play the hucksters with so divine and pure mys- 
teries, by adulterating them with either the mixture of hu- 
man inventions ", or with the mud of our own sinful affec- 
tions. In the evening, at the time of supper ; to note, the 
most willing and ready, yea, the forward and greedy, re- 
signing himself into the hands of bloody and cruel men ; to 
signify, that unto him it was meat and drink, not only to do 
but to suffer, his Father's will. In the evening '^ of that same 
night wherein he was betrayed ; to give first a warrant unto 
his church, of his approaching passion ; which though so 
intolerable for the quality and burden of it, that it could not 
but amaze his humanity, and draw from him ' that natural 
and importunate expression of the desire he had to decline 
it, — yet in their elements did he ascertain the church, that as 
he came to drink of the brook in the way', so he should not 
shrink from drinking the very bitterest part of it. 

And secondly. In the night wherein he was betrayed: to 
fore-arm his poor disciples with comfort against the present 
loss of him, and against all that anguish which their tender 
hearts must needs suffer at the sight of that bloody and 
savage usage, which Judas and the Jews would show to- 
wards their Master. And, therefore, in these elements, he 
acquaints them with the nature and quality of his passion : 
that it should be as bread to strengthen, and as wine to 
comfort, the faint-hearted ; to confirm the knees that trem- 
ble, and the hands that hang down. 

Thirdly, It was the night wherein he was betrayed; to let us 
understand that these words were the words of a dying 
manS and therefore to be religiously observed*^; and that 

0ciav TB»y xpmfxi&friav, Chrytott, * 1 Cor. t. 7. "2 Cor. ii. 17. 

« 1 Cor. xi. 7 Mmtth. xxvi. 29 « Psal. ex. • Vid. jhig, de 

Unitite Eccl. cap. 11. — ChryscsL in 1 Cor. zi. ^ ''Plerique mortales pottremm 
rorminerr :" Cimr mpud S^il, in Catil.— Vid. Augutt, Epist. 118. prope finem. 

HOLT .5ACRAMe.Vr. 21 

ibis ucraiueat was the work of a dyin^ man, aiul therefore 
ia ill natare a gift or legacy. In bin lifetime, he gave hu 
charch his Word and his miracles ; he went about <ioing 
good; bat now, in his passion, he bestowed that which 
added weight and ralue to all his other gifts, himself. Other 
men use to bequeath their bodies to the earth, from whence 
it came : but Chrises body was not to see corruption '; and 
therefore he bequeathed it unto the church. It was his 
body by his hypostatical and real, — but it is ours by a mys- 
tical and spiritual, union. Whatsoever fulness is in him, of 
it have we all receivecl ** ; whatsoever graces and merits flow 
from him as the head, they trickle down as far as the skirts 
of his garment, the meanest of his chosen. The pains of his 
wounds were his *, but ours is the benefit ; the sufferings of 
his death were his, but ours is the mercy ; the stripes on his 
back were his, but the balm that issued from them, ours ; 
the thorns on his head were his, but the crown is ours ; the 
holes in his hands and side were his, but the blood that ran 
out, was ours ; in a word, the price was his, but ttie purchase 
ours. The com is not ground, nor baked, nor broken for 
itself; the grape is not bruised nor pressed for itself: these 
actions rather destroy the nature of the elements than perfect 
them ; but all these violations that they suffer, are for the 
boiefit of man. No marvel then, if the angels themselves 
stoop and gaze upon so deep a mystery, in which it is im- 
possible to decide whether is greater, — the wonder, or the 


If we look unto the place where this sacrament was cele- 
brated« eren there also shall we find matter of meditation; 
for we may not think that two evangelists ^ would be so ex- 
press and punctual in describing the place, if there were not 
some matter of consequence to be observed in it. 

First, then^ It was a borrowed room ; he that had no hole ■ 
where to lay his head in, had no place where to eat the pasa. 
over. We may not then expect, in Christ's new supper, any 
variety of rich and costly dishes ; as his kingdom is not, so 

c Acts ii. 27. ^ Joba i. 16. • Scint (Latio) quud ilU in cur|«>4c 

Chhsb ▼olncra noo CMent Chritti vulncrm, icJ Utronis- Aml'To%. de Sancto t^- 
trooe Senn.44. ' Mmtih. liv. 15. Luke xxii. 12. f Matih. vni. 20. 

Tom. 5. Scnn. 30. 


neither is his supper, of this world. It was not his purpose 
to make our worship of him a chargeable service, and to en- 
join us such a table, as should fix our thoughts on the meats, 
rather than on the substance which they resembled. He 
knew that where the senses are overcharged, faith lies un- 
exercised : and therefore he proportioned his supper both to 
the quality of his own estate, which was poor, — and to the 
condition of our weakness, apt (as the cluirch after in her 
Love-feasts found ^) to be rather tempted than edified, in too 
much variety of outward meats. It was likewise an upper 
room ; to note the dignity and divineness of this sacrament, 
and that property of lifting up the hearts, which it should 
work in the receivers of it. Our thoughts and afiections 
while conversant about these mysteries, should not lie 
grovelling on the earth, but should be raised unto high and 
noble contemplations ^ 

And this particular of the place may seem to have been 
imitated by the churches, in placing Uie Lord's table, and 
celebrating the Lord^s supper in the chancel, or upper room 
of the temple : besides, it was a spacious and great room, 
and BO it should be ; for it was a great supper, the supper of 
a king ^. The disciples were then the type and representa- 
tive of the whole Catholic church, which waa now by them 
to be begotten unto God : and therefore, the chamber must 
needs be a resemblance and model of the whole world, 
throughout which the sound of Christ's name, and the 
memory of his passion, should, in his supper, be celebrated 
until the end of all things ; — and then no marvel, if it were a 
great chamber. 

Lastly, It was ready spread, fitted, trimmed, and prepared. 
So sacred a mystery as this may not be exhibited in an un* 
fitted or unclean place, much less received into a corrupt and 
unprepared soul. The body of Christ was never to see cor- 
ruption ; and therefore it will never be mixed with corruption. 
It lay first in a clean womb ; it was afterwards buried in a 
virgin sepulchre ; it then was taken into the brightest hea* 
vens ; and it still resides in molten and purified hearts. He 
that had the purity of a dove, will never take up the lodging 

^ Jttde V. 12. i Sursum cordm. ^ Aug, dc Dono Perseiver.— 1/t^ofi. ad 

Hedib. quaest. 2,-^Cypnan. dc Ont. Dominica. — Cyrii. Catech. hijm.. 


of a crow. Here then we lee, from ibcse circumstauces, 
with what rererence and preparation, with what affection and 
high esteem, we should receife these sacred mysteries. The 
gift of a dying friend, though of contemptible Tslue, is yet 
greatly prized for the memory of the donor ; for though the 
thing itself be small, yet is it the pledge of a great love '. 
The words of a dying man, though formerly vile and vain, are, 
for the most part, serious and grave ; how much more pre- 
cious was the gift of Christ, who is the almoner of Almighty 
God, and whose only business it was ^* to give gifts unto 
men";'" how much more sacred were his last words, who, 
all bis lifetime, " spake as never man spake.*" The very pre- 
sence of a dying man stamps on the mind an affection of 
fear and awe ; much more should the words and gifts of him, 
who was dead and is alive again. Certainly he hath a flinty 
soul, whom love as strong as death ", and death the work of 
that love, cannot melt into a sympathy of afft^ction. 

In sum, the time of this sacrament was a time of passion ; 
let not US be stupid : — It was a time of passover ; let not our 
sools be unsprinkled :— It was a time of unleavened bread ; 
let not oar doctrine of it be adulterated with the leaven of 
heresy ; nor our souls in receiving, tainted with the leaven 
of malice : — It was the time of betraying Christ ; let not our 
hands again play the Judas, by delivering him unto Jewish 
and sinful souls, which will crucify again unto themselves 
' the Lord of glory ;^ let not us take that precious blood into 
our hands, rather to shed it than to drink it ; and, by re- 
ceiving the body of Christ unworthily, make it as the sop to 
Judas, even a harbinger to provide room for Satan. 

Again, The place of the sacrament was a high room ; let 
not our souls lie sinking in a dungeon of sin. It was a great 
room ; let not our souls be straitened in the entertaining 
of Christ. It was a trimmed room ; let not our souls be 
sluttish and unclean, when the ' King of glory should enter 
in:' but as the author of those mysteries was holy by a ful- 
ness of grace, the elements holy by his blessing, the time 
holy by his ordination, and the place holy by his presence,— 
so let us, by the receiving of tliem, be transformed, as it 

< Dcbetri quippe ouzimo opcii banc qooque vcnenittoneni, ut novissimum 
Kt, mactofcmqiie qui ttattm oooiecraiiilain, 1^ Pliti. Piui. Gicrig. x. &. 
£phe». IT. 7, 8, 1 1. • Cmt. TiiL 


were, into their nature, and be holy by that union unto 
Christ ; of which they are as well the instrumental means 
whereby it is increased, as the seals and pledges whereby it 
is confirmed. 


Of the matter of t/ie Lord's supper^ bread and uine, with their 

analogy unto Christ, 

We have considered the author or efficient of this sacra* 
raent, and those circumstances which were annexed unto its 
institution. We may now a little consider the essential parts 
of it : and. First, The elements or matter, of which it con- 
sistethy consecrated bread and wine. It neither stood with 
the outward poverty of Christ, nor with the benefit of the 
church, to institute such sumptuous ^ and gaudy elements, as 
might possess too much the sense of the beholder, and too 
little resemble the quality of the Saviour. And therefore 
he chose his sacraments rather for the fitness, than the 
beauty of them ; as respecting more the end, than the splen- 
dour or riches, of his table ; and intended rather to manifest 
his divine power in altering poor elements unto a precious 
use, than to exhibit any carnal pomp, in such delicious fare, 
as did not agree with the spiritualness of his kingdom. 
Though he be contented, out of tenderness toward our weak- 
ness, to stoop unto our senses, yet he will not cocker them : 
as in his real and natural body, so in his representative, the 
sacrament, — a sensual or carnal eye sees not either form or 
beauty I", for which it may be desired. Pictures ought to re- 
semble their originals ; and the sacrament, we know, is the 
picture or type of him who was a man of sorrow ^ ; and this 
picture was drawn, when the day of God's fierce wrath was 
upon him ' : and can we expect from it any satisfaction or 
pleasure to the senses ? This body was naked on the cross ; 
it were incongruous to have the sacrament of it pompous on 
the table. As it was the will of the Father, which Christ both 
glorifies and admires, to reveal unto babes what he hath hid- 

* Noil ad, clmburiM impensis ct arte, convivia populi invitantur. Cyprian . 
P liai. liii. 2. q kai liu.3. r Lam. i. 12. 


deD froiQ tbe wise ; so is it here his wisdom to comuiuiiicatey 
bv the meanest iustrumeDts, what he hath denied UDto tbe 
choicest delicates, to feed his Daniels rather with pulse, than 
with all the dainties on the king s table. And if we obsenre 
it, divine miracles take ever the poorest and meanest subjects 
to manifest themselves on. If he want an army to protect 
his chorch, flies % and frogs* and caterpillars *, and lamps, 
and pitchers ", &c. shall be the strongest soldiers * and wea- 
pons he nsetb ; the lame and the blind ', the dumb ', and the 
dead% water ^ and clay % these are materials for his power **. — 
Even where thou seebt the instruments of God weakest, 
there expect and admire tbe more abundant manifestation of 
his greatness and wisdom: undervalue not the bread and 
wine in this holy Sacrament, which do better resemble the 
benefits of Christ crucified, than' any other the choicest de- 

" Bread a md wine r the element is double to increase the 
comfort of the faithful, that by two things wherein it is inw 
pomble for God to deceive, we might have strong consola- 
tion who hare laid hold upon him *. *' The dream is doubled," 
said Joseph ^ to Pharaoh, " because the thing is certain :*' 
and surely here the element is doubled too, that the grace 
may be the more certain. No marvel then, if those men who 
deny onto the people the certainty of grace, deny unto them 
Ukewise these double elements : so fit is it, that they which 
preached but a half-comfort, should administer likewise but 
a half-sacrament. 

Secondly, Bread and wine : in the pasnover there was blood 
shed, but there was none drunken'; yea, that flesh which 
was eaten, was but once a-year. They who had all in types, 
bad yet their types, as it were, imperfect. In the fulness of 
time ^ came Christ ; and with or in Christ came the fulness 
of grace; and of his fulness do we receive in the gospel, 
which the Jews only expected in the promise, that they with* 
out us might not be made perfect *. " These things have I 

• Uai. Til. IS. ^ Exod. viii. 6, 24. « Judges ¥it. 20. Joth. %i. 4. Judgct 

XT. 15. «Joelii. 25. y John v. 23. Mitth. xii. 10. >Johnii. I. 

•Mauh. ix.25. l> M^tth. lii. 22. cJohnii. 7. 'Johnii.6. • Hcb. 
li. 18. f^Gen. xli. 32. ff Lxx Mum sanguinis protiibci : Kvangclium prirct* 
jbc, oc bibxtur. Cyjrr» dc Coena Dom. — Vid. AmhM, Toro. 4. lib. dc ii» ^ui inici> 
r, c 9. k Gal. iv. 4. Col. i. l«i. * Hcb. xi. 40. 


spoken/' saith Christ*', "that your joy might be full." The 
fulness of our sacrament, notes also the fulness of our sal- 
vation, and of his sacrifice who is able perfectly to save those 
that come unto God by him ^ 

Thirdly, Bread and wine : common, vulgar, obvious food ; 
wine with water being the only known drink with them in 
those hot countries. Amongst the Jews, a lamb was to be 
filain, a more chargeable and costly sacrament, not so easy 
for the poor to procure : and therefore in the offering of 
purification™, the poor were dispensed with; and, for a 
lamb, offered a pair of pigeons. Christ now hath broken " 
down that partition wall, that wall of enclosure which made 
the church as a garden with hedges ^ — and made only the 
rich, the people of the Jews, capable of God^s covenants and 
sacraments. Now that God's table hath crumbs as well as 
flesh P, the dogs and Gentiles eat of it too ; the poorest in 
the world is admitted to it, even as the poorest that are to 
shift for bread, though they are not able to provide flesh. 
Then the church was a fountain sealed up^ ; but, in Christ, 
there was a fountain, opened for transgressions and for 
sins '. 

Fourthly, Bread andtaifte; bread to strengthen, and wine to 
comfort*. All temporal benefits are, in divine dialect, called 
" bread V it being the staff of life; and the want of which, 
though in a confluence of all other blessings, causeth famine 
in a land *"• See here the abundant sufficiency of Christ's 
passion:— it is the universal food of the whole church, which 
sanctifieth all other blessings ; without which they have no 
relish nor comfort in them. Sin and the corrupt nature of 
man hath a venomous quality in it to turn all other good 
things into poison, unless corrected by this antidote, this 
*' bread of life '^* that came down from Heaven. And well 
may it be called a bread of life, inasmuch as in it resides a 
power of trans-elementation ; that whereas other nourish- 
ments do themselves turn into the substance of the receiver, 
— this, quite otherwise, transforms and assimilates the soul 
unto the image of itself. Whatsoever faintness we are in, 

k John XV. U. ^ Heb. vii. 15. ^ Levit. xii. 8. n Ephes. ii. 14. 

o Cent. ir. 12. P Matth. xv. 27. q Cut. iv. 12. r Zach. xiii. 1. 

• Psalm civ. 19. Matth. zi. 6. Gen. zviii. 5, 8. * Lerit. xxvi. 26. « Amos 
viii. 11. > John vi. Vita Christu5, rt viu panis. 


if we hunger after Christ, he can refresh us : whaUoeTer 

fears oppress as, if, like men oppressed with fear, we thirst 

sad gasp after his blood, it will comfort ut : whatsoever 

weakness either our sins or sufferings hare brought us to, 

the staff of this bread will support us : whatsoever sorrows 

of mind, or coldness of affection do any way surprise us, — 

this wine, or rather this blood (in which only is true life '), 

will, with great efficacy, quicken us. If we want power, 

we have the power of Christ's cross ' ; if victory \ we have 

the victory of his cross ; if triumph ^ we have the triumph 

of his cross ; if peace *", we have the peace of his cross ; if 

wisdom ^, we have the wisdom of his cross. Thus is Christ 

crucified a treasure to his church, full of all sufficient provi- 

iion both for necessity and delight. 

Fifthly, Bread and wine^ both of parts homogeneal, and 
alike ; each part of bread, bread ; each part of wine, wine ; 
no crumb in the one, no drop in the other, differing from the 
quality of the whole. O the admirable nature of Christ's 
blood, to reduce the affections and the whole man to one 
uniform and spiritual nature with itself ! Insomuch, that 
when we shall come to the perfect fruition of Christ's glo- 
rious body *, our very bodies likewise shall be spiritual bo- 
dies; spiritual in a uniformity of glory, though not of 
nature with the soul. Sins, commonly, arc jarring and 
contentious^: one affection struggles in the same soul with 
another for mastery ; ambition fights with malice ■, and 
pride with covetousness ; the head plots against the heart, 
and the heart swells against the head; reason and appetite, 
will and passion, soul and body, set the whole frame of na- 
ture in a continual combustion ; like an unjointed or broken 
arm, one faculty moves contrary to the government or attrac- 
tion of another; and so as, in a confluence of contrary 
streams and winds, the soul is whirled about in a maze of 
intestine contentions. But when once we become conforma- 
ble unto Christ's death **, it presently makes of two one, and 
so worketh peace ^ ; it slayeth that hatred and war in the 
members, and reduceth all unto that primitive harmony, unto 

7 Lrrit. xvii. 11. '1 Cor. i. 24. * 1 Cor. xf. ^ Col. ii. 15. 

< Col. i. 30. ^\ Cor. i. 24. Col. ii. 3. • 1 Cor. xv. ' Scclera dissident. 
Seme€, ff Jmnies ir. 1. ^ Phil. iii. 10. ^ Ephcs. ii. 15, 1ft. 


that uniform spiritualness, which changeth us all into the 
same image " from glory to glory ^" 

Sixthly, Bread and wine, as they are homogeneal, so are 
they united together, and wrought out of divers particular 
grains and grapes, into one whole lump or vessel ' : and 
therefore bread and blood, even amongst the heathen, were 
used for emblems of leagues, friendship, and marriage, the 
greatest of all unions. See the wonderful efficacy of Christ 
crucified to solder, as it were, and joint all his members 
into one body by love, as they are united unto him by 
faith. They, are built up as living stones^ through him, 
who is the chief comer-stone, elect and precious unto one 
temple : they are all united by love, by the bond or sinews 
of peace unto him who is the head**, and transfuseth through 
them all the same vital nourishment : they are all the flock 
of Christ^ reduced unto one fold, by that one chief shep- 
herd of their souls, who came to gather those that wan- 
dered either from him in life, or from one another in affec- 

Lastly, Bread attd wine severed and asunder ; that to be 
eaten, this to be drunken ; that, in a loaf, — this, in a cup. 
It is not the blood of Christ running in his veins, but shed 
on his members, that doth nourish his church. Impious, 
therefore, is their practice, who pour Christ's blood, as it 
were, into his body again ; and shut up his wounds, when 
they deny the cup unto the people, under pretence that 
Christ's body by being received, the blood by way of conco- 
mitancy is received together with it; and so seal up that pre- 
, cious fountain which he had opened, and make a monopoly 
of Christ's sacred wounds ; as if his blood had been shed 
only for the priest, and not as well for the people ; or as if 
the church had power to withhold that from the people of 
Jesus, which himself had given them. 

' 2 Cor. iii. 18. • Vid. Cyprian, 1. 1. epi^t. 6. — Vid. Gul, Stuck, in Aiitiq. 

Convival. ^ 1 Pet. ii. 5, 6. n Ephcs. iv. \Cu 1 Cor. xii. * John x. 

1 Pet. V. 4. 



Ftactieal imfertmces ftfum the materials of the Ijonfs Suf^r, 

Hbie then we see. First, Inasmuch as these elements are 
so necessary and beneficial to that life of man, with what 
appetite we should approach these holy mysteries, ereii with 
hangry and thirsty souls, longing for the sweetness of Christ 
crucified. Wheresoever God hath bestowed a vital being, 
be hath also afibrded nourishment to sustain it, and an in- 
clination and attractive faculty in the subject towards its 
nourishment. Even the new born-babe* by the impreitftion 
of nature, is moved to use the breasts before he knows them. 
Now us which were dead in sins ', hath Christ quickened, 
and hath infused into us a vital principle, even that faith 
by which the just do live ' ; which being instilled into us, 
Christ beginneth to be formed in the soul % and the whole 
man to be made conformable unto him**. Then are the 
parts organized and fitted for their several works ; there is an 
eye, with Stephen, to see Christ ; an ear, with Mary, to 
bear him ; a mouth, with Peter, to confess him ; a hand, 
with Thoaias, to touch him ; an arm, with Simeon, to em- 
brace him ; feet, with his disciples, to follow him ; a heart 
lo entertain him, and bowels of aflfection to love him. All 
the members are * weapons of righteousness*;' and thus is 
the ' new man*',' the ' new creature*' perfected. Now ho 
that left not himself amongst the HeaUien without a wittleH8^ 
but filled even their hearts with food and gladness, — hath 
not, certainly, left his own chosen without nourishment *, 
such as may preserve them in that estate which he hath thus* 
framed them unto. As therefore new infemts are fed with 
tbe same nourishment and substance of which they consint ; 
so the same Christ, crucified, is as the cause and matter of 
oar new birth, so the food which sustaineth and preservetli 

fEpbcs.u.1. • Hab. ii. 4. Gd. ii. 20. •Gal. iv. 19. b Pbil. lii. 10. 

<Rom.ri. 19. ' Ephct. iv. 24. •2Cor. v. 17. ^Acuxiv. 17. 

I C7<»». yllrT. FrBil. 1. 1. 1. cmp. 6. 


US in it : unto whose body and blood there must needs be 
as proportionable an appetite in a new Christian, as there is 
unto milk in a new infant ^ ; it being more nourishable than 
milky and faith more vital to desire it than nature. And all 
this so much the rather, because he himself did begin unto 
us in a more bitter cup. Did he, on his cross, drink gall 
and vinegar for me, and that also made infinitely more bit- 
ter by my sins ; and shall not I, at his table, drink wine for 
myself, made infinitely sweeter with the blood which it con- 
veys ? Did he drink a cup of bitterness and wrath *, and 
shall not I drink the cup of blessing ^ ? Did he eat the bread 
of affliction, and shall not I eat the bread of life ? Did he 
suffer his passion, and shall not I enjoy it 7 Did he stretch 
out his hands on the cross, and shall mine be withered and 
shrunken towards his table ? Certainly, it is a presumption 
that he is not only sick but desperate, who refuseth that nou- 
rishment, which is both food to strengthen, and physic to 
recover him. 

Secondly, The benefit of Christ being so obvious as the 
commons, and so sufficient as the properties of these ele- 
ments declare ; we see how little we should be dismayed 
at any either inward weaknesses and bruises of mind, or 
outward dangers and assaults of enemies, having so powerful 
a remedy so near unto us; how little we ought to trust in 
any thing within ourselves, whose sufficiency and nourish- 
ment is from without There is no created substance in the 
world, but receives perfection from some other things : how 
much more must man, who hath lost his own native inte- 
grity, go out of himself to procure a better estate! which in 
vain he might have done for ever, had not God first (if I 
may so speak) gone out of himself, humbling the divine 
nature unto a personal union with the human. And now 
having such an Emmanuel as is with us, not only by assuming 
us unto himself in his incarnation, but by communicating 
himself to us in these sacred mysteries ; whatsoever weakr 
nesses dismay us, his body is bread to strengthen us : what* 
soever waves or tempests rise against us, his wounds are 
boles to hide and shelter us. What though sin be poison; 
have we not here the bread of Christ for an antidote ? What 

(i 1 Pet. ii. 2. > Matth. xxvu39. zx. 2a. ^ 1 Cor. z. 16, 


though it be red as scarlet; is not his blood of a deeper 
coloar ? What though the darts of Satan continually wound 
us ; is not the issue of his wounds the balm for ours ? Let 
me be fed all my days with bread of affliction and water of 
affliction, I hare another bread, another cup to sweeten 
both. Let Satan tempt me to despair of life. I have, in these 
Tisible and common elements, the author of life, made the 
food of life nnto roe. Let who will persuade me to trust a 
litde in my own righteousness, to spy out some ga<«pinga 
and faint relics of life in myself; — I receive, in these 
signs, an all-sufficient Saviour ; and I will seek for nothing 
in myself, when I have so much in him. 

Lastly. We see here, both from the example of Chri«»t, 
who is the pattern of unity, — and from the Sacrament of 
Christ, which is the symbol of unity. — what a conspiracy of 
affections ought to be in us. both between our own and 
towards our fellow-members. Think not, that thou hast 
worthily received these holy mysteries, till thou find the 
image of that unity which is in them, conveyed by them 
into thy soul. As the breaking of the bread is the sacrament 
of Cfarisrs passion ; so the aggregation of many grains into 
one mass, should be a sacrament of the church's unity. 
What is the reason, that the bread and the church bhould be 
both called in the Scripture by the same name ? The bread ' 
is the body of Christ, and the church is the body of Christ 
too ! Is it not. because as the bread is one loaf out of divers 
corns, so the church is one body out of divers believers : 
that, the representative ; this, the mystical body of the san^e 
Christ ? Even as the Word, and the Spirit, and the faithful, 
are, in the Scripture, all called by the same name ot seed"^, — 
because of that assimilating virtue, whereby the om\ re« 
caved °, doth transform the other into the similitude and 
nature of itself. If the beams of the sun, though divided 
and distinct from one another, have yet a unity in the same 
nature of light, because all partake of one native and origi. 
nal splendour; — if the limbs of a tree% though all several, 
and spreading different ways, have yet a unity in the same 

1 1 Cor. X. 17. xi. S4. • Macth. siii. 19. I John iii. 9. Mitth. liii. i8. 

• 4ii n^ 0iyftfmBrt9 mU ^MwrmxiUftf'iy. ItuL Peiui. Cyprian, dc Unit. Fax*Ic«. 

• lun. iii. 13. Rom. zi. 16. 


fruits, because nil nre incorporated into one stock or root ; — 
if the streams of a river, though running divers ways, do yet 
all agree in a unily of sweetness and clearness, because all 
issuing from the same pure fountaiu ;— why then should not 
the church of Christ, though of several and divided qualities 
and conditions, agree in a unity of truth and love ? — Christ 
being the sun whence they all receive tight; the vine <", into 
which they are all ingrafted; and the fountain", that is 
opened unto them all for trun agressions and for eins. 



Of the analogy and proportion between the holj/ actions 
bif Christ in this Sacrament, and Christ himseif who U 
substance of it. 

It folioivs now, that we enquire farther into the nature of 
this holy Sacrament, which will be explained by considering 
-the analogy, fitness, and similitude between the signs and 
the things signified by them, and conferred or exhibited to. 
gether with them, which is Christ the Lord, Now this ana- 
logy or fitness, as it hath been, in some general manner, ex- 
pressed in the nature or quality of the elements substantially 
or physically laNen, — so, more expressly and punctually, is 
it proposed unto us in those holy actions, which do alter it 
in the use, and make it a sacrament '. 

And first. We find that " Christ took the bread and wine % 
and blessed it, and gave thanks, and so consecrated it," or 
set it apart unto a holy or solemn use; which is the reason 
why St. Paul ' calls it "a cup of blessing;" so that unto the 
church it ceaseth to be that which nature iiid made it, and 
begins to be that unto which the blessing had consecrated. 
In like manner, did the eternal Son of God " assume, into 
the subsistence of his own infinite person, the whole nature 
of man, the body and the soul : by the virtue of which won- 
derful union, notwithstanding the properties of the divine 

p Joha n. I. ' Ztch. xiii. 1. ' Cyprian, dc Can-Tniul. com 

Muc lib. 1. c. 23. • Muih. xxvi. 36. Luke xnii- 19. > 1 Cor, >. Ifi, 

^jtmbnu.Vib. dciiiqm initlantur. c. 9. El ric Sxciatneniis, 1. I. C. ."i. ell. 4. c.4. 
Ju$Hn. Marly, ill Apoli>e. 2. 


Daturv remain mbnolately intraosieiit and incommuuicahle 
unto the boman ; yet are there shed, from that ineibaustible 
fountaio, many high and glorious eodowmenU, by which the 
humanity onder this manner of sabsistence is anointed, con« 
secrated, sealed, and set apart for that work of incompreheii- 
ftible love and power, the redemption of the world. 

And secondly. As the bread is taken by us from Christ in 
the natnre of a gift, — he brake it and gave it to his disciples ' ; 
— so is the human nature taken by Christ from the Father ' as 
a gift from that good pleasure of God. 

Thirdly, As the taking of the bread by Christ did alter 
only the manner of its being, the operation and efficacy, 
the dignity and use, but no way at all the element or nature, 
of the bread ; even so the taking of the human body by 
Christ, did confer, indeed, upon it many glorious virtues, and 
advance it to an estate far above its common and ordinary 
capacity (always yet reserving those defects and weaknesses, 
which were required in the economy and dispensation of 
that great work for which he assumed it); but yet he never 
altered the essential and natural qualities of the body, but 
kept it still within the measure and limits of the created per- 
fection, which the wisdom of Ood did at (irst share out 
unto it. 

lastly (to come nearer unto the cross of Christ), As he 
did, by prayer and thanksgiving, consecrate these elements 
unto a holy use ; so did he, immediately before his passion 
(of which this is the sacrament), make that consecratory 
prayer and thanksgiving % which is registered for the per- 
petual comfort of his church. 

The second action is the ' breaking of the bread, and 
pouring the wine into the cup ;' which doth nearly express 
his crucified body, where the joints were loosed ^, the sinews 
torn, the flesh bruised and pierced, the skin rent, the whole 
frame violated by that straining, and razing, and cutting, 
and stretcbingi and wrenching, which was used in the cruci- 
iying of it, and by the shedding of that precious blood « 
which stopped the issue and flux of ours. It were infinite 
snd intricate to spin a meditation into a controversy, about 

■iMLbd. 1. Luke iT. 18. Heb. i. 9. John vi. 53. Matth. si. 27. xxviii. 18. 
> Phil. ii. 9. John 5. as. • John irii. ^ Pnl. zxiu 14. • 8wi- 

gmam Aattm de foti voraU rtvoctmot. TertuL cone. Gnosf . c. 5. 

TOL. 111. 9 


the extent and nature of Christ's passion : but certainly, 
whatsoever either ignominy or agony his body suffered 
(which two I conceive to comprise all the generals of * Christ 
crucified') are, if not particularly expressed, yet typically 
and sacramentally shadowed and exhibited in the bread 
broken, and the wine poured out. 

The third action was the giving, or * the delivering of the 
bread and wine : ' which, First, evidently expresseth the 
nature and quality of ' Christ crucified,' with these benefits 
which flow from him, that they are freely bestowed upon 
the church ; which, of itself, had no interest or claim unto 
any thing save death. 

Secondly, We see the nature of Chrisf s passion, that it 
was a free, voluntary, and unconstrained passion^. For 
though it be true, that Judas did betray him, and Pilate de- 
liver him to be crucified, yet none of this was the giving of 
Christ, but the selling of him. It was not for us, but for 
money that Judas delivered him : it was not for us, but for 
fear, that Pilate delivered him. But God delivered the Son % 
and the Son delivered himself^, with a most merciful and 
gracious will, to bestow his death upon sinners ; and not to 
get, but to be himself, a price. The passion, then, of Christ 
was most freely undertaken ; without which free-will of his 
own, they could never have laid hold on him. And his 
death was a most free and voluntary expiation : his life was 
not wrenched nor wrung from him, nor snatdied or torn from 
him by the bare violence of any foreign impression ; but was, 
with a loud voice (arguing nature not brought to utter de- 
cay), most freely surrendered and laid down by that power, 
which did after re-assume it. 

Bat how then comes it to pass, that there lay a necessity 
upon Christ of suffering >, which necessity may seem to have 
enforced and constrained him to Qolgotha, inasmuch as he 
himself did not only shrink, but even testify his dislike of 
what he was to suffer, by a redoubled prayer unto his Father, 
that '' That cup might pass from him !" Doth not fear make 

<i Augutt, Vid. torn. 8. in Ptal. zciii. et torn. 9. Tract. 7. in Epitt. Johinnis. 
• Rom. Tiii. 32. Acts ii. 23. Gftl. iv. 4. f Gal. ii. 20. Phil. ii. 7. John xiz. U. 
X. U, 17, 18. t Aupat.tom. 9. Tract. 31. in Johan. et Tract. 47. et de 

Trinitate, 1. 3. cap. 13. — Tertul. in Apolog. cap. 21. — Cyprian, de Coena Doin.^- 
Non necessitate, ted obedtentii, urgetur ad mortem: et lib. de Dupl. Martyr. 


acUoDft inToluntAry. or at least derogate and detract from tho 
falness of their liberty ? And Christ did fear : how tlien it 
it that Christ^s passion was most voluntary, though attended 
with necessity, fear, and reluctance I — Surely, it was most 
foloatary still ; and first therefore necessary, because volun- 
tary; the main and primitive reason of the necessity being 
nothing else but that immutable will which had fore*decreed 
it. Christ's death, then, was necessary by a necessity of the 
event, which must needs come to pass, after it had once been 
fore-determined by that most wise will of God ^; — which 
never useth to repent him of his counsels ; but not by a ne- 
cessi^' of the cause, which was most free and voluntary. 
Again ; Necessary it was in regard of the Scriptures, whose 
truth could not miscarry ; in regard of the promises made of 
him, which were to be performed ; in regard of prophetical 
predictions which were to be fulfilled ; in regard of typical 
prefigurations which were to be abrogated, and seconded 
with that substance which they did fore-shadow : but no way 
necessary io opposition to Christ's will, which was the first 
mover, into which both this necessity and all the causes of it 
tie to be finally resolved. 

And dien for the fear and reluctance of Christ : — no mar- 
vel if he, who was in all things like unto us, had his share in 
the aame passions and affections likewise, though without 
on. But neither of these did any way derogate from the most 
free sacrifice, which he himself offered once for all'; inas- 
much as there was an absolute submission of tlie inferior to 
the higher will; and the inferior itself shrunk not at the 
obedience but at the pain. 

To explain this more clearly, consider in Christ a double 
win, or rather a double respect of the same will ^ 

First, The natural will of Christ ; whereby he could not 
hot wish well unto himself, and groan ' after the conservation 
of that Being, whose anguish and dissolution did now ap- 
proach ; whereby he could not, upon the immediate burden 
of the sin of man, and the wraUi of God, but fear; and, 
notwithstanding the assistance of the angels, drop down a 

fc Heb. Tiii. 3. Mark viii. 31. Luke xiiv. 7. xxvi.46. Mitth. xx?i. 39. Hcb. ?. 7. 
Men ti. 23, 33. Hd). ix. 14. * Heb. U. 13. ^ Vid. Hooker I. 5. tcci . 

4S tad Dr. FiHd of the Charch, lib. 1 . c. IS. I Hcb. v. 7. 

D 2 


sweat, as full of wonder as it was of torment, great drops of 
blood : — and then no marvel, if we hear, •' Father, if it be 
possible, let this cup pass from me "".** 

But then again consider, Not the natural, but the merci- 
ful will of Christ, by which he intended to appease the wrath 
of an offended, and, by any other way, unsatisfiable God, 
The removal of an unsupportable curse, the redemption of 
his own, and yet his fellow-creatures ; the giving them access 
unto a Father, who was before a ' consuming fire ;' — in a word, 
the finishing of that great work which the angels desire to 
look into ; and then we find that he did freely lay down his 
life, and most willingly embraced what he most naturally did 
abhor. As if Christ had said (if we may venture to para- 
phrase his sacred words) '^ Father, thou hast united me to 
such a nature, whose created and essential property it is to 
shrink from any thing that may destroy it ; and, therefore, if 
it be thy will, let this cup pass from me : — but yet I know 
that thou hast likevlrise anointed me to fulfil the eternal de- 
cree of thy love, and to the performance of such an office, 
the dispensation whereof requires the dissolution of my as- 
sumed nature ; and therefore not as I, but as thou wilt.'^ So 
then both the desire of preservation was a natural desire ; 
and the offering up of his body was a free-will offering. 
And, indeed, the light of nature hath required a kind of 
willingness, even in the heathen's brute sacrifices : and there- 
fore the beast was led ^, and not haled to the altar ; and the 
struggling of it, or flying and breaking from the altar, or 
bellowing and crying, was ever counted ominous and un« 
happy. Now our Saviour Christ's willingness to offer up 
himself is herein declared, " In that he opened not his 
mouth :^ in that he suffered such a death, wherein he first 
did bear the cross % before it bore him ; in that he dehorted 
the women that followed after him, to weep or express any 
passion or unwillingness for his death p. 

Thus did he, in his passion, and still doth in his Sacrament, 
really, perfectly, and most willingly, give himself unto his 
church : insomuch, as that the oil of that unction which 
consecrated him unto that bitter work, is called an 'oil of 

» Luke xzii. 43, 44. n Macrob, Satur. lib. 3. e. 5.— P/tny, L S. c. 
.Sttft. in Galb. c. Id^^Fal, Max. 1. 1. c. 6.— P^ul. Sjrop. 1. B.C. 8. • Jotm 
xiz. 17, F Lukexxiii. 28. 


gladness^.' So then Christ freely ofTereth, both in himself 
onginally, and in his sacraments instrumentally, all grace suf- 
ficient for nourishment unto life, to as many as reach forth 
to receive or entertain it. 


Of the fourth aciioNy with the reasons why the SacrameiU is to 

be eaten and drunken. 

The fourth and last action, made mention of in this sacra- 
ment, is the ' eating of the bread/ and the ' drinking of 
wine,' after we have taken them from the hands of Christ : 
to signify unto us, That Christ crucified is the life and food 
of a Christian that receiveth him. Here are the degress of 

First, We take Christ ; and then we eat him. There are 
none that find any nourishment or relish in the blood of 
Christ, but those who have received him, and so have an in- 
terest, propriety, and title to him. He must first be ours^ 
before we can taste any sweetness in him : ours, first, in 
pooession and claim ; and, after, ours, in fruition and com- 
fort. For all manner of sweetness is a consequent and effect 
of some propriety, which we have unto the good thing which 
cuaeth it ; unto which the nearer our interest is, the greater 
is the sweetness that we find in it. In natural things we may 
observe, how nothing will be kindly nourished in any other 
place or aieans, than those unto which nature hath given it a 
primitive right and sympathy. Fishes perish in the air ; and 
spice-trees die and wither in these colder countries, because 
nature hath denied them any claim or propriety unto such 
phces. We are all branches % and Christ is a vine : now no 
hranch receiveth juice or nourishment, unless first it be in- 
serted into the stock. If we are not first ingrafted into 
Christ, and so receive the right of branches, we cannot ex- 
pect any nourishment from him. As the name that was 
written in that ' white stone *,' was known unto him only that 
hid it ; so in these mysteries, which have the impress and 

^ Heb. 1.9, ' John xv. • Rc¥cl. ii. 


character of Christ's passion on them, Christ is known and 
enjoyed only by those, who first take him, and so have a 
hold and right unto him. But why is it that Christ, in this 
sacrament, should be eaten and drunken? Cannot the benefit 
of his passion be as well conveyed by the eye as by the 
mouth ? It was the joy of Abraham % that he saw Christ's 
day ; the comfort of Simeon '', that he had seen God's salva- 
tion ; the support of Stephen "", that he saw Christ in his 
kingdom ; the faith of Thomas ^, that he saw his resurrection : 
and why is it not enough that we see the passion of Christ 
in this sacrament, wherein he is crucified before our eyes ' ? 
Certainly if we look into the Scriptures, we shall find nothing 
more common than the analogy and resemblance betwixt 
spiritual grace and natural food. Hence it is that we so often 
read of manna from Heaven *, water from the rock ^ trees in 
paradise, apples ^ and flaggons for Christ's spouse, wisdom's 
feasts **, and the marriage-feast*, of hungering ' and thirsting *, 
and sucking ^ of marrow, and fatness, and milk ^ and honey, 
and infinite the like expressions of Divine grace. The rea- 
sons whereof are many and important : First, To signify the 
benefit we receive by Christ crucified, exhibited unto us, in 
his Last Supper, by that analogy and similitude, which is be* 
twixt him and those things we eat and drink. Now meats 
are all either physical, common, or costly ; either for the 
restoring, or for the supporting, or for the delighting of na- 
ture : and they have all some of those excellent properties 
of good which Aristotle ^ hath observed, either to preserve 
nature entire, or to restore it when it hath been violated, or 
to prevent diseases ere they creep upon it. And all these 
benefits, do the faithful receive by Christ. 

1st. His body and blood is an antidote against all infections 
of sin, or fear of death. When he said, *' Fear not, it is I *," 
it was an argument of comfort, which no temptation could 

2d. It hath a purging and purifying property : " The blood 
of Christ cleanseth us from all sin '".'' 

^ John viii. 56. ■ Luke ii. 30. " Acts vii. 55- 7 John xx. 29. ■ Gal. Hi. I. 
a See John vi. >> 1 Cor. x. 3, 4. « Cant. ii. 5. ^ Prov. iz. 2, 5. 

•Matth. xzii.4. 'MaUh. t. f Psalm briii. 1. cxiz. 103. xlii. 1, 2. 

cxix. 131. ^ Isai. lz?i. 11. i Isai. U. 1, 2. 1 Pet. ti.2. Ueb. v. 12. See 

Jackson of Justifying Faith, sect. 1. cap. 9. k ^uxorruc^r, dfpcnrffVTiM^, 

KuXvriKdv tmv iiwrrUnf. Rhet, 1. 1. et Elh, » Matth. xi?. 27. » 1 John xvii. 


3d. It hath a quickening, pretenring, and strengtbentng 
power. Christ is our life * ; and our life it hid with Christ * ; 
4Dd Christ fiweth in us ; and be hath quickened us ^ together 
with Christ; and we are able to do all things through Christ 
that strengthens us \ 

And lastly. It hath a joying and delighting property : *< I 
icjotce in nothing bat in the cross of Christ: I count all 
things dung \ that I rosy win Christ ;" and *' 1 protest by 
our rejoiciDg which we have in Christ*" Whether we want 
phync to cure us, or strong meats to nourish us, or sweet- 
meau to delight us, ** Christ is unto us all in all/* our health, 
onr strength, our joy. 

Secondly, The Sacrament is eaten and drunken ; to sig- 
nify the necessity we stand in of Christ crucified. Many 
things there are usual in the life of man, both for de- 
light and profit ; beautiful and pleasant objcctn, for the eye ; 
n^lody and harmony, for the ear ; ointments and odours, for 
the smell ; cariosities and luxuriances of invention, for the 
fancy : but there is no faculty of nature that doth so imme- 
diately concur to the support and preservation of the whole 
man, as the sense of tasting', which is (as it were) the sluice 
and inlet to life ; without which, we have not so much as a 
capacity of that delight, which other objects of an inferior 
and subordinate nature can aflbrd. Even so many things 
there are, wherein the children of God may and ought to 
take pleasure and solace, even as many as we acknowledge 
from God for a blessing. But there is nothing in the world, 
which is the object and principle of our life, but only Christ; 
no qoality in man, which is the instrument and organ of our 
life, bat only a lively and operative faith ", by which only we 
taste " how gracious the Lord is." — " The just shall live by 
faith * r' and " I live by the faith of the Son of God ' ;" and 
•' Where the body is, thither do the eagles fly," that tliey 
mav eat and live. 

Thirdly, The Sacrament is eaten and drunken, to show unto 
us the greedy desire which is, and ought to be, in the hearts 
of believers towards Christ crucified. There is no one fa- 

BPtaU-i. 21. •Col.m. 3, 4. P Eph. ii. 5. q Phil. it. 13. GaI. ¥i. U. 

' Pbil. iit. 8. • Phil. iv. 4. 1 Cor. xv. 31. > Ecclct. ii. 24, iii. 13. 22, 

▼.17. ■ Crnlc et nundacMti. y^Ht^r- in Jnhan. > Hab. ii. 7 <>al. 
It. 2Q. Vide Ckrysoat. in 1 Cm. Horn. 24. 


culty in man^s will so much put to its utmost for procuring 
satisfaction, as this of tasting, if once brought into anguish 
or straits. Because, as death, in the general, is most ter- 
rible % so much more that lingering death which consumes 
with famine : and therefore no power of nature more im* 
portunate and clamorous for satisfaction, no motive stronger 
to work a love, and attempt a conquest on any nation, than 
an experience of such excellent commodities, as may from 
thence be obtained for the relieving of this one faculty. 
And therefore Almighty God, when he would provoke the 
people to forsake Egypt, and comfort them with the news of 
a better country, describes it by the plenty that it brought 
forth : " I will bring you to a land which iloweth with milk 
and honey *." And when the people murmured against Ood 
in the wilderness ; all that hatred of Egypt, which the ty- 
ranny of the land had wrought in them, — all the toil and 
servitude that was redoubled on them, — was wholly swal- 
lowed up by the one consideration of flesh-pots and onions ^ 
which they there enjoyed. And when, by God's appoint- 
ment, spies were sent into Canaan, to enquire of the good- 
ness of the land, — their commission was to bring of the fruit 
of the land unto the people ^ ; that thereby they might be 
encouraged unto a desire of it. And we find, how the Ro- 
man emperors did strictly prohibit the transportation of 
wine or oil, or other pleasant commodities unto barbarous 
nations, lest they might prove rather temptations to some 
mischievous design, than matters of mutual intercourse and 
traffic. No marvel then, if the sacrament of Christ cruci- 
fied, who was to be the desire of ail nations, the desire of 
whom was not only to transcend and surpass, but even (after 
a sort) to nullify all other desires ^, — be received with that 
faculty which is the seat of the most eager and importunate 

Fourthly, We eat and drink the Sacrament, to intimate 
unto us the conformity of the faithful unto Christ. As, in 
all the appetites and propensions of natural things, we find 
an innate amity betwixt the natures that do so incline to- 

« nimir ^etfcpa»r«ror. Aritt. Tidyrts fUv enr/^pol b^wnn SctXouri fipcr^i&i, 
Ai/«f t' tlUriarw i^oWtiy icoi v^/ior IwiffVMf, Horn. Odyts. lib. 12. and I. 17. 

• Ezod. iii. 17. ^ Ezod. x?i. 3. Num. zi. 5. < Num. xiii. 21, 24. 

* Matth. xiii. 44, 45. Luke xfiii. 28. Phil. iii. 7, 8. 


wardi, or embrace one another ; so, principally, in this main 
appedte unto food^ is there ever found a proportion between 
nalnre and its nourishment*; insomuch, that young infants 
are noariahed with that very matter, of which their sub- 
stance consisteth. Whatsoever hath repugnant qualities 
onto Nature* she is altogether impatient of it ; and is never 
quieted, till» one way or other, she disburden herself. And 
dius is it, and ought to be, betwixt Christ and the faithful : 
there is a conspiracy of affections, motions, passions, de- 
sues ; a conformity of being in holiness, as well as in na- 
ture ; a similitude, participation, and communion with Christ 
in his death ^ sufferings^, glory ^ All other things in the 
world are very unsuitable to the desires of faith, nor are able 
to satiate a soul which hath tasted Christ ; because we find 
something in them of a different, yea, repugnant nature, 
onto that precious faith by him infused. No man, having 
tasted old wine, desireth new, for he saith the old is better ' : 
and therefore howsoever the wicked may drink iniquity 
like water^, and roll it under their tongue as a sweet thing ; 
yet the children of God, who have been sensible of that ve- 
nomous quality which lurketh in it, and have tasted of that 
bread ^ which came down from Heaven, never thirst any more 
after the deceitful pleasures, the stolen waters of sin : but 
BO sooner have they unadvisedly tasted of it, but presently 
they fed a war in Uieir bowels, a struggling and rebellion 
between that faith by which they live, and that poison which 
would smother and extinguish it, which, by the efficacy of 
bith, whereby we overcome the^ world "", is cast out and vo- 
miled up in a humble confession, and so the faithful do 
regain their fellowship with Christ ; who as he was, by his 
merits, our Saviour unto remission of sins, — so is he, by his 
holiness, our example ° ; and, by his Spirit, our head, unto 
newness of life. 

• CtoR. Alex. Plaedag. 1. 1. c. 6. f Rom. ¥i. 4, 5. f Rom. viii. 17. 

k 1 Cor. XT. 49. 2 Cor. iii. 18. Phil. iii. 10, 20. i Luke t. 39. 

klobzx.12. I John vi. 48, 50, 51. iv. 14. ' mlJohnT.l. »! Pfct. 

1.15. n. 21. 



Of other reasons why the Sacrament is eaten and drunken, mid 
of the manner of our union and incorporation into Christ, 

Fifthly, We eat and drink the sacrament of Christ cru- 
cified, to signify that real and near incorporation of the 
faithful into Christ their head ® : for the end of eating f is the 
assimilation of our nourishment^ and the turning of it into 
our own nature and substance : whatsoever cannot be assi- 
milated, is ejected : and thus is it between us and Christ. 
Whence it cometh that we so often read of the inhabitation 
of Christ in his church^ ; of his more peculiar presence with, 
and in, his people ; of our spiritual ingrafture into him by 
faith'; of those more near and approaching relations of 
brotherhood* and coinheritance between Christ and us ; that 
mutual interest, fellowship, and society, which we have to 
each other; with infinite other expressions of that divine 
and expressless mixture, whereby the faithful are, not only 
by a consociation of affections^ and confederacy of wills, 
but by a real, though mystical, union, ingrafted, knit, and 
(as it were) jointed unto Christ l^ the sinew of fai^ ; and 
so made heirs of all that glory and good, which in his per- 
son was purchased for his members, and is from him diffused 
on tliem, as on the parts and portions of himself. So that 
it pleaseth Ood's spirit (as some do observe) so far some- 
times to express this union betwixt Christ and his church, 
as to call the church itself by the name of Christ ; and every 
where almost to interest himself in the injuries and suf- 
ferings of his church", yea, to esteem himself incomplete and 
maimed without it. 

And here this mystical unity between Christ and his 
church being, by eating and drinking, so expressly signified, 

o Eph. iii. 17. P Rev. iii. 20. H Ephes. iv. 6. ' Gal. ii. 20. 

John xiv. 20. Rom. xi. 17. John xv. and zx. 17. ■ Matth. xxy. 40. 

Mark iii. 35. Rom. viii. 17. ^ Afiectui consociat ct confederal Toluntates. 

Cyprian, de Ccena Dom. — August, de PMxat. Merit, et Remiss, lib. 1. c. 31. de 
Genesi ad lit. I. ii. c. 24. — Bexa in annotat. ad Ephes. i. 23. — Hooker, p. 306. 
tt Mattb. zxv. 45. Acts iz. 4. Hooker 1. 5. sect. 56. 


and m the Sacrament so gracioutly obsignated unto u§, — it 
will not be impertinent to enlarge somewhat on so divine a 
point Wheresoever any thing hath so inward a relation 
and dependency on something else, as that it subsisteth not, 
nor can retain that integrity of being which is due unto it, 
without that whereon it dependeth, — there is necessarily re- 
quired some manner of union between those two things ; by 
means whereof, the one may derive unto the other that in- 
fluence and virtue whereby it is preserved : for broken, dis« 
continued, and ununited parts receive no succour from those, 
from which they are divided ; all manner of activity re« 
quiring a contact and immediateness between the agent and 
the subject. And this is one proof of that omnipresence and 
inmiensity irhich we attribute unto God, whereby he filleth 
all creatures *, bestowing on them all that general influence 
and assistance of his providence, '* whereby they live, and 
move, and have their being ^'^ 

Bat besides this universal presence of God, wherewitli he 
doth equally fill all things by his essence, which were from 
eternity wrapped up in his power and wisdom ; there is a 
more special presence and union of his unto the creature ; 
according as he doth, in any of them, exhibit more express 
characters of his glorious attributes. In which sense, he is 
said to be in Heaven % because he doth there more especially 
manifest his power, wisdom, and majesty : in the soft and 
still Toice, because there his lenity was more conspicuous : 
in the burning bush*, and in the light cloud, because in 
them his mercy was more expressed : in the Mount Sinai, 
because there his terror was especially declared. According 
unto which difierent diffusions of himself on the creature, 
and dispensation of his attributes, God (without any im- 
peachment of his immensity) may be said to be absent, to 
depart, and to turn away from his creature, as the words are 
every where in the Scriptures used ^. 

Thus is God united to the creature in general, by the 

> Demn nunque ire ptr onmet Temtquc tfsctuique marit coelumqae profun- 
daiB. rirg. — Vkl. Hmgo. yut. de Stcnment. 1. 1. ptft. 3. c. 17. FmI. czrxvtii. 
JrL vi. Anas ix. 1, 3. Jer. zziii. 24. 7 Acts ztii. S8. Vid. Juguu, dc Gc- 
ocsi adKt.lib.4.cap.l2.ft Gxifess. l. 1.C.2, 3. « Pftal. ciii. 19. Matih. vi. 9. 
• Ezod. iii. six. 18. ^ Vide TntuL Ad?cr. Prixeam, c. 23. ct Aui:u»t. cp. 3. 

8<i Volos. 


right of a creator*', upholding all things by his mighty Word 
without the participation whereof they could not but be an* 
nihilated and resolved into their first nothing : but besides, 
there is a more distinct and nobler kind of union unto his 
more excellent creature, man. For as there are some things 
which partake only of the virtue and efficacy, others which 
partake of the image and nature, of the sun ; as the bowels 
of the earth receive only the virtue, heat, and influence, — but 
the beam receives the very' image and form of it, light ; — so 
in the creatures, some partake of God only as an agent, as 
depending on his eternal power, from whence they did ori- 
ginally issue, and by which they do now still subsist ; and 
so receive only some common impressions and foot-prints of 
Divine virtue, whereby they declare his glory** : Others par- 
take of the image of God % of " the Divine nature," as St, 
Peter speaks ^ ; and receive from him those two special pro- 
perties wherein principally consists the image of God, holi- 
ness and happiness, that giving perfection to our working, 
and this to our being (which two satisfy the whole compass 
of a created desire), and so declare his love. Some acknow- 
ledge God as their maker, others as their Father : in t/iem, is 
dependence and gubernation only ; in these, is recognition 
and inheritance. 

The bond of this more special union of the reasonable 
creature unto God, was originally the law of man's creation, 
which did prescribe unto him the form and limits of his 
working, and subordination unto God ; which knot he, by 
his voluntary aversation, violating and untying, there did im- 
mediately ensue a disunion between God and man. So says 
the prophet * ; " Your sins have separated between you and 
your God." Now as the parts of a body, so long as they 
are, by the natural bonds of joints and sinews, united to 
the whole, do receive from the fountains of life, the heart 
and the brain, all comfortable supplies for life and motion, 
which are due unto them; but being once dissolved and bro- 
ken off, there then ceaseth all the interest which they had 
in the principal parts ; — so, as long as man, by obedience 
to the law, did preserve the union between God and him 
entire, so long had he an evident participation of all tliose 

<Hcb. i. 3. ' Psalm xix. I. • Ephes. iv. 24. f2Pct. i. 4. f hii. lis. 2. 


graces spiritual, which were requisite to the holiness and 
btppioess of so noble a creature : but having once trans- 
grened the law, and by that means broken the knot, he is 
■o more possessed of that sweet illapse and influence of the 
Spirit, which quickeneth the church unto eternal life : but 
havii^ united himself unto another head, and subjected his 
parts anto another prince, even the prince that ^' ruleth in 
the children of disobedience V^ ^^ is utterly destitute of all 
divine communion, an ' alien from the commonwealth V &Qd, 
by consequence, from all the privileges of Israel ; a stranger 
from the ' covenant of promise/ unacquainted with, yea, un- 
aUe to conceive aright of spiritual things ^ ; quite shut out 
from the kingdom, yea, " without God in the world." 

And thus far we have considered the several unions, which 
are between the creatures, either in general, as creatures, — 
or in particular, as reasonable, — and considered God in the 
relation of a Creator ;— which will give great light to under- 
stand both the manner and dignity of this mystical and 
evangelical union betwixt the church and Christ, considered 
under the relation of a Redeemer, by whom we have reunion 
and access to the Father ^ ; in whom only he hath accepted 
OS again, and given unto us the adoption of children. Now 
as, in the union of God to the creatures, we have before ob- 
lerved the differences of it, that it was either general unto all, 
or special unto some ; in which he did either more expressly 
manifest bis glory, or more graciously imprint his image ; — 
lo also, in the union of Christ unto us, we may observe 
■ometfaing general, whereby he is united to the whole man- 
kind; and something special, whereby he is united unto 
his choich ; and that after a double manner ; either common 
ante the whole visible assembly of the Christians, or pecu- 
liar and proper unto that invisible company, who are the 
immediate members of his mystical body. 

First, Then, all mankind may be said to be in Christ, 
inasmuch as, in the mystery of his incarnation "^, he took 
dn him the self-same nature, which maketh us to be men ; 

h Epbes. ii. 2. > Epbes. ii. 12. ^ 1 Cor. ii. 14. 1 Rev. uii. 14. 

Epbcs. ii. 13, 18. i. 5, 6. ™ Unius naturae tunt vites et palmites ; propter 

qood cam nset Deus, cujus naturae non sumus. Cactus est homo, ut in illo esset 
titit bamanmnatura; cujus et nos orones palmites esseraus. Au%, Tract. 80. Joh. 


and whereby he is as properly man as any of us, subject to 
the same infirmities °y liable and naked to the same dangers 
and temptations, moved by the same passions, obedient to 
the same laws with us ; — with this only difference, that all 
this was in him sinless and voluntary,— in us, sinful and 

Secondly, Besides this, there is a farther union of Christ 
unto all the professors of his truth, in knowledge and ex- 
plicit faith ; which is, by a farther operation, infusing into 
them the light of truth, and some general graces which make 
them serviceable for his church : even as the root of a tree 
will sometimes so far enliven the branches, as shall suffice 
unto the bringing forth of leaves, though it supply not juice 
enough for solid fruit. For whatsoever graces the outward 
professors of Christianity do receive, they have it all derived 
on them from Christ, who is the dispenser of his Father^s 
bounty, and who enlighteneth every man that cometh into 
the world. 

Thirdly, There is a more special and near union of Christ 
to the faithful, set forth by the resemblances of " building % 
ingrafture, members p, marriage \** and other the like simi- 
litudes in the Scriptures, — whereby Christ is made unto us 
the original and well-spring^ of all spiritual life' and motion, 
of all fulness^ and fructification °. Even as, in natural gene- 
ration, the soul is no sooner infused and united, but pre- 
sently there is sense and vegetation derived on the body ; — 
so in the spiritual new birth, as soon as '' Christ is Ibrmed in 
us," as the apostle speaks', then presently are we ' quicken- 
ed by him 7,' and all the operations of a spiritual life % sense 
of sin, vegetation, and growth in faith, understanding, and 
knowledge of the mystery of godliness, taste and relish of 
eternal life, begin to show themselves in us: we are in 
Christ by grace, even as, by nature, we were in Adam. 
Now as, from Adam, there is a perpetual transfusion of 

n Efurieni tub dtmbolo, sitiens tub Samaritide, flens lAzaroin, anxius tuque 
ad mortem. Tert. de Cam. ChrUti, c. 9. et advera. Prax. c. 27. o 1 Pet. ii. 4. 

Eph. ii. 15. i Cor. iii. 16. John xv. 5. Eph. it. 15, 16. p 1 Cor.zii. 12. 

q Eph. T. 32. Psalm x\v, 2 Cor. xi. 2. r John it. 14. ti. 51. • John 

xiT. 19. 1 John t. 12. * John i. 16. « John zt. 5. > Gal. it. 19. 

7 Eph. ii. 5. > Gal. ii. 20. Rom. t. 12, 15, 17, 18, 19. 1 Cor. zt. 22, 

45, 49. 


origiifal sin on all bis posterity \ because we were all then 
not only represented by his person, but contained in his 
/oins ; so from Christy who, on the cross, did represent the 
chttrch of Gody and in whom we are, — is there, by a most 
special ioflnence, transfused on the church, some measure 
of those graces ^ those vital motions, that incorruption, pu- 
rity, and holiness, which was given to him without measure ; 
tiiat be mione might be the author "" and original of etei'nal 
ssdvatioii, the consecrated Prince of Glory to the church : — 
from which consecration of Christ, and sanctification of the 
cbttcli, the apostle infers a union between Christ and the 
cfaafch ; ^' For he that sanctifieth, and they that are sancti- 
fied, are of one *^.^ And all this, both union or association 
with Christy and communion in those heavenly graces, which, 
by spiritual influence from him, are shed forth upon all his 
members, is brought to pass by this means originally, — be- 
came Christ and we do both partake of one and the self- 
sune Spirit * ; which Spirit conveys to the faithful, whatso- 
ever in Christ is communicable unto them. For as the mem- 
bers natural of man are all conserved in the integrity and 
oaity of one body, by that reasonable soul which animates, 
calivens, and actuates them, — by one simple and undivided 
iafoniiation, without which they would presently fall asunder 
ud moulder into dust; even so the members of Christ are 
iB firmly united unto him, and from him receive all vital 
■otioiis* by means of that common Spirit, which, in Christ 
abofe measure, in us according unto the dispensation of 
God's good will, worketh one and the sdf-same life and 
: so that by it, we are all as really compacted into one 

body, as if we had all but one common soul. And 
Ikis is that which we believe touching our *' fellowship with 
Ihe Son,^' as St. John^ calls it : the clear and ample appre- 

wbereof, is left unto that place where both our 
and likeness to him, and our knowledge of him, shall 
be made perfect >. 

^ J^gusL Eachlnd. cap. 26. et Epist. 23. ad Bonifacium: "Trazit reatum, 
fua imiit erat in illo k quo traxit;** etTert, de Testim. Anim. c.3. Regene- 
aric honunem in uno Christo, ex uno Adam generatum. Aug, Epist. 23. 
» John L 16. « Heb. t. 9. <> Heb. ii. 10, 11. • Rom. viii. 9. 

' 1 Mm L 3* f Nam et nunc est in nobis, et nos in illo ; ted hoc nunc 

tone etiam cognoscemus : quamTis et nunc credendo noverimus, sed 
eontemplando noscemus. Aufrusl. Tom. 9. Tract. 75. in Johan. 


Sixthly, We eat and drink the Sacrament of Christ's pas« 
sion, that thereby we may express that more close and sen- 
sible pleasure, which the faithful enjoy in receiving of him. 
For there is not any one sense, whose pleasure is more con- 
stant and express, than this of tasting : the reasons whereof 
are manifest. 

For first. It follows by the consequence of opposites^ that 
that faculty when fully satisfied, must needs be sensible of 
the greatest pleasure, whose penury and defect brings the 
extremest anguish on nature. For the evil of any thing, 
being nothing else but an obliquity and aberration from that 
proper good to which it is opposed, — it must needs follow, 
that the greater the extent and degrees of an evil are, the 
more large must the measure of tliat good be, in the distance 
from which that evil consisteth. Now it is manifest that 
the evil of no sense is so oppressive and terrible unto nature, 
as are those which violate the taste and touch *"; which latter 
is ever annexed to the former. No ugly spectacles for the 
eyes, no howls or shriekings for the ear, no stench or in- 
fection of air for the smell, so distasteful, — through all 
which, the anguish of famine would not make a man ad- 
venture to purchase any good, though afiected even with 
noisome qualities. 

Secondly, The pleasure which nature takes in any good 
thing, is caused by the union thereof to the faculty, by meane 
whereof it is enjoyed : so that the greater the union is, the 
more necessarily is the pleasure of the thing united. Now 
there is not any faculty, 'whose object is more closely united 
unto it, than this of tasting. In seeing, or hearing, or smell- 
ing, there may be a far distance between us and the things 
that do so afiect us ; but no tasting without an immediate 
application of the object to the faculty. Other objects sa- 
tisfy, though without me; but meats never content nor 
benefit, till they be taken in. Even so is it with Christ and 
the faithful : many things there are, which affect them with 
pleasure, but they are without, and at a distance ; only 
Christ it is, who, by being and dwelling in them ^ delight- 
eth them. 

b Moriensque recepit Qnis nollet victuru*, aqaat, &c. Vid. Lucan. lib. 4. 
I '£y Cfup. Gtl. iv. 19.— *Ey tm ttapilM ^/twr. Eph. iii. 17. 


ListJy, We eat and driok the Sacrament of Christ cruci- 
fied, that therein we may learn to admire the wjtdoiti of 
God*s mercy, who, by the same manner of actionn \ doth 
restore us to life, by which we fell from it. Satan and death 
did first aiBsault onr ear, and then took posse»iiion of us by 
the nK>uth : Christ and faith chose no other i;ates, to make 
a re-entry and dispossess them, 

Thos as skilful physicians ' do oflen cure a body by tlie 
same means which did first distemper it, quench heats witli 
heat, and stop one flux of blood by opening another ; mo 
Christ*, that he may quell Satan at his own weapons, dotli, 
by the same instruments and actions, restore us unto our 
imnitiTe estate, by which he had hurried us down from it : 
that those mouths, which were al first open to let in death, 
may now much more be open, not only to receive, but to 
praise him, who is made unto uk the autlior and Prince of 


Ittjeretwes of practice from the coniideration of the former 


These are all the holy actions we find to have liecn, l>y 
Christ and bis apostles, celebrated in the great mystery <>t' 
this Supper. All other human accessions and su|>er8truc- 
tions, that are by the policy of SataUi and that carnal afTec- 
tion, which ever labouretb to reduce God's service unto an 
oatwaxd and pompous gaudiness, foisted into the substance 
of so divine a work, are, all of them, that ' straw and Htub- 
Ue%^ which he who is ' a consuming fire^' will at last 
purge away. Impotent Christ was not, that he could not, — 
nor malignant, that he would not, — appoint, — nor improvi. 
dent, that he could not foresee, — the needfulness of such 
actions ; which are by some proposed, not as matter of or- 
nament, comeliness, and ceremony, but are obtruded on con- 
sciences, swayed with superstitious pompousness, for matterH 

^T^tuLconUGoMt. c. 5 ' Arist. Probl. icci. I. quest. 45. el »ccf. 

3 quaest. 26. «• Vid^AuguMl, dc Ductrina ChrUtiana, ;:b. I.e. U. " I Cor. 
.H. 12. « Hcb. xii. 29. 

VOL. 111. K 


substanti&l and necesgary to be observed. As if God, vrho, 
in the first creation of the world fcom nothing, did, immedi- 
ately after the work produced, ceaae from all manner of fur- 
ther creations, — did. in the second creation of the world 
from sin, not finish the wori^ himself, but leave it imperfect, 
to be by another consummated and finished. Certainly, 
whatsoever human inventions do claim, direct, proper, and 
immediate subscriptioti of conscience, and do propose them- 
selves as essential, or integral, or any way necessary parts 
of Divine mysteries ; they do not only rob God of his honour, 
and intrude on his sovereignty, but they do farther lay on 
him the aspersion of an imperfect Saviour, who staudeth in 
need of the church's concurrence, to consummate the work 
which he had begun. Away then with those actions of ele- 
vation, adoration, oblation, circumgestatton, mimical ges- 
tures, silent whisperings I*, and other the like encroachments, 
in the supposed proper and real sacrifice of Christ in the 
mass ; wherein I see not, how they avoid the guilt of St. 
Paul's fearful observation, "To crucify again the Lord of 
glory, and put him unto an open shame." In which things, 
BB in sundry others, they do nothing else but imitate the 
carnal ordinances of the Jews, and the heathenish will-wor- 
ship of the Ethnicks ; who thought rather by the motions of 
their bodies, than by the affections of their hearts, to wind 
into the opinion and good liking of their gods. 

Certainly, affectation of pomp, ceremony, and such other 
human superstructions on the Divine institution, which are 
not used for order, with decency and paucity, but imposed 
as yokes upon the consciences of the people, by an arro- 
gated power of the ciiurch, to bind the conscience by them j 
— I say, all other pompous accumulations unto the sub- 
siance of Christ's Sacraments, are, by TertuUian'', made the 
characters and presumptions of an idolatrous service. True 
it is indeed, that the ancients make mention, out of that 
fervour of love and piety towards ao sacred mysteries, of 
adoration at them', and of carrj'ing the remainders' of tlteut 

f Dr. RcyncJdi' amtcrtate with H«rt, c. S, divra. i. — El Momay <ie Euchuici. 

p. 62. in lo\. 4 Mcniior, li rod Idolorum Htlemmi de luggeiiu, cl ippuacu, 

deque mmptu fidcm cl auctoijlium sibi exilruuni. Trrl. de Bipt. cap. 2. 

' Carncm Chiiili in roysleriU adoramus. AmL-riu, de Spiiit. Sanclo, 1.3. c. 13. 

MaaduGiiH el adoiani. /tug, ep. 120. c. 27, • 'H Siihru kbI q utrixnta ' 


unto tbm abseot Christians. But^ ss in other things »o here 
liiame» we find it most true. That thiogH, by devout men 
begun pioiisly« and continued with seal, do efter, when they 
light in the handling of men otherwise qualified, degenerate 
into superBtition,~the form, purpose, end, end reason of their 
observation bttog utterly neglected : it bein^ the contrivance 
of Satan to raise his temple after the some form, and with 
the same materials whereof God's consisteth,— to pretend the 
practice of the saints, for the enforcements of his own pro- 
jects, — to transform himself into an angel of light*, that he 
may die easier mislead unstable and wandering souls, — and 
to retain at least ' a form of godliness"/ that he may, with less 
claraour and reluctancy, withdraw the substance. And as, 
in many other things, so hath be herein likewise abused tiie 
pi^ of the best men, unto the furtherance of his own ends. 
That adoimtion, which they in and at the mysteries did ex- 
hibit unto Christ himself (as indeed they could not choose 
a belter time to worship him in), he impiously derives upon 
the creatnre ; and makes it now to be done, not so much at, 
as unto, the elements ; making them as well the term and 
object % as occasion of that worship, which is due only to the 
Lord of the Sacrament^. That carrying about, and reserving 
of the eucharist, which the primitive Christiuns ' used for the 
benefit of those, who, either by sickness or by persecutions, 
were withheld from the meetiugs of the Christians (as m 
those days many were), is by him now turned into an idola- 
trous circumgestation ; that, at the sight of the bread, the 
people might direct unto it that worship, which is due only 
to the person whose passion it representeth, but iihose 
honour it neither challengeth nor knoweth. And certainly, 
if we riew the whole fabric either of gentilism or heresy, we 
shall observe the methods and contrivances of Satan ', must 
often to drive at this point, — That, either under pretence of 
Divine truth, or under imitation of Divine institutions, retain- 

TM W ^rafmiaiw hd tww Suur^vtfr vt^tvtrcu. J'ultn. Mart. Apolog. 2. ]un 

t 2 Cor. zi. 14. • 8 Tim. iti. ft. ■ Justin, Matt, ut 

teripCiini CM. 7 Mitth. It. 10. ■ Vid. Ten. de Corcm. Milit. c. 15. 

d dc BB(Mift. c. ft. et de PnMcript. cap. 40. coot. Prmzeum, c. 1. cc de Specta. 
op. 27. cc Apolo^ 47. ctJokam. Stuck. de Andq. Coovival. 1. 1. c. 33. et I. 3. c. 21 . 
• nm^mn^ 2 Cor. &i. 3. Mo<«««u, IC|>hei. vi. 1 1. /S«i^, Rev. li. 24. ^,4ara, 
2 Cor. ii. 

L 2 


ing the same material actions which God requires, or which 
the godly have piously, or upon temporary reasons observed^ 
— he may convey into the hearts of men his own poison, and 
imprint an opinion of holiness towards his own devices. 
For howsoever his power and tyranny have done much mis- 
chief to God's church ; yet his masterpiece is that cunning 
and deceit which the Scripture so often takes notice of. 

Secondly, We see here what manner of men we ought to 
be in imitation of these blessed actions, that we may be con- 
formable unto the death of Christ ^ 

First, As he, when he took these elements, did consecrate 
them unto a holy use ; so we, ^hen we receive them, should 
first consecrate ourselves with thanksgiving^ and prayer*' 
unto a holy life. For if, not only amongst Christians, but 
even amongst heathens' themselves, it hath been, by the 
law of nature, received for a religious custom, not to eat their 
ordinary food without blessing and prayer ; with how much 
more fervency of prayer should we call'upon the name of the 
Lord, when we take this ^ cup of salvation,' this * bread of 
life,' wherein we do not only * taste how gracious the Lord 
is,' but do 'eat and drink the Lord himself!' And, there- 
fore, the church hath, both at first and since, most devoutly 
imitated our blessed Saviour in consecrating both these mys- 
teries and their own souls, by thanksgiving and prayer, be- 
fore ever they received the elements from the hands of the 
deacons; that so that same pure wine, that immaculate 
blood, might be put into pure and uutainted vessels^, even 
into sanctified and holy hearts, — lest otherwise the wine 
should be spilt, and the vessels perish. And indeed the Sa- 
crament is ignorantly and fruitlessly received, if we do not 
therein devote, consecrate, and set apart ourselves unto God^s 
service. For what is a Sacrament but a visible oath?* 
wherein we do, in consideration of Christ's mercies unto us« 
vow eternal allegiance and service unto him, against all those 

b Phil. lit. 10. 1 Pec iv. 1. « 1 Cor. z. 31. 1 Tim. iv. 4, 5. d Non 

prius discumbifur, quam oratio id Deum prsesustetur. TerL Apolog. c. 39. 
• Inter epalat ubi bene precari mos esset. Ltv, lib. 39. Justinus Martyr fute 
ezplicat in Apolog. 2. et Tertul. cont. Marc 1. 1. c. 23. ' Matth. iz. 17. 

Vasa pura ad rem divinam. Plaut, in Captiv. Act. 4. Scene 1. 8 Sacramen- 

turn visibile juramentum. Parous, in Heb. vi. 17. Vid. j4ug, ep. 57. Vcrbum 
a miliiait juiamcnlo sumptuni. Vid. Dempster, in Ro«ins. Antiq. 1. 10. cap. 3. 


povfTs and losU which war against the soul* and to make 
oar iBemben weapons of righteousness unto him f 

Secondly, As Christ brake the bread before he ((ave it, — 
so must our hearts, before they be offered up to God for a 
reasonable sacrifice ^, be humbled and bruised with the ap- 
prehension of their own demerits: for ''a broken and con- 
trite heart, O Lord, thou wilt not despise *.** Shall we have 
adamantine and unbended souls, under the weight of those 
sins which brake the very rock of our salvation^, and made 
the dead stones of the temple to rend asunder*? Was his 
bodv broken to let oot his blood, and shall not our souls be 
broken to let it in ? Was the head wounded, and shall the 
aJcers arxi imposthumes remain unlanced ? Would not God, 
in the law ^, accept of any but pushed, and dissected, and 
burned sacrifices? was his temple *" built of none but cut 
and hewed stones ? and shall we think to have no sword of 
the Spirit* divide us; no hammer of the Word ^ break us; 
none of our dross and stubble ** burned up ; none of our Hesh 
beaten down ; none of our old man crucified ' and cut ofi** 
(torn vs, and yet be still living sacrifices', and living stones " 
in his temple ? Whence did David ' call on God. but out of 
the pit and the deep waters, when his bones were broken, 
and could not rejoice ? Certainly, we come unto God, either 
as unto a physician, or as to a judge: we must needs bring 
souls, either full of sores to be cured, or full of sins to be 

Again ; In that this rock of ours was broken.— we know 
whither to fiy, in case of tempest and oppression, even unto 
the holes of the rock for succour. To disclaim cur own 
sufficiency, to disavow any confidence in our own strength ; 
to fiy from church, treasures, supererogations, and to lay 
hold on him ' in whom were the treasures ', the fulness of all 
grace*, of which fulness we all receive ^; to forsake the pri- 
vate lamps of the wisest virgins, the saints and angels, 
which have not light enough to shine into another's house ; 

k Sflm. ui. 1. i Pol. li. k 1 Cor. z. 4. i Matth. uvii. 51. 

* Lcrit. xxwi. Vkl. TtrhtL coot. Jodsot, c 14. Levit. i. 6.9. ■ 1 Kin(;« vt. 7. 

• Epfect. vi. 17. P Jcf . zziii. 39. S 1 Cor. iii. 13. is. 27. r tphe*. 
i#. 23. Cot iii. 5. * Mitth. v. 29, 30. « Rom. iit. 1. • 1 Pet. ii. ft. 
> Pkaim Iziz. and IL J Cant. ii. 14. « Col. it. X » Col. i. 19. 
^Johni. 16. 


and to have recourse only to the sun of righteousness, the 
light not of a house, but of the world, who enlighteneth 
every man that cometh into it. Think when thou seest these 
elements broken, that even then thou appliest thy lips unto 
his bleeding wounds^ and dost from thence suck salvation. 
That even then with Thomas, thy hand is in his side, 
from whence thou mayest pluck out those words of life, 
" My Lord and my God ;^ that even then thou seest in each 
wound, a mouth Open, — and in that mouth the blood, as a 
visible prayer to intercede with Ood the Father for thee ; and 
to solicit him with stronger cries for salvation, than did Abera 
for revenge ^. Let not any sins, though never so bloody, so 
numberless, deter thee from this precious fountain. If it be 
the glory of Christ's blood to wash away sin, then is it his 
greatest glory to wash away the greatest sins. Thy sin, in- 
deed, is the object of Ood^s hate ; but the misery which sin 
brings upon thee, is the object of his pity. O when a poor 
distressed soul, that for many years together hath securely 
weltered in a sink of numberless and iioisome lusts, and hath 
ever been environed with a hell of wickedness, — shall, at 
last, have received a wound from the sword of God^s Spirit, 
an eye to see, and a heart to feel and tremble at, the terrors 
of God's judgements, — shall then (I say) fly out of him- 
self, smite upon his thigh, cast away his rags, crOuch and 
crawl unto the Throne of Grace, solicit God's mercy With 
strong cries for one drop of that blood which is nevet cast 
away, when poured into sinful and sorrowful souls; — how 
think we, will the bowels of Christ turn within him ! How 
will he hasten to meet such an humbled soul, to embrace 
him in those arms which were stretched on the cross for him, 
and to open unto him that inexhausted fountain, which even 
delighteth to mix itself with the tears of sinners ! Certainly, 
if it were possible for any one of Christ's wounds to be more 
precious than at the rest, even that should be opened wide, 
and poured out into the soul of such a penitent. Yea, if it 
might possibly be, that the sins of all the world could be 
even thronged into the conscience of one man, and the whole 
guilt of them made proper and personal unto him ; yet if 
such a man could be brought to sue for grace in the medita- 

« Hcb. zii. 24. 


tion of Christ's broken body, there would thence issue balm 
enoogb to cure, blood enotigh to wash and to drown^ them all. 
Only let not us iiin, b^cKtise grace abounds ; let not us make 
work for the blood of Christ, and goi about, by orintison and 
presumptuous sins, Hh it were, to pose God^s mercy: the 
Uood of Christ, if spilt and trampled under foot, will 
certainly cry so much louder than Abel's for vengeance, 
by bow much it is the more precious. It may be as well 
qpoN OS as m us. As the virtue and benefit of Christ^s blood 
is im tbose, that embrace it unto life and happiness ; so is 
the g^t of it tgnm those, that despise it utklo wretchedness 
and condemnation. 

Thirdly^ In that Christ gave and delivered these mysteries 
«nto the church, we likewise must learn not to engross our- 
selves or otir own gifts ; but freely to dedicate them all unto 
fkt honour of that God, afid benefit of that church, nnto 
which he gav6 both himself and them. Even nature hath 
made men to stand in need of each other''; and therefore 
hath imprinted in them a natural inclination unto fellowship 
and society, in one common city. By Christ we are all made 
of one city % of one household ; yea of one church, of one 
lfple> He hath made us members of one body ^ animated 
by one and the same spirit : stones ^ of one entire building, 
united on one and the same foundation ** : branches ' of one 
ODdivided stock, quickened by one and the same root ^ : and 
therefore requires from us all fi iiiutual suppoit, 8U(5Conr, sus^ 
tentation, and nourishment of each other, a kind of traffic 
and continual intelligence from part to part; a union of 
SKmbers by the supply of nerves and joints, that 60 each 
OHiy be serviceable unto the whole '• The eye seeth not for 
Itself, but for the body ; and therefore if the eye be simple, 
the whole body is full of light ; for the light of the body is 
the eye "'. Nay, God in each creature imprinteth a love of 
community (which is that whereby one thing doth, as it 
bestow itself on another) far above the private and do- 
love, whereby it labours the preservation and advance- 
sent of itself. From which general charity and feeling of 

^4mi. FoUt. 1. 1. • Eph. ii. 19, 21. ' 1 Cor. vi. !9. xii. 12, 13. Rom. 

^ 11. Bph. if. 4. f 1 Pee. ii. 5. »» Eph. ii. 29. 1 Cof. iii. 11. » John 
w. t. k Rom. xi. 16, 17, 18. > Eph. iv. 16. ■» Mauh. vi. 22. 


communion it comes to pass, that if, by any casualty, the 
whole body of the universe be like to suffer any rupture or 
deformity (as in tlie danger of a vacuum, which is the con- 
tumely of nature), each particular creature is taught to relin- 
quish his own natural motion, and to prevent the public re- 
proach, even by forsaking and forgetting of themselves. 
Agreeable unto which noble impress of nature, was that he- 
roical resolution of Pompey, when the safety of his country 
depended on an expedition dangerous to his own particular : 
*' It is not (said he) necessary for me to live ; it is necessary 
that I go ^'^ And more honourable that of Codrus, to dedi- 
cate his own life as a sacrifice for his country's victory. 
But yet more honourable that of the blessed apostle, — " I 
count not my life dear unto myself, that I may finish the 
ministry which 1 have received of the Lord^^' But lastly, 
most admirable was that of the same blessed Paul p and 
Moses ^ whose feeling of community transported them, not 
only beyond the fear, but even into a conditional desire, of 
their own destruction. 

In man's first creation, what was that great endowment of 
original righteousness % but such a harmony of all man's feu 
culties *, as that there was no schism in the body, no part 
unsubordinated, or unjointed from the rest'; but did each 
conspire with other, unto the service of the whole, and with 
the whole unto the service of God ? And what was the im- 
mediate effect of that great fall of man, but the breaking and 
unjointing of his faculties, the rebellion of his members each 
towards other, whereby every faculty seeketh the satisfaction 
of itself, without any respect unto the common good ? And 
as it bred in man an enmity to himself, so to his neighbour 
likewise. So long as Adam remained upright, his judge- 
ment of Eva was a judgement of unity, '* bone of bone ":" 
— no sooner comes sin, but we hear him upbraid God with 
"the woman that thou gavest me'';" terms of dislike and 

n Necesse est ut cam, non ut vivam. « Acts zx. 24. p Rom. tx. 3. 

9 Ezod. xzxti. 32. ' Aquitu Sum. part 1. qua»t. 95. art. l.-^Zatmannus de Dei 
Imagine in Horn. c. 5. **n0Vcp r6p wtuZa 9§7 Ktnd rd wpoardyfutra rov 

«ai8cr)nryov f^y, oZrm jcol rb iwiBvfiriruu^if Kord r6w K6yw, Vide ArUt, Cthic. 
1. .3.C. 12. iKa$dw§p rd wap0\9kvfiitta rov (rijfurrof /Wpia. Vide /fn«/. Ethic. 
1. 1 . cap. 13. • Gen. ii. 33. > Gen. iii. 13. 


For the removal whereof, we must imitate this great ex- 
anple of Christ our head, whose sufferings are not only our* 
aierit, but our example^; who, denying himself ', his own 
natural will, and life, bestowed himself on us, that we like* 
wise might not seek every man his own, but every man the 
)^ood of another * ; bestowing ourselves on the service and 
benefit of the church S and so grow up S and be built up to- 
gether in love, which is the concinnation or |>erfecting of 
the saints *'. 

Secondly, In that Christ gave this sacrament, and did 
thereby testify his most willing obedience unto a cursed 
death, we likewise should, in all our respects, back unto 
him, break through all obstacles of self-love, or any tempta- 
tions of Satan, and the world ; and though contrary to the 
bent of our own desires, to the propension of our own cor- 
rupt hearts, most willingly render our obedience unto him, 
and make him the Lord of all our thoughts. 

Firbt, For our understandings ; we should offer them as 
free and voluntary sacrifices, ready not only to yield unto 
truth out of constraint, but out of willingness and love to 
embrace it, not only for the evidence % but for the author, 
and goodness of it ;— and thus to resign our judgements into 
God''s hands, to be (though never so much against its own 
natural and carnal prejudices) informed and captivated unto 
all kind of saving knowledge, even to the extirpating of all 
those presumptions, prepossessions, and principles of cor- 
ruption ^ which use to smother and adulterate olivine truth. 
For there is naturally in the minds of men, (though otherwise 
eagerly pursuing knowledge) a kind of dread and shrinking 
from the evidence of divine truths, (as each faculty avoideth 
too excellent an object) a voluntary and affected ignorance S 
lest, knowing the truth, they should cease to hate it ** : — a fa- 
culty of making doubts^ touching the meaning and extent of 
such truths, whose evidence would cross the corruptions of 
our practice ; and then a framing of arguments and pre* 

ilPeCu.21. > Match, zxvi. 39. » 1 Cor. x. 2, 4. Phil.ii. ai.andii. 17. 
^ Acuxx. 24. c Epbcfl. iv. 15. ^ Kmrmprtffftis rm¥ iyim^, Ephet. tv. 12. 

• TrrfK/. de Pocnit. cap. 4. ' Ktuclm 4^ri ^daprtK^ ^X^'- ^nti. Elh. L 6. 

g'Ayro&a U mpmipitr^m. Arist. Eth. 1. 3. c. 1. ^ Simul ut dctinant tgoo- 

rarc, otsaant ct odisK. Tertul. Apolog. cap. 1. ^ Domc^tica judicia, TfrtmL 

\poL cap. l.'^Ciemens AUs. Sifom. lib 4. Vid. fhrttid. in Trrtul. Apol. c. 1. 


sumptions for that part, which is most favourable and flatter- 
ing unto nature ; a certain private prejudice against the lus- 
tre of the most strict and practical principles ; a humour of 
cavilling and disputing about those parts of Ood's will ^, 
which bring with them a more straight obligation on the con- 
science ; a withdrawing the thoughts from acquainting them- 
selves with the more spiritual parts of divine truth, under 
pretence of more important employments, about scholastical 
and sublime specidations. All which do evidently prove, 
that there is not, in the understandings that willingness to 
give up itself unto Ood, which there was in Christ to bestow 
himself Unto us. 

Secondly, For our wills and affections * ; we should be 
ready to cross and bend them against all the noise of corrupt 
^ delights ; to pluck out our right eye, cut off our right hand ; 
to be crucified to the world ; to be disposed of by God^s provi- 
dence, cheerfully in any course, whether of passive obedience 
to have a mind submitting unto it, and rejoicing in it ; or of 
active obedience to obey him, contrary to the stream and 
current of our natural desires ; though it be to offer unto him 
our Isaac"', our closest and choicest affection; though to 
shake off the child that hangeth about our neck °, to stop our 
ear to the voice of her that bare us, to throw the wife out of 
our bosom, when they shall tempt us to neglect Ood, to spit 
out the sweetest sin that lies under our tongue ; briefly, to 
take under Christ^s banners the Roman oath % to go and do 
where and whatsoever our great captain commanded ; neither 
for fear of death, or dread of enemy, to forsake service, or 
resign weapon till death shall extort it. 

Lastly, In that Christ gave his sacrament, and therein 
himself, the author and finisher of oiir salvation p ; we learn 
how to esteem of our salvation^ — ^namely, as of a free and 
unmerited gift. Christ was sold by Judas, but he was given 
by God ^ ; and that in the absolute nature of a gift, without 

k Audadam extstiino de bono divini pnBcq>ti ditputare ; TerL de PoeniL c. 4. 
I Qui pcrspicit apud te paratam faisse virtutem, reddet pro virtute mercedem. 
Cyprian, de Morttl. Vide Tertul, Apol. c.49. ™ Quid fooeres si fUium jubere- 
rls ocddere ? Cyprian, de Mortal. n Licet panrnlos ex ooUo pendeat nepoe, ftc. 
Werwu ad Heliodomm. ^ H^tBapxM**" "^ tron^ciy r6 wpoffrarlSfuitow ihrA 
rwf dpx^'^*^ '^^"''^ iCpofutf. Vid. Briuon. de Fonnulis, 1. 4. et Just, Martyr, 
Apol. 2. P Heb. zii. 3. 4 Deus cogitavit talutem qua redempti sumos ; 
Jadas oogitavit pretium, &c. j4yg. Tom. 9, Tract. 7. in Ep. 1 . Johan. 


K) modi AS soil or request on our part for him. True it is^ 

that if man had persisted in the state of his created integrity, 

be might, after an improper manner, be said to hate merited 

the glory which he was after to enjoy, inasmuch as he was to 

obtain it in the virtue of those legal operations, unto which 

he was, by the abilities of his own nature, without the special 

iolQeooe of a supernatural infused grace, fitted and disposed ; 

though eren this was not from the dignity and value of our 

work, but from the indulgence of Almighty God ', who 

would set no higher price on that glory, which he proposed 

onto man for the object of his desires, and reward of his 

works. For if we go exactly unto the first rule of justice 

onqoalified with clemency and bounty, it could not possibly 

be, that Gkid should be bound to requite our labours with 

eternal blias ; there being so vast a disproportion between 

the fraition of God, an infinite good, and any the most 

excellent, yet still limited operation of the creature. For as 

water in its own nature riseth no farther than the spring 

whence it first issueth ; so the endeavours of nature could 

never have raised man, without a mixture of God'^s mercy, 

unto a higher degree of happiness, than should have been 

proportionable to the quality of his work. But now having 

in Adam utterly disabled ourselves to pay that small price. 

It which God was pleased to rate our glory * ; all those who 

are restored thereunto again, must acknowledge both it, and 

Christ the purchaser of it, as a free gift of Almighty God, 

by them so far undeserved, as he was, before the promise, 

unknown ainl unexpected. 

If it be here demanded, how salvation can be said to be 
fredy given us, when on our part there is a condition re- 
quired ; — for the work whereby we obtain life, is not quite 
taken away, but only altered : before, it was a legal work ; 
now, an evangelical; before, it was an obedience to the law; 
now, a belief in the promise ; before, *' eat not, lest ye die ;'* 
now, '' eat and you shall live :" — We answer, that the hand 
of the beggar, without which the aluis is no way received, 

r Habcmos not aliqoid r>ei, ted ab ipto, non k nobis ; Md ex gniiA iptiut, non 
ex ooitrft pf oprictAte ; Trrfii/. coot. Hcrmog. — Vide Hooker, Eccles. Folic. 1. 1. 
lect. 1 1.— Sec Dr. Field of the Chorch, 1. 1 . c. 2. • Ncc quiiqaaiii dieat meri- 
tif opemm nocum, fcl lOCftiit fidei tibi trtdimm, &c. ^ug, Rp. 45, ad Valcntcm. 
R— ^ ^tn m aliod 4 lege, non alienum ; dircrmm, ted mui contrafium. Terhtl, 
cant. Marckm. lib. 4. cap. 1 1 . 


doth not prejudice the free donation thereof, that being the 
instrument whereby the gift is conveyed. The labourer doth 
not deserve his wages, because he receives it ; but he re- 
ceives it, because he hath before deserved it ; receiving con- 
veyethy it doth not merit it. Neither is salvation given us 
for our faith in the virtue of a work, but only because of 
that respect and relation, which it hath unto him who trod 
the wine-press alone, without any assisting or co-meriting 
cause. Even Adam in innocency could not be without an 
assent and firm belief, that the faithful God would perform 
the promise of life S made and annexed unto the covenant of 
works. But this faith could not be the merit of life ", but 
the fruit and effect of merit, or rather obedience anteceding ; 
for his performance of the law (in the right whereof he had 
interest unto glory) preceding, there should immediately 
from thence have issued, by faith, a prepossession (as it 
were) and pre-apprehension of that glory, which, by. virtue 
of that legal obedience, he should have had interest unto. 
So that it is repugnant absolutely to the nature of faith, 
to be any way the cause meritorious of salvation, it being 
nothing else but the application and apprehension of that 
salvation ; which in vain our faith layeth claim unto, unless 
in the right of some anteceding work, either our own, or 
some others in our behalf, it be first merited for us. He 
which believes, and so by consequence lays hold on life, 
without a ground preceding for his claim thereunto, is a rob- 
ber rather than a believer, and doth rather steal Heaven than 
deserve it, though he is not likely so to do ; for in Heaven, 
thieves break not through nor steal '• 

Again, Suppose faith in the quality of the work should 
merit that, which until merited, can, in truth, be never by 
faith apprehended ; — yet, inasmuch as nothing can merit for 
another any farther, than as it is his own proper work, — faith, 
therefore, being not within the compass, either of natural 
or of acquired endowment, but proceeding from a supernatu- 
ral and infused grace ^, it is manifest, that even so, it cannot 
possibly obtain salvation by any virtue or efficacy of its own. 
For as he which bestows money on his poor friend, and 
after, for that money, sells him land, far beyond the value 

t G^n. H. 17. • John vi. 51. * Match, vi. 80. y John vi. 29. 


of the mouey which he gave, may be thus far ataid rather to 
muitiply and change his gifts, than to receive a price fur 
them ; so God, bestowing eternal life on roan, upon the con- 
dition of beliering, the ability whereunto he himself hath 
first bestowed *, and between which life and faith there is an 
infinite disproportion of worth, — may be said rather to heap 
his gifts, than to bargain and compact for them ; rather to 
doable his free bounty, than to reward man^s weak and im- 
pofect obedience, unless we take it improperly for the din- 
cbarge of a Toluntary debt, wherein it hath pleased God in 
mercy, as it were, to oblige and engage himself upon con- 
dition of oor faith *. 

Neither do we herein at all make way for that cursed doc- 
trine of Socinianism, — than which a more venomouH nan 
never sacked from so sweet and saving a tni*h, — That be- 
caose Ovation is a free gift, Christ therefore lii! ..ot suffer 
for the satisfaction of God's wrath, nor pay any le^al price 
for the salvation of the world, nor lay down himself in our 
room, as the ransomer of us, and purchaser of life for us, but 
became incarnate in the flesh, made under the law, obedient 
onto death, only for an example of patience and huniilily 
onto us, not for a propitiation to his Father, and reconcile- 
Bieni of the world unto God. A price was paid ^ and that 
so precious, as that the confluence of all created wealth into 
one sum, cannot carry tlie estimate of one farthing in compa- 
rison of it ; and indeed it ought to be a price more valuable 
than the whole world, which was to ransom so many souIm, 
the loss of the least whereof cannot, by the purchase of the 
whole world, be countervailed. A price it was, valuable 
only by him tliat paid and received it, by us to be enjoyed 
and adored, by God only to be measured. Neither could it 
stand witli the truth and constancy of (sod\ law, with the 
sacredness and majesty of his justice, to suffer violation and 
not revenge it; and when all his attributes are in him one 
and the same thing, to magnify his mercy, not by the satis- 

s Grstias ago tibi, Domine, cjaia quod quaris k mc, prius ipse donatti z Cypnun. 
de Bapt. Christi- — Rrtnunerant in nobis quicquid ipse prarstUtt, U honorans quod 
ipae pcrfedt : Cypt. 1. 3. eptst. 25. * Dcut, promittendo, «icip5um fecit dc- 

bitofcm. August. ^ A^^m, Mattk. xx. 28. drrJAirrpov, 1 Tim. li. 5. wpo^- 

fofd KwX ^«0^ Eph. T. 2. Heb. ix. 12. Kordpa, Gal. iii. Li. diroXurpw^ir, 1 Cof 
*. JO. iAcvfurf, 1 John ti. 2. Mattli. xri. 2(!. 


faction, but the destruction of his justice, and so to set his 
own unity at variance with itself. Mercy and truth, right- 
eousness and peace^ they were, in man's redemption, to kiss, 
and not to quarrel with each other : God did not disunite 
his attributes, when he did reunite his church unto himself. 
A price then was paid unto God's justice, and eternal life is 
a purchase by Christ- bought % but still unto us a giff^^ 
not by any pains or satisfaction of ours attained unto, but 
only by him who was himself given unto us, that together 
with himself he might give us all things \ He unto whom I 
stand engaged in a sum of money, by mc ever impossible to 
be raised, if it please him to persuade his own heir to join in 
my obligation, and out of that great estate, by himself con- 
ferred on him for that very purpose, to lay down so much as 
shall cancel the bond, and acquit me ; doth not only freely 
forgive my debt^, but doth moreover commend the abun- 
dance of his favour, by the manner and circumstances of the 
forgiveness. Man by nature is a debtor unto God : there is 
a hand-writing against him ^, which was so long to stand in 
virtue, till be was able to o£fer something in value propor- 
tionable tp that infinite justice unto which he stood obliged; 
which being by him, without the sustaining of an infinite 
misery, utterly unsatisfiable, it pleased God to appoint his 
own co-essential and co-eternal Son ^ to enter under the 
same bond of law for us, on whom he bestowed such rich 
graces, as were requisite for the oeconomy of so great a 
work. By the means of which human and created graces, 
concurring with, and receiving value from, the divine nature, 
meeting hypostatically in one infinite person, — the debt of 
mankind was discharged, and the obligation cancelled ; and 
so as-many as were ordained to life, effectually delivered by 
this great ransom, virtually sufficient, and, by God's power, 
applicable unto all, but actually beneficial, and by his most 
wisA and just will, conferred only upon those, who should, 
by the grace of a lively faith, apply unto themselves this 
common gift So then, all our salvation is a gift, Christ a 
gift ^, the knowledge of Christ ^ a gift, the faith * in Christ a 

« TltfHwoiriais, Ephes. 1. 14. d John iii. 16. Gal. i. 4. Tit. 2. 14. Isai. iz. 6. 
• Kom.vm.32. ' 12. sCol.ii.14. hGal.iv.4. ilsai.iz.6. 
k Matth. xiii. II. 1 Jude v. 3. Phil. i. 29. 


gift, repentance "^ by Christ a gift, the suffering ° Tor Christ 
a gift, the reward "* of all a gift ; whatsoever we have, what- 
toerer we are, is all from Cod that showeth mercy ^. 

Lastly, In that Christ gives his sacrament to be eaten, we 
learn, first, not only our benefit, but our duty : the same 
Christ it is, whom, in eating, we both enjoy and obey, he 
being as well the institutor as the substance of the sacra- 
ment. If it were bat his precept, we owe him our obser- 
fSAce ; but besides it is his body, and even self-love might 
move OS to obey his precept : our months have been wide 
open anto poison, let them not be shut up against so sove- 
rejjgn an antidote ^. 

Secondly, We see how we should use this precious gift of 
Christ cmcified, not to look on, but to eat, not with a 
gazing, speculative knowledge of him, as it were at a dis- 
tance, but with an experimental and working knowledge ; 
■one truly knows Christ, but he that feels him. " Come, 
tMte and see,'* saith the prophet, '^ how gracious the Lord 
is.'* In divine things, tasting goes before seeing, the union 
before the vision : Christ must first dwell in us, before we 
mn know the love of God that passeth knowledge \ 

Thirdly, We learn not to sin against Christ, because there- 
in we do sin against ourselves, by offering indignity to the 
body of Christ, which should nourish us ; and, like swine*, 
by tiampling under foot that precious food, which pre- 
•crvath nnto life those that with reverence eat it, but fatteth 
sato slaughter those who profanely devour it:— even as the 
wtmm nun in difiSsrent grounds serves sometimes to bring on 
fte seed, other times to choke and stifle it by the forward- 
ness of weeds ^ For as it is the goodness of God to bring 
gsod out of the worst of things, even sin ; so is it the ma- 
hgaity of sin and cunning of Satan, to pervert the most holy 
(, the word of Ood, yea, the very blood of Christ, unto 

■ Acuv. 31. 2 Tim. ii. 25. b Phil. i. 29. • Rom. vi. 23. P Restat 
M pfopicfea iect£ dictum intelligatur, * Non volentis, neque currentis, sed mite* 
■Mb est Dei ;* ut totum Deo detur, qui hominis voluntatsm bonam ec praeparat 
manu dam, et adjuvat praeparatam. Vid. Aug. Encbir. cap. 32. q Nauseabit 

li f klimini, qui hiavit ad venenum ? Teri, cont Gnost. cap. 5. ' Eph. 3. 

U, IS. • Porcis compaiandi, qui ca prius conculcant, ac luto ccenoque invol- 
«•■(, que mox ayide devorant : Parker de Antiq. Brit, in Praefat. * Macth. 



Lastly, We leani, how pure we ought to preserve those 
doors of the soul from filtbiness and intemperance, at which 
so often the ' Prince of glory ' himself will enter in. 


Of the two first ends or effects of the Sacrament^ namelj/, the 
exhibition of Christ to the Church, and the union of the 
Church to Christ : Of the real presence. 

Having thus far spoken of the nature and quality of this 
holy sacrament, it follows in order to treat of the ends 
or effects thereof, on which depends its necessity, and our 
comfort. Our sacraments are nothing else but evangelical 
types or shadows of some more perfect substance. For as 
the legal sacrifices were the shadows " of Christ expected, 
and wrapped up in a cloud of predictions, and in the loins of 
his predecessors ; so this new mystical sacrifice of the gos- 
pel is a shadow of Christ, risen indeed, but yet hidden from 
us under the cloud of those heavens, which shall contain him 
until the dissolution of all things. For the whole heavens 
are but as one great cloud, which intercepts the lustre of that 
sun of righteousness, who enlightenetli every one that cometli 
into the world. Now shadows are for the refreshing of us 
against the lustre of any light, unto which the weakness of 
the sense is yet disproportioned. As there are many things for 
their own smallness imperceptible, — so some, for their mag- 
nitude, do exceed the power of sense, and have a transcend- 
ency in them, which surpasseth the comprehension of that 
faculty, unto which they properly belong. Mo man can, in 
one simple view, look upon the whole vast frame of heaven ; 
because he cannot, at the same moment, receive the species 
of so spreading and diffused an object : so is it in things 
divine; some of them are so above the reach of our imperfect 
faculties, as that they swallow up the understanding, and 
make not any immediate impression on the soul, between 
which and their excellency, there is so great disproportion. 
Now disproportion useth, in all things, to arise from a 

« Hcb. X. 1. 


double caase: the one natural % being the limited constitii- 
tioo of the faculty, whereby^ even in its best sufficiency « it 
is disabled for the perception of too excellent an object, as 
are the eyes of an owl in respect of the sun. 

The other accidental ; namely, by violation and distemper 
of the faculty, even vrithin the compass of its own strength ; 
■s in soreness of eyes in regard of light, or lameness in re- 
gard of motion. Great certainly was the mystery of man's 
redemption, which posed and dazzled the eyes of the angels 
themselves^ : so that between Christ and man, there are both 
these former disproportions observable. 

For first of all, man, while he is on the earth, a traveller 
towaids that glory which yet he never saw, and which the 
tongue of St. Paul himself could not utter', is altogether, 
eveo in his highest pitch of perfection, unqualified to com- 
prehend the excellent mystery of Christ, either crucified, or 
much more glorified. And, therefore, our manner of as- 
senting in this life, though in regard of the authority on 
which it is grounded (which is God^^s own Word), it be most 
evident and infallible, — yet, in its own quality, it is not so 
immediate and express, as is that which is elsewhere re- 
served for as. For, hereafter, we shall know even as we are 
known, by a knowledge of vision *, fruition, and possession : 
here daricly, by stooping and captivating our understandings 
aato those divine reports, which are made in Scripture, which 
is a knowledge of faith, distance, and expectation. We do, 
J say, here bend our understandings to assent unto such* 
tatbsy as do not transmit "any immediate species or irradiation 
of their own upon them : but there our understandings shall 
be raised unto a greater capacity, and be made able, without 
a secondary report and conveyance, to apprehend clearly 
those glorious truths, the evidence whereof it did here sub- 
mit onto, for the infallible credit of God ; who, in his Word, 
had revealed, and, by his Spirit, obsignated the same unto 
them : as the Samaritans knew Christ at first only by the re- 
port of the woman ^ — which was an assent of faith ; but 
after, when they saw his wonders, and heard his words, they 
knew him by himself, — which was an assent of vision. 

> Vide jtfuin, part. 1. quaest.62. arL 2. ad secundum. 7 1 Titn. iii. ir>. 

■ t Cor. xii. 4. » I Cor. xv. *> John iv. 



Secondly, As the church is here but a travelling church, 
therefore cannot possibly have any farther knowledge of that 
country whither it goes, but only by the maps which describe 
it, the Word of God ; and these few fruits * which are sent 
unto them from it, the fruits of the Spirit**, whereby they 
have some taste and relish of the world to come : so more- 
over is it even in this estate, by being enclosed in a body of 
sin (which hath a darkening property in it, and adds unto the 
natural limitedness of the understanding, an accidental de- 
fect and soreness), much disabled from this very imperfect 
assent unto Christ, the object of its faith. For as sin, when 
it wastes the conscience, and bears rule in the soul, hath a 
power like Delilah and the Philistines, to put out our eyes 
(as Ulysses the eye of his Cyclops with his sweet wine •), 
a power to corrupt principles, to pervert and make crooked 
the very rule by which we work'; conveying all moral 
truths to the soul, as some concave glasses use to represent 
the species of things to the eye, not according to their na^ 
tural rectitude or beauty, but with those wrestings, inversions, 
and deformities, which, by the indisposition thereof, they are 
framed unto ; — so even the least corruptions, unto which the 
best are subject (having a natural antipathy to the evidence 
and power of Divine truth), do necessarily, in some manner, 
distemper our understandings, — and make such a degree of 
soreness in the faculty, as that it cannot but, so far forth, be 
impatient and unable to bear that glorious lustre, which shines 
immediately in the Lord Christ. So then, we see what a 
great disproportion there is between us and Christ immediate- 
ly presented : and from thence we may observe our necessity, 
and God^s mercy, in a£fording us the refreshment of a type 
and shadow. 

These shadows were to the church of the Jews, many ; be* 
cause their weakness in the knowledge of Christ was of ne- 


cessity more than cure, inasmuch as they were but an infant', 
we an adult and grown church: and they looked on Christ 
at a distance; we near at hand, he being already incarnate : 
unto us, they are the sacraments of his body and blood, in 
which we see and receive Christ, as weak eyes do the light 

c Numb. xiii. 21. <i Gal. v. 22. • Horn. Odyss. 1. 9. f Sr/>c«Adj^ troi- 
•Iv riv icQM6ya, Arist, Rh. lib. 1. cap. 1. s Gal. W. 3. 


of the 8un, through some dark cloud, or thick grove. So 
theo, one main and principal end of this Sacrament, is, to be 
•a instrument fitted unto the measure of our present estate, 
for the exhibition or conveyance of Christ, with the benefits 
of his passion unto the faithful soul ; an end not proper to 
this mystery alone, but common to it with all those legal 
sacraments which were the *^iore thick shadows of the Jewish 
chnrch: for even they in the Red Sea ^ did pass through Christ, 
who wa« their way; in the manna' and rock, did eat and drink 
Christy who was their life ; in the brazen serpent, did behold 
Christy who was their Saviour ; in their daily sacrifices, did 
prepare Christ, who was their truth ; iu their passover, did 
eat Christ, by whose blood they were sprinkled. For how- 
soever between the legal and evangelical covenant there may 
be sundry circumstantial differences : 

As first. In the manner of their evidence ; that, being ob- 
•core, — this, perspicuous ; to them, a promise only, — to us, 
a gospel ; — 

Secondly, In their extent and compass ; that, beiug con- 
fined to Judea ^, — this, universal to all creatures * ; — 

Thirdly, In the means of ministration; that, by priests and 
prophets % — this, by the Son himself, and those delegates 
who were by him enabled and authorized by a solemn com- 
mission, and by many excellent endowments for the same 

Lastly, In the quality of its durance ; that being mutable 
and abrogated, this to continue until the consummation of 
all things ; — yet notwithstanding, in substance they agree, 
and, though by sundry ways, do all at last meet in one and the 
same Christ, who, like the heart in the midst of the body, 
coming himself in person between the legal and evangelical 
church, doth equally convey life and motion to them both : 
even as that light which I see in a star, and that which I 
receive by the immediate beam of the sun, doth originally 

k 1 Cor. X. 1, 2, 3, 4. Terlul, de Baptis. cap. cont. Marcion. lib. S. cap. IG. 
CI L S. c 7. ' Manna et aqua i petr& habebant in se figuram futuri mysterii, 
^•od none samimus in comroemoratiunem Christi Domini. Amhros. in 
ICor.Zw— Vk). Momaifdc Eucharist, lib. 4. cap. 1.— Dr. AVM of the Church, 
L1.C.5. Pffreus in Ueb. cap. 8. et cap. 10, &c. 12, 18, 28. Acts xiii.32. 
Gil. ill. 17. Acts xui. 46. Matth. z. 5, 6. ^ Rom. iii. 2. Eph. ii. 12. ^ Nfark 
ati. 15. liai. xlix. 6. » Hcb. i. 1, 2. x. 9. vii. 12, 16. vi. 20. vii. 16, 24, 28. 

F 2 


issue from the same fountain, though conveyed with a 
different lustre, and by a several means. 

So then, we see the end of all Sacraments made after the 
second covenant (for Sacraments there were even in Para- 
dise before the fall), namely. To exhibit Christ, with those 
benefits which he bestoweth oh his church, unto each be- 
lieving soul. But after a more especial manner, is Christ ex- 
hibited in the Lord's Supper, because his presence is theit 
more notable. For as, by faith, we have the evidence,— so, 
by the Sacrament, we have the presence of things farthest 
distant and absent from us. A man that looketh on the light 
through a shadow, doth, truly and really, receive the selfsame 
light, which would, in the openest and clearest sunshine, ap- 
pear unto him, though after a different manner. *' There 
shall we see him.'^as Job speaks, " with these selfsame eyes ;^ 
here, with a spiritual eye, after a mystical manner. So then, 
in this Sacrament we do most willingly acknowledge a real, 
true, and perfect presence of Christ, — not in, with, or under 
the elements, considered absolutely in themselves **, but with 
that relative habitude and respect, which they have unto the 
immediate use, whereunto they are consecrated. Nor yet so 
do we acknowledge any such carnal trans-elementation of the 
materials in this Sacrament, as if the body or blood of Christ 
were, by the virtue of consecration, and, by way of a local sub- 
stitution, in the place of the bread and wine, — but are truly 
and really by them, though in nature different, conveyed into 
the souls of those, who by faith receive him. And there^ 
fore Christ first said, " Take^ eat," and then, •* This is my 
body ;^ to intimate unto us (as learned Hooker observeth "*), 
that the Sacrament, however by consecration it be changed 
from common unto holy bread, and separated from common 
unto a divine use, is yet never properly to be called the 
' Body of Christ,' till taken and eaten ; by means of which 
actions (if they be actions of faith) that holy bread and wine 
do as really convey whole Christ, with the vital influences 
that proceed from him, unto the soul, as the hand doth them 
unto the mouth, or the mouth unto the stomach. Otherwise, 

> Secanducn quendaro rooduin Sacramentom Corporis Christi Corpus est, et 
Sacramentum sanguinis sanguis est. Atig- Epist. 23. • Hooker, lib. 5. page 359. 
Od 7«lp tit Ktwiw wdna, rt£r* XmfM^ofuw, Just. Mort. Apol. 2. 


if Christ were not really and corporally present wiih the con- 
santed elemeots, severed from the act cif faithful receivini;, 
tfce wicked should as easily receive him nith their teeth, as 
the fiuthfnl in their soul : which to affirm, is both absurd 
and impioas p. 

Now Christ'*s presence in this holy Sacrament being a 
thing of so important consequencei and the consideration 
thereof being very proper to this first end of the Sacrament, 
the exhibiting of Christ (for to exhibit a thing, is nothing 
else bnt to present it, or to make it present unto the party 
to whom it is exhibited ;) it will not be impertinent to make 
some short digression for setting down the manner, and 
clearing the truth of Christ^ s real presence ; the understand* 
ing whereof will depend upon the distinguishin«^ uf the seve- 
ral manners, in which Christ may be said to be present. 

Pint then, Christ being an infinite person, hath, in tlie 
virtue of his godhead, an infinite and unlimited presence* 
whereby he so filleth all places, as that he is not contained 
or circumacribed in them : which immcuaity of his making 
him intimately present with all the creatures, is that where- 
by they are quickened, supported, and conserved by him. 
For ^^ by him all things consist;" and "he upholdeth 
them all by the word of his power ;** and " iu him they live, 
and move, and have their being." But this is not that pre- 
•ence, which in the Sacrament we affirm, because that pre- 
npposeth a presence of Chriit in and according to that na- 
tore, wherein he was the Redeemer of the world ; which wu4 
hia human nature. Yet inasmuch as thitt his hun)an nature 
subsisteth not, but in and with tlie infiniteness of tlie second 
person ; there is therefore, in the second place, by the Lu- 
therans framed another imaginary presence of Christ's human 
body (after once the Divinity was pleased to derive glory in 
fulness on it) ; which giveth it a participated ubiquity unto 
it too, by means whereof. Christ is corporally in or under the 
sacramental elements. 

But this opinion, as it is no way agreeable with tht* truth 
of the human nature of Christ, so is it greatly injurioun to 

f Nob denm id mordendum acuiraus, ted Mc siooerA panem franKimus ct 
pntimar. Cff^r.^^Qm numducat tatu^, non foris; (|ui manducat in oirdr, noi) 
qm fwit date. /ftig. Trad. 26. in Johan. ci rU\, de Civil. I)ci. lib. 21. 


his divinity. For first, Though Christ's human nature mas, 
in regard of its production, extraordinary, — and in regard of 
the sacred union which it had with the divine nature, ad- 
mirable, — and in regard of communication of glory from the 
godhead, and of the unction of the Holy Ghost, far above 
all other names that are named in Heaven or earth ; — yet, in 
its nature, did it ever retain the essential and primitive pro- 
perties of a created substance, which is to be in all manner 
of perfections finite, and so by consequence in place too. 
For glory destroys not nature, but exalts it ; nor exalts it to 
any farther degrees of perfection, than are consistent with 
the finiteness of a creature, who is like unto us in regard of 
all natural and essential properties. But these men give unto 
Christ's body far more than his own divine nature doth ; 
for he glorifies it only to be the head, that is, the most ex^ 
cellent and first-bom of every creature : but they glorify it 
BO far, as to make it share in the essential properties of the 
divine nature. For as that substance unto which the intrin- 
secal and essential properties of a man belong, is a man ne- 
cessarily (man being nothing else but a substance so qua- 
lified) ; so that being, unto which the divine attributes do 
belong in that degree of infiniteness, as they do to the di- 
vine person itself, must needs be God : and immensity, we 
know, is a proper attribute of the Divinity, implying infi- 
niteness, which is God^s own prerogative. Neither can the 
distinction of ubiquity communicated, and original or essen-' 
tial, solve the consequence : for God is by himself so difier- 
enced from all the creatures, as that it is not possible any 
attribute of his should be participated by any creature in that 
manner of infiniteness as it is in him : nay, it implies an in- 
evitable contradiction, that, in a finite nature, there should 
be room enough for an infinite attribute. 

We confess, that inasmuch as» the human nature in Christ 
is inseparably taken into the subsistence of the omnipresent 
Son of God, it is therefore a truth to say, That the Son of 
God, though filling all places, is not yet, in any of them, 
separated or asunder from the human nature. Nay, by the 
virtue of the communication of the properties, it is true like- 
wise to say, that the man Christ is in all places, though aot 
in, or according, to his human nature. But now from the 
union of the manhood to the godhead, to argue a co-exten- 


siooy or joint-presence therewith, is an inconsequent argu- 
Qieot, as may appear in other things. The soul hath a kind 
of immensity in her little world, beinj^ in each part thereof 
whole and entire : and yet it follows not, because the soul 
is onited to the body, that therefore the body must needs 
partake of this omnipresence of the soul : else should the 
whole body be in the little finger, because the soul, unto 
which it is united, is wholly there. 

Again, There is an inseparable union between the sun 
and the beam : so that it is infallibly true to say, the sun is 
no where severed from the beam ; yet we know they both 
oceopy a distinct place. Again, Misletoe is so united to the 
sabstence of the tree out of which it groweth, that (though 
of a dififerent nature) it subsisteth not but in and by the sub- 
wtence of the tree ; and yet it hath not that amplitude of 
place, which the tree hath. 

Letting go then this opinion, there is a third presence of 
Christy which is a carnal, physical, local presence, which we 
affirm his human nature to have only in heaven ; the Papists 
attribute it to the Sacrament, because Christ hath said, 
** Tliis is my body ;^ and, in matters of fundamental conse- 
fjaence, be useth no figurative or dark speeches. — To this 
we say, that it is a carnal doctrine, and a mistake like that 
of Nicodemus, and of Origen, from the spirit to the letter. 
And for the difficulty, it is none to men that have more than 
only a carnal ear to hear it : for what difficulty is it to say, 
that then the king gives a man an office, when he hath sealed 
him such a patent, in the right whereof that office belong- 
eth, and is conveyed unto him i And if Christ be thus lo- 
cally in the Sacrament, and eaten with the mouth, and so 
conveyed into the stomach ; I then demand what becomes of 
him, when and after he is thus received into the stomach ? 
If he retire from the accidents out of a man, then first acci- 
dents shall be left without any substance at all under them to 
sustain them ; and which is (if any thing can be) yet more 
absurd, bare accidents should nourish, be assimilated, and 
augment a substance. For it is plain, that a man might be 
nourished by the bread ; yea, the priest by intemperate ex- 
cess made drunk with the consecrated wine: unto which de- 
testable effects, we cannot imagine that God, by a more 
especial concurrence and miracle, would enable the bare ac- 


cidents of bread and wine. But if Christ stay, and do cor- 
porally unite himself to the receiver; then I see not how all 
they that receive the Sacrament, being physically and sub- 
stantially united to Christ's body, have not likewise a natu- 
ral union to his person too, that being no where separated 
from this, which is blasphemous to affirm. 

Secondly, How Christ's body may not be said to have a 
double subsistence ; infinite in the second person, and finite 
in all those with whom be is incorporated. 

Leaving then this as a fleshly conceit, we come to a fourth 
presence of Christ, which is by energy and power. Thus, 
*' Where two or three be gathered together in his nameS 
Christ is in the midst of them^' by the powerful working of 
his holy Spirit ; even as the sun is present to the earth, inas- 
much as, by its influence and benignity, it heateth and 
quickeneth it. For all manner of operation is, by some 
manner of contact, between the agent and the patient, 
which cannot be without some manner of presence too : 
but the last manner of presence is a sacramental, rela- 
tive, mystical presence. Understand it thus; — The king 
is in his court or presence-chamber only locally and phy- 
sically ; but, representatively, he is wheresoever his chan- 
cellor or subordinate judges are, inasmuch as whatsoever 
they, in a legal and judicial course, do determine, is 
accounted by him as his own personal act, — as being an 
effect of that power, which though in them as the instru- 
ments, doth yet originally reside no where but in his own 
person. Just so, Christ is locally in Heaven, which must 
contain him till" the restitution of all things f yet having 
instituted these elements for the supply, as it were, of his 
absence, he is accounted present with them ; inasmuch as 
they which receive them with that reverend and faithful af- 
fection, as they would Christ himself, do, together with 
them, receive him too. really and truly, though not carnally 
or physically, but after a mystical and spiritual manner. A 
real presence of Christ we acknowledge, but not a local or 
physical ; for presence real (that being a metaphysical term) 
is not opposed unto a mere physical or local absence or dis- 
tance ; but is opposed to a false, imaginary, fantastic pre- 

% Matth. xxviii. 


%tnce. For if real presence may be undereiood of nothing 
but a carnal and local presence, then that speech of Christ, 
" Where two or three be gathered together in my name, 
there am I in the midst of them," cannot have any real 
troth in it ; because Christ is not locally in the midst of 

This real presencci being thus explained, may be thus 
prored : — ^The main end of the Sacrament (as shall be shown) 
is to unite the faithful unto Christ ; to which union there 
must, of necessity, be a presence of Christ by means of the 
Sacrament, which is the instrument of that union. Such 
then as the union is, such must needs be the presence too : 
since presence is therefore only necessary, that by m€*ans 
thereof that union may be effected. Now united unto 
Christ we are not carnally or physically^ a^ the meat is to 
the body ; but after a mystical manner, by joints and sinews, 
not fleshly, but spiritual : even as the faithful are united to 
each other in one mystical body of Christ, into one holy 
spiritual building % into one fruitful olive-tree, into a holy 
but mystical marriage with Christ. Now what presence 
fitter for a spiritual union than a spiritual presence ? Cer- 
tainly, to confine Christ unto the narrow compass of a piece 
of bread, to squeeze and contract his body into so strait a 
room, and to grind him between our teeth, is to humble him 
(though DOW glorified) lower than he humbled himself: he 
himself, to the form of a servant; but this, to the condition 
of a monster. 

That presence then of Christ, which, in the Sacrament, we 
acknowledge, is not any gross presence of circumscription ; 
as if Christ Jesus, in body, lay hid under the accidents of 
bread and wine ; as if he who was wont to use the senses * 
for witness and proof of his presence, did now hide from 
them, yea, deceive them under the appearances of that whicli 
be is not ; — but it is a spiritual presence, of energy, power, 
and concomitancy with the element, by which Christ doth 
appoint, that by and with these mysteries, though not tn or 
from them, his sacred body should be conveyed into tlie 
faithful souL And such a presence of Christ in power, 
though absent in flesh, as it is most compatible with the 

f 1 Prt.ii. 5. * John xx. 20, 27. Luke xxiv. 39. Match, zxviii. T. 


properties of a human body*, so doth it most make for the 
demonstration of his power, who can, without any necessity 
of a fleshly presence, send as great influence from his sa- 
cred body on the church, as if he should descend visibly 
amongst us. Neither can any man show any enforcing rea- 
son, why, unto the real exhibition and reception of Christ 
crucified, there should any more physical presence of his be 
required, than there is of the sun unto the eye for receiving 
his light, or of the root unto the utmost branches for receiv- 
ing of vital sap**, or of the head unto the feet* for the receiv- 
ing of sense, or of the land and purchase made over by a 
sealed deed^ for receiving the lordship'; or lastly (to use an 
instance from the Jesuits'* own doctrine out of Aristotle), 
of a final cause in an actual existence, to effect its power and 
casualty on the will. For if the final cause do truly and 
really produce its efilect, though it have not any material gross 
presence, but only an intellectual presence to the apprehen- 
sion ; why may not Christ (whose sacred body, however it 
be not substantially coextended, as I may bo speak, in re- 
gard of ubiquity with the godhead, — yet in regard of its co- 
operation, force, eflicacy, unlimited by any place or subject^ 
it having neither sphere of activity, nor ^tint of merit, nor 
bounds of efficacy, nor necessary subject of application, be- 
yond which the virtue of it grows faint and ineffectual), — 
why may not he, 1 say, really unite himself unto his church 
by a spiritual presence to the faithful soul, without any such 
gross and carnal descent, or re-humiliation of his glorified 
body, unto an ignoble and prodigious form ? 

So then, to conclude this digression, and the first end of 
this Sacrament together; when Christ saith, "This is my 
body,^ we are not otherwise to understand it, than those 
other sacramental speeches of the same nature, '* 1 am that 
bread of life V—** Christ was that rock%" and the like: it 
being a common thing, not only in holy Scriptures*^, but 
even in profane writers also % to call the instrumental ele- 

t Ent ciro ejus in monumento, sed virtus ejus operabbtur in Coeloi Ambrot, 
de Incarnat. cap. 5. n Rom. xi. 16. ' Ephcs. i. 22. w*pnroifi9ts. 

y Epbes. i. 14, v^peeyls, ■ Rom. xiv. 11. » Greg, de FaUfL torn. 1. 

disp. 1. qu. 1. punct. 1. — Hooker, lib. 5. sect. 55. p. 303, 304. ^ John vi. 51. 

« 1 Cor. X. 4. (* Gen. zvii. 10. Exod. xii. 11. • Foedus ferirc. Lw. 

Ki^pVMS 8* (Ua iorv, Scfir ^potf Zptua wtardt, 'A pre i6» nccU Jpoy, Homer, 


meots by the name of that covenant, of which they arc only 
the iachfices, seals, and visible confirmations, because of 
tliat relation and near resemblance that is between them. 

The second end or effect of this Sacrament, which in order 
of nature immediately followeth the former, is to obsignate, 
and to iDcrease the mystical union of the church unto Christ 
their head. For as the same operation, which infuseth the 
reasonable soul (which is the first act or principle of life 
natnial) doth also unite it unto the body, to the making up 
of one man ; so the same Sacrament which doth exhibit 
Christ mito us (who is the first act and original of life di. 
rine) doth also unite us together unto the making up of one 
church. In natural nourishment, — the vital heat, being 
stronger than the resistance of the meat, doth macerate, con- 
coct, and convert that into the substance of the body : but 
in this spiritual nourishment, the vital Spirit of Christ ', hav. 
ing a heat invincible by the coldness of nature, doth turn us 
into the same image and quality with itself, working a fel- 
lowship of affections, and confederacy of wills '. And as the 
body doth, from the union of the soul unto it, receive 
strength, beauty, motion, and the like active qualities ; so 
also Christ, being united unto us by these holy inyHterics, 
doth comfort, refresh, strengthen, rule, and direct us in all 
oar ways. We all, in the virtue of that covenant made by 
God onto the faithful, and to their seed in the first instant of 
our being, do belong unto Christ that bought us^; after, in 
the laver of regeneration, the sacrament of baptism, we are 
Cuther admitted and united to him. Our right unto Christ 
before was general, from the benefit of the common cove- 
nant*; bat, in this sacrament of baptism, my right is made 
persona] ; and I now lay claim unto Christ, not only in the 
right of his common promise, but by the efficacy of this par- 
ticular washing, which sealeth and ralifieth the covenant unto 
me. Thus is our first union unto Christ wrought by the 
grace of the covenant effectively, — and by the grace of bn|>- 
tism (where it may be had) instrumentally ; the one giving 

' John Ti. 63. Rom. viii. 2. S Affcctus consoctat et confoedcrmt vuluntttes. 
Cfp^atu ^ 1 Cor. iii. 16. Rom. viii. 9, 1 1. 2 Tim. i. 14. Eph. iii. 17. Gen. 

irh. 17. Dexu uc penooam non accipit, sic ncc sptmtem. Cyprian, lib. 3. Episi. 8. 
* Tit. iii. 5. Vide Coqutr, Comroen. ad lib. 1. — Au^. dc Cif . Dei, cap. 27. num. 2. 


unto Christi the other obsignating and exhibiting, that right, 
by a farther admission of us into his body. 

But now we must conceive, that as there is a union unto 
Christy so there must» as in natural bodies, be, i(fter that 
union, a growing up, till we come to our «»|uuy» the measure 
of the fulness of Christ ^. This growth, being an effect of the 
vital faculty, is more or less perfected in us, as that is either 
more or less stifled or cherished. For as in the soul and 
body, so in Christ and the church, we are not to conceive 
the union without any latitude, but capable of augmentation, 
and liable to sundry diminutions, according as are the seve- 
ral means, which, for either purpose, we apply unto our- 
selves. The union of the soul and body, though not dis- 
solved, is yet, by every the least distemper, slackened, — by 
some violent diseases, almost rended asunder ; so that the 
body hath sometimes more, sometimes less holdfast of the 
soul. So here, we are in the covenant and in baptism united 
unto Christ : but we must not forget, that in men there is by 
nature ' a root of bitterness ^'' whence issue those ' fruits of 
the flesh ™,^ a spawn and womb of actual corruptions, where 
sin is daily 'conceived and brought forth **;' a 'mare mor- 
tuum,' a lake of death, whence continually arise all manner 
of noisome and infectious lusts : by means of which, our 
union to Christ, though not dissolved, is yet daily weakened, 
and stands in need of continual confirmation. For every sin 
doth more or less smother and stop the principle of life io 
us ; so that it cannot work our growth, which we must rise 
unto, with so free and uninterrupted a course as otherwise it 

The principle of life in a Christian, is the very same, from 
whence Christ himself, according to his created graces, re- 
ceiveth life ; and Ifaat is the Spirit of Christ % a quickening 
Spirit P, and a strengthening Spirit "i. Now as that great sin, 
which is incompatible with faith, doth bid defiance to the 
good Spirit of God, and therefore is more especially called, 
' The sin against the Holy Ghost ;^ so every sin doth, in its 
own manner and measure, quench the Spirit **, that it cannot 

k Eph. i¥. 13, 15. Heb. zii. 15. m Gtl. v. » J«n. i. IS. 

• G«l. iv. 6. Rotn. t iti. 2. P John vi. 63. <l Eph«t. iii. 16. r i Thett. 
V. 19. 


quk^eiit and grieve the Spirit*, that it cannot strengthen ui 
in that perfection of degrees aa it might otherwise. 

And thaa is oar onion unto Christ dailj loosened and 
slackened by the distempers of sin. For the re-establishing 
whereof, God hath appointed these sacred mysteries as ef- 
fectual iii8tFiimeota» where they meet with a qualified sub- 
ject, tB prodaoe a more firm and close union of the soul to 
Chriaty and to strengthen our faith, which is the joint and 
sinew by which that union is preserved ; to cure those 
wouda \ and to p«ge those iniquities, whose property is to 
aepsnte betwixt Christ and us ; to make ns submit our ser- 
vices \ to knit our wills, to conform our afiections, and to 
iacorpoimte oar persona into him: that ao, by constant, 
though alow proceedingay we might be changed from ' glory 
to ^ory/ and attain onto the 'measure of Christ,* there 
wbm oar fetth cuk bo vray be impaired, our bodies and 
soaia sobjeot to no decay, and by consequence stand in no 
need of any such viaticums ', as we here use to strengthen 
OS ia a journey ao much both above the perfection, and 
against the corruption of our present nature. 


Of tkrte other endt of the holy Sacrament : the fellowship or 
umkm of the faithfid: the obsignation of the covenant of 
grace : and the abrogation of the passover. 

"Now as the same nourishment, which preaerveth the 
umoo between the soul and body, or head and members, 
doth, in like manner, preserve the union between the mem- 
bers themselves; even so this Sacrament is, as it were, the 

> Epbet. iv. Sa. * Iste qui vulniiB habet, mcdicinani rcqoirit. Vulnnt ctt, 
^OM «bH pcocttD MMnos ; RMdidns ml ooalaie cc ««iienibile SacruBcaton. jfrn* 
Ifw. de Smenm. I. 5. cap. 4. Simul roedicaroentum ct botoca m tum ad tanaodat 
■tatet* et pnrgandas iniquiutct. CyprUm. de Caen. Dom. • Pociu 

qoaedam iooorporauo, tubjectit obtequiit, volunatibus juoctia, affcctibot 
: Ecus carnlt hojos qviadaai aviditaa esc, et quoddain detiderium manendi 
is ipio. C^vprim. Ibid. Im mu. Chrymui. bom. 24. in 1 Cor.— Qui mlc Tiveie, 
habct ttbi virac, aeeedat, ctedac, incorpoictur, vivificetur. /lug, episc &9. et vide 
de Or. Dei, lib. 10. cap. 6. « Sioolim Saaamencum appellatam. Vid. Dmr. 

de ntiboi Ecdcsi«, lib. 2. cap. 25. 


sinew of the church, whereby the faithful, being all animated 
by the same Spirit that makes them one with Christ, are 
knit together in a bond of peace ^, conspiring all in a unity 
of thoughts and desires ; having the same common enemies 
to withstand, the same common prince to obey, the same 
common rule to direct them, the same common way to pass, 
the same common faith to vindicate; and therefore the same 
mutual engagements to further and advance the good of each 
other. So that the next immediate effect of this Sacrament 
is, to confirm the union of all the members of the church, 
each to other, in a communion of saints, whereby their 
prayers are the more strengthened, and their adversaries the 
more resisted. For as in natural things, union* strength* 
eneth motions natural, and weakeneth violent ; so, in the 
church, union strengtheneth all spiritual motions, whether 
upward, as meditations and prayers to God, — or downward, 
as sympathy and good works towards our weak brethren : 
and it hindereth all violent motions, the strength of sin, the 
darts of Satan, the provocations of the world, the judge- 
ments of God ; or whatever evil may be by the flesh, 
either committed or deserved. And this union of the faith- 
ful, is both in the elements, and appellations, and in the 
ancient ceremonies, and in the very act of eating and drink- 
ing, most significantly represented. 

First, For the elements, they are such as, though naturally 
their parts were separated in several grains and grapes, yet 
are they, by the art of man, moulded together, and made up 
into one artificial body, consisting of divers homogeneous 
parts \ Men, by nature, are disjointed not more in being, 
than in affections and desires each from other, every one 
being his own end, and not any way affected with that ten- 
derness of communion, or bowels of love, which in Christ 
we recover. But now Christ hath redeemed us from this 
estate of enmity ; and drawing us all to the pursuit of one 
common end, and thereunto enabling us by one uniform 
rule, his holy Word, and by one vital principle, his holy 

7 Ephes. iT. 3, 4. ■ Advincemcnt of Learning, lib. 2. • Quando 

DoRiinat Corpus tuum ' panem* Tocat de roultemm granoniml adunatione coo* 
gestum, populura nostrum quern portabat, indicat adunatum. Sec. Oypr. lib. 1. 
epitt. 6. KodcCrcp y^ 6 fyrot 4k fmoXXmy trvyiccffuyor KSiutmv i|Mrr«i, &c 
Chrytost, in 1 Cor. Horn 24. 


S(Mrity — we are, by the means of this holy Sacrament, after 
tlie same luazmer, reunited into one spiritual body, as the 
ekmenta, though originally several, are into one artificial 
mass. And for the same reason (as I conceive) was the holy 
pMsover, in the law ^, commanded to be one whole lamb, 
and eaten in one family, and not to have one bone of it bro- 
ken ; to signify that there should be all unity, and no schism 
or rupture in the church, which is Christ's body. 

Secondly, For the appellations of this Sacrament, it is 
commonly called " The Lord's Supper;" which word, though 
with oi it import nothing but an ordinary course and time 
of eating, yet in other language it expresseth that, which the 
oCber appellation retains, 'communion' or ' fellowship V 
And lastly, it was called by the ancients, ' Synaxis ^,^ a 
coUection, gatheoing together, or assembling of the faithful, 
namely, into that unity which Christ by his merits pur- 
chased, by his prayer obtained, and by his Spirit wrought 
io them* So great hath ever been the wisdom of God's spi- 
rit, and of his church, which is ruled by it; to impose on 
divine institutions such names, as might express their virtue 
and oar duty. As Adam^s sacrament was called the tree of 
life * ; the Jews^ sacraments ^ the covenant, and the passover; 
and with the Christians >, baptism is called ' regeneration :^ 
— and the Lord's Supper, ' communion f that, by the names, 
we might be put in mind of the power of the things them- 

Thirdly, For the ceremonies and customs, annexed unto 
this Sacrament in the primitive times, — notwithstanding for 
sapersiitious abuses some of them have been abolished, yet 
in their own original use they did signify this uniting and 
knitting quality, which the Sacraments have in it, whereby 
the faithful are made one with Christ by faith, and amongst 
diemselves by love. 

And first. They had a custom of mixing water with the 
wine^ (as there came water and blood out of Christ's side), 

^ V^r^- zti. 26. * Canaf dxi rou nowovy i Communione vescentium. Plut. 

fX tmod* ' li&rofyM 8id ri trwdyttw vp6s rd ty. Dionys, in John 17. • Gen. 

S. 22. STii. 10. < Exod. zii. 17. gTit. tit. 5. 1 Cor. x. 16. ^ Quando 

t Vtno aqua miscctor, Christo populus adunatur. Si vinum tantum quis 
tangois Ctirtsti incipit esse sine nobis ; si verb aqua sit sola, plebs incipit 

line Christo. Cypr, lib. 2. epist. 3. — Uomjptov t^aros koH icpdfiaros. Just. 

Mart, Apol. 2w^'0 fUy olvos r^ {fSori icfpyarai, r^ 8^ drBptiw^, r6 wvtvfio, Clem, 

Alex. fVsd. lib. 2. c. 2.— i#m^o«. de Sacra. I. 5. c. 1. 



which, however it might have a natural reason, because'^ 
the beat of the country, and custom of the southern pan 
where the use was to correct the heat of wine with walai 
yet was it, by the Christians, used not without a mystk| 
and allegorical sense.^to express the mixture (whereof t 
Sacrament is an efi'ectual instrument) of all the people (yi 
have faith to receive it) with ChriBt'a blood: water ^ beiflj 
by the Holy Ghost himself, interpreted for 'people' 
* nations.' 

Secondly. At the receiving of this holy Sacrament, tik 
custom was to kiss one another with a holy kiss ', or a kl| 
of love, as a testification of mutual dearness; it proceednf 
from the exiliency of the spirits'", and readiness of nata 
to meet and unite itself unto the thing beloved. For Ion 
nothing else but a delightful affection arising from an | 
tractive power in the goodness of some excellent obje) 
unto which it endeavoureth to cleave and lu unite i 
And therefore it «aa an argument of hellish hypocrisy 4 
Judas, and an imitation of his father the Devil (who tra 
formeth himself into an angel of light, for the enlargemn 
of his kingdom), to use this holy symbol of love for the | 
struiuent of a hatred : so much the more devilish than a 
by how much the object of it was the more divine. 

Thirdly, After the celebration of the divine mysteries. 
Christians, to testify their mutual love to each other, 
eat in common together. Which feasts, from that whj^ 
they did signify (as the use of God and his church, ii 
proportion names and things), were called ' love-feasts ", 
testify unto the very heathen", how dearly they were kd 

Fourthly, After receiving of these holy mysteries, thO) 
were extraordinary oblations and collections p for refreshsi 
Christ's poor members; who, either for his name, or um" 
his hand, did suffer with patience the calamities of this p 

iSluik. Aniiq.Conviv. lib,3. c. II. ' Bev. ivii. 15. 1 'AXXifhiiui ^rfp 
iinra^iiueti, tic. Juslin. Min. Apol. 2. m Scalig. ie Subl. ExerciC.. 

Pol. 1.2, c. 4. D AcDii.26. 2Pel. ii. 13. Jude v. 12. Cceni i 

mine nlionem lui iMlendil, Tn-I. Apol. cap. 39. Vide £iu<-Ar. Antiq. CoDviv.|^ 
C. 3.1. • Vide (inquiunt) ui invieera diligunt ! Ttivi. el 

r Ol €t(iro/»ii(T*t Hal Boatiiiurai, Kari irpoaljHOu' InarrrH Ti|if JiufioS t BotXM 
SlSam, Kol Ti i!ii>Aiy6li'"" ""pJ t* wpofOriT. di-nrlStroi, Ml «i 
if^tii Tt (ol xipau, &c. Jtut. Marl. Apolag. 3. 


sent life, expecting the glory which should be revealed uuio 
them. Those did they make the treosureA of the church, — 
tbeir bowels, the hordes and repositories of their piety'; 
and such as were orphans, or widows, or aijed, or sick, or 
in bonds, condemned to mine<>pits, or to the inlands, or de- 
tolate places, or dark dungeons (the usual punishments in 
those times), with all these were they not ashamed i.i tiji^ 
holy work to acknowledge a unity of condition, a fellowship 
and equality in the spiritual privileges of the bjuie He;id. .i 
mutual relation of fellow-members in the same common 
body; nolo which, if any had greater right than other, they 
certainly were the men, who were conformed unto their 
Head in sufiering, and did go to their kingdom through the 
lame path of blood, which he had before besprinkled for 

Lastly, It was the custom, in any solemn testimonial of 
peace % to receive and exhibit this holy Sacrament, as the 
seal and earnest of that union, which the partief*, whom it 
did concern, had between themselves. Such had ever been 
the care of the holy church ' in all the customs and ceremo- 
nial accessions, whether of decency or charity, which have 
been by it appointed in this holy Sacrament, — That by them 
and in them all, the concinnation of the body of Christ, the 
fellowship, sympathy, and unity of his members, might be 
both signified and professed: — That as we have all but one 
ncrament, which is the food of life, — so we should have but 
one sonl, which is the Spirit of life ; and from thence but 
one heart, and ot:e mind, thinking, and loving, and pursu- 
ing all the same things, through the same way, by the same 
role, to the same end. And for this n ason, amongst other^^, 
I take it, it is that our church doih require, in the receiving 
of these mysteries, a uniformity inull her members, even in 
matters that are of themselves indifferent, — that, in the sa- 
crament of unity, there might not appear any breach or 
schism ; but that as at all times, .so much more then, we 

% Depr«iti Pietfttis : Vide Ttrt. Apol. c. 3*). r Vide Stuck, An. Con v. 

lib. 1. cap. 3. * Acts iv. 32.^— Phil. i. 27. — Ununi suuuin habcmut : quifc 

aoQ ia uno oviii sumiu? Aitgiut. Tom. 7. Serm. id Plcb. C^cwneuscro. — *\Lrn ft* 
if rota^rn 6f»^POta iv rdtt hmauc^ar alrroi ya^p «cU iavreit Cftovaoiai iral aAAi(AMt. 
Arut. Echic. I. V. c. 6. edit. Zell, vol. l- p. 407. — Vide fa«. »lc hjc re St'n < Ai.tiq. 
Conv. 1. 1. c 3. 

VOlw HI. i* 


should all thinky and speak, and do the same things, lest 
the manner shoald oppose the substance of the celebration. 

Lastly, If we consider the very act of eating and drjnkingp 
even therein is expressed the fellowship and the union of the 
faithful to each other : for even, by nature, are men direct* 
ed to express their affections or reconcilements to others in 
feasts and invitations, where even public enemies^ have con* 
descended to terms of fairness and plausibility. For which 
cause it is noted for one of the acts of tyrants, whereby to 
dissociate the minds of their subjects, and so to break them 
when they are asunder, whom all together they could not 
bend, to interdict invitations and mutual hospitalities, 
whereby the body politic is as well preserved as the natural, 
and the love of men as much nourished as their bodies. And 
therefore where Joseph " did love most, there was the mesa 
doubled ; and the national hatred between the Jews and 
Egyptians, springing from the diversity of religions (whose 
work it is to knif" and fasten the affections of men), was no 
way better expressed, than by their mutual abominating the 
tables of each other ^, So that, in all these circumstances, 
we find how the union of the faithful unto each other, is, 
in this holy Sacrament, both signified and confirmed ; where- 
by (however they may, in regard of temporal relations, stand 
at great distance, even as great as is between the palace and 
the prison) yet in Christ, they are all fellow-members of the 
same common body, and fellow-heirs of the same common 
kingdom, and spiritual stones of the same common church, 
which is a name of unity and peace '. 

They have 'one Father %' who deriveth on them an equal 
nobility ; ' one Lord,' who equally governeth them ; ' one 
Spirit,' who equally quickeneth them ; * one baptism,' which 
equally regenerateth them ; ' one faith,'* which equally war- 
rants their inheritance to them ; and lastly, one sinew and 
bond of love, which equally interesteth them in the joys and 
griefs of each other : so that, as in all other, so principally 

* Scipio et Aidrubal apud Scyphacem. Uv, 1. 20w— i^rul. Polit. lib. 5.cmp. 11. 
f-Vid. Bonm. An. 100. Nam. 8. > Geo. zliii. 34. « Rcligio ^ itKgindo, 

Cieero, J Gen. zlitt. 32. *Eac€M(AA«r r^r ^rofuOdw rmv d^m^rm^, wSmg 

ftUm hn8r4xXM vptawfp^' Ckrys, in Rom. Horn. 1. 2. < T6 Tift intkuHma 
"voftmo^ jfrnfttrfttS, dXA* imiemtf «a2 ffvftftMms Im^ao. CHry3. in 1 Cor. Horn. I. 
• Ephet. IT. 5, 6. 


in this dtFiiie friendship of Chrisfs churoh« there is an 
equality and uniformity \ be the outward distancee how great 

Another principal end or effect of this holy supper, is to 
signify ahd obsignate, unto the soul of eacli believer, his per* 
sonal claim and title unto the new covenant of grace. We 
ire in a atate of corruption. Sin, though it have received by 
Christ a wound, of which it cannot recover ; yet as beasts^ 
coounonly in the pangs of death, use most violently to strug* 
gle, and often to fasten their teeth more eagerly and fiercely 
where they light; so sin here, that 'body of death "^Z that 
bcaiegiiig % encompassing evil, — that Canaanite ^ that lieth in 
OUT members, being continually heartened by our arch-enemy 
Satan, however subdued by Israel, doth yet never cease to 
goad and prick us in the eyes, that we might not look up to 
onr futu^ possession, — is ever raising up steams of corruption 
to intercept the lustre of that glory which we expect, — is 
ever suggesting unto the believer, matter of diffidence and 
anxiety, that his hopes hitherto have been ungrounded, his 
fiutb presumptuous, his claim to Christ deceitful, his pro- 
priety uncertain, if not quite desperate ; till at last the faith-* 
ftl aoal lies gasping and panting for breath under the buffets 
of this messenger of Satan. And for this cause it hath 
|deased our good God (who hath promised never to fails 
nor forsake us), that we might not be swallowed up with 
grief, to renew often our right, and exhibit with his own 
hands ^ (for what is done by his officers is by him done) that 
BBcred body, with the efficacy of it, unto us, that we might 
fi>ffe-«njoy the promised inheritance, and put, not into our 
chests or coffers, which may haply by casualties mis- 
carry, but into our very bowels, into our substance and 
aoul, the pledges of our salvation; that we might, at 
this spiritual altar, see Christ (as it were) crucified be- 
foie our eyes \ cling unto his cross ^, and grasp it in 
oar arms, suck in his blood, and with it salvation; put 

^Adywrm ^lA^nft i) IffAnis, Eth. lib. 8. c.5. & 8. c Maxtmf mortiferi 

tmt iolent monus moricnthim bestiarum. FLor. 1. 2. cap. 15. ^ Rom. vii. 24. 
• Hcb. «ii. 1. ' Josh, xriii. 13. « Heb. xiii. 6. ^ Km^ yip koL 

-j^ - oMf Uirtw 4 w4rra ipjmgSfifvos KtA mfoSiSodr Mrvcp col rSn. 
Chy§, to 1. Cor. Horn. 27. * Gml. Hi. 1. ^ Cruci heremus, sanguinem 

et ioicr ipsa Rcdcmptoii^ nostri TttlneTa figimus Ungoam, Ac Cypnam, 


G 2 


in our hands, with Thomas, not out of diffidence, but out of 
faithy into his side, and fasten our tongues in his sacred 
wounds ; that being all over died with his blood, we may use 
boldness, and approach to the throne of grace, lifting up 
unto Heaven, in faith and confidence of acceptance, those 
eyes and hands which have seen and handled him, — opening 
wide that mouth which hath received him, and crying aloud 
with that tongue which, having tasted the bread of life, hath 
from thence both strength and arguments for prayer to move 
God for mercy. This then is a singular benefit of this Sa- 
crament, the often repetitioli and celebration whereof, is (as 
it were) the renewing, or rather the confirming with more 
and more seals our patent of life ; that by so many things, 
in the smallest whereof it is impossible for God to lie *, we 
might have strong consolation, who have our refuge to lay 
hold on him^ who in these holy mysteries is set before us : 
for the Sacrament is not only a sign to represent ^, but a 
seal to exhibit that which it represents, in the sign we see, 
in the seal we receive, him; in the sign we have the image, 
in the seal the benefit, of Christ's body : for the nature of a 
sign is to discover ai.d represent that which in itself is ob- 
scure or absent, as words are called signs and symbols 
of our invisible thoughts: but the property of a seal'' is to 
ratify and to establish that which might otherwise be ill- 
effectual : for which cause, some have called the Sacrament 
by the name of 'a ring,' which men use in sealing those 
writings, unto which they annex their trust and credit ''. And 
as the Sacrament is a sign and seal from God to us, repre- 
senting and exhibiting his benefits, so should it be a sign and 
seal from us to God ; a sign to separate us from sinners**, a 
seal to oblige us to all performances of faith and thankful- 
ness on our part required. 

Another end and effect of this holy Sacrament was, to 
abrogate the passover, and testify the alteration of those 
former types, which were not the commemorations, but the 
predictions of Christ's passion. And for this cause our 

' Hcb. vi. 18. n* Gen. ztu. 11. Rom. iv. 11. Ezod. xii. 13. Aug.dt Doctr. 

ChriiC. I. 2. c. 1. B SiyitMi icol o^ftio\a rw ^aBinUrtw. ArisL de Interp. 

eap* 1. . o Plus annulii noitrit quJUn animis credicur. Seneca, P KoOihrvf 

\flkur6i^ ram hnTt0§it, otrm r6 OJifuiov riis vepnoiivs IScmcc , ^orc ^ rocf 

hf^ai ffvwm^dypvadm, Chry^. m Gen. Hpm. 39. 


blessed Savioar did celebrate both those suppers at the same 
time (but the new supper after the other« and in the evening, 
whereby was fiv;ured the fulness of time'^); that thereby the 
presence of the substance mi^ht evacuate the shadow ; even 
ts the sun doth ', with his lustre, take away all those lesser 
and substitoted lights, which were used for no other purpose 
hot to supply the defect which there was of him. The pass- 
over, bowerer, in the nature of a sacrifice, it did prefi(;ure 
Christ ; yet in the nature of a solemnity and annual comme^ 
moratioD« it did immediately respect the temporal deliver- 
ance of that people out of Egypt, by the sprinkling of their 
doors with blood, which was itself but a shadow of our free- 
dom from Satan. So that their Sacrament was but the type 
of a type, and therefore must needs have so much tlie weaker 
and more obscure reference unto Christ : even as those 
draug!its do less resemble the face of a man, which are taken 
from a former piece ; or that light the briglitness of its ori* 
ginal% which shines weakly through a second or third re- 
flection. Besides this small light which shined from the 
passover on the people of the Jews, and by which they were 
something, though darkly, enabled to behold Christ,— was 
but like the light in a house or family, which could not shine 
beyond the narrow compass of that small people : and there- 
fore it was to be eaten in such a family*;— to signify, as 1 
conceive, that the church was then but as a handful or house- 
bold, in respect of that fulness of the Gentiles, which was to 
follow. Now then, the church being to enlarge its borders, 
and to be co-extended with the world, it stood in need of a 
greater light, even that Son of righteousness, who waK now to 
be as well the light to lighten the Gentiles ", as he Imd been 
formerly the glory of his people Israel. And therefore we 
may observe, that this second Sacrament was not to be 
eaten in a private separated family, but the church was to 
come together, and to stay one for another ', tliat, in the 
confluence of the people, and the publicness of the action, 
the increase and amplitude of the church might be ex- 

n IL^ea i r^irot nfy iXi^tor ^viri^iftri. Chry$. in MiC. Horn. 81. 'H W 
wnipm roO vktipdtunot rm^ nmfmv mfi^ptow, /^. ' R^c h»c nttun ^idc* 

nba», Dt pftrv« «t ezilia validiorum eioitu« obtcurct: Plin. Pancg. xix. 1. 

* Cum veluc k tpeculo in speculum trtlucct imagn. Lucre/. ^ Kxud. zii. 46. 

• Ltiht ii. 32. > 1 Cor. li. 33. 

86 milditations on the 

pressed. Besides, the Oentiles were uninterested in that 
temporal deliverance of the Jews from Pharaoh, it being a 
particular and national benefit ; and therefore the comme- 
moration thereof in the paschal lamb, could not, by them, — 
who, in the loins of their ancestors, had not been there de- 
livered, — be, literally and with reflection on themselves, cele- 
brated. Requisite therefore in this respect also it was, inas- 
much as the partition-wall ' was broken down, and both Jew 
and Gentile were incorporated into one head, — that national 
and particular relations ceasing, such a Sacrament might b^ 
re-instituted ; wherein the universal restoring of all mankind 
might be represented '. And certainly for a man, at mid- 
day, to shut his windows from the communion of the general 
light, and to use only private lamps of his own, as it is to- 
wards men madness, so it is impiety and schism in religion. 
There is, between the gospel and the legal ceremonies (as 
I observed) the same proportion of difference, as is between 
household tapers and the common sunshine ; — as in regard 
of the amplitude of their light, and of the extent of their 
light, so in the duration of it likewise. For as lamps, within 
a small time, do of themselves eicpire and perish, whereas 
the light of the sun doth never waste itself; even so Jewish 
rites were by God's institution perishable and temporary*, 
during that infancy of the church, wherein it was not able to 
look on a brighter object^: but when, in the fulness of time^ 
the church was grown unto a firmer sense, then, in the death 
of Christ, did those types likewise die, and were, together 
with the sins of the world, cancelled upon the cross ^. 
Amongst the Persians "^j it was a solemn observation to nuU 
lify, for a time, the force of their laws, and to extinguish 
those fires, which they were wont idolatrously to adore, upon 
the death of their king, as if by him both their policy and 
religion had been animated: even so, at the death of our 
blessed Saviour, were all those legal ordinances, those holy 
fires, which were wont to send up the sweet savour of in- 
cense, and sacrifices unto Heaven, abolished. He (who be- 
fore had substituted them in his room, and by an effectual 

J Ephes. ii. 14. > Hot. i. 10, 11. • Vide Aug, Epitt. S. ad MircellU 

nam, et Epitt. 19. ad Hieron. cap. 2. et Tert. cont. Judc. oap. 2. et 6. ct dc Mono- 
gam, cap. 7. et de Orat. c. 1 . ^ Gal. 1?. 3. ' Ephet. ii. 15, 16. ' Vide 
Britson, dc Reb. Pen. 1. 1. p. 27. 


ioSMoee from bimtelf iii«d« them tempoimry intlnoDento 
of AbI propitiatiop, which it wms impotsible for them % in 
thar own natureSy to have effected) being himeelf come to 
fimih thmt work which wme by them only foro-ehadowed, but 
not begoo, mnch less accomplished. 


TV Uui end of this holy Sacrament ; nameljfy the celebration 
ami memory of Ckrnft death. A brief collection of all the 
ben^U which are, by his deaths conveyed on the Church. 
The qmetiion touching the quality of temporal punithmentSf 

Thb last and moet ezpreae end of this holy Sacrament, ie, 
to celebrate the memory of Christ's death and passion ', 
which was that invaluable price of our double redemption ; 
redemption from hell, and redemption unto glory. Great de* 
fiverances, as they have moved the church unto annirersary 
celebntioos of them*, which Christ himself hath been 
pletsfd to honour with his own presence ; so have they 
drawn even heathen men ^ also, not only to solemniie the 
festiTals, and deify the memories of those, unto whose inven* 
tions they owed the good things which they enjoy, but fur* 
ther to honour even brute creatures themselves * with solemn 
trimnpha and memorials. Nay, beasts ^ have not been for^ 
getful of those, unto whom they owe any way tlieir life and 
safety : how much more then doth it become Christians to 
celebrate, with an eternal memory the Author of their re- 
demption : a work beyond all that ever the sun saw ; yeo, a 
work, whose lustre darkened the sun itself, and which the an- 
geli cannot comprehend f Matters circumstantial, as time 
and place ; and matters typical and representative, as cere- 
oionies, sacrifices, and sacraments ; as they receive their par* 
advancement and sanctification from those works 

• iirb.x.4. 'ICof.zi. fEtth.ix. 17. ^ i Mac. hr. &5, 5S. John 

X. 22^~^Cypr. de IdoL Vanit. — Min. Pel. in Octmv. — CUm, Alex, in ProircpCioo. 
A Anscres qoocannU apod Romano* tplcndida in Icctica scdcbanc, quod in obti- 
CapitoUi ezcitissent. Vid. Rosim. Antiq. Rom. lib. 4. cap. 17. ^ Lto, 

Aul. Cell. lib. 5. cap. 14. 

88 wjljuitations on the 

which they immediately respect; so are they not by us to 
be solemnly celebrated without continual memories of those 
works which do so dignify them. All places, naturally being 
but several parcels of the same common air and earth, are 
of an equal worth. But when it pleaseth God in any place 
to bestow a more special ray of his presence \ and to sanc- 
tify any temple unto his own service^ as it is then, by that 
extraordinary presence of his^ made a holy and consecrated 
place ; so are we, when we enter into it, to look unto our 
feet "*, to pull off our shoes ", to have an eye unto him that 
filleth it with his presence ; or otherwise if we enter into it, 
as into a common place, we shall offer nothing but the sacri- 
fice of fools. All times are naturally equal, as being distin- 
guished by the same constant and uniform motion of the 
heavens : yet notwithstanding, when God shall, by any no- 
table and extraordinary work of his, honour and sanctify 
some certain days, as he did the Jewish sabbath with respect 
to the creation, and our Lord's day, by raising up Christ 
from the dead ; as they are, by this wonderful work of his, 
severed from the rank of common times ; — so are we, ever 
when we come unto them, not to pass them over without 
the memory ° of that work which had so advanced them: 
otherwise to solemnize a day, without reference unto the 
cause of its solemnization, is but a blind observance. And 
for this cause, when God commands reverence to places, and 
sanctification of days, — he annexeth the ground of both, and 
leads us to a sight of those works, from which they receive 
both their dignity and institution. So likewise in Sacra- 
ments, to eat bread and drink wine are naked, common, 
simple actions, and in themselves always alike : but when 
Christ shall, by that great work of his death, set them apart 
unto a holy use, and make them representations of his own 
sacred body, — as they are by this divine relation hallowed, so 
to partake of them, without commemorating that great work 
which hath so sanctified them, is not only impious, in that it 
perverteth the divine institution, but absurd likewise ; it 
being all one, as if a man should, with much ceremony and 
solemnity, receive parchment and wax, never so much as 
thinking on the land it conveys ; or look on a picture, with- 

1 Ex<h1. xi. 34. 1 Kings viii. 1 1. "» Ecclcs. if. 17. ■ Exc.d. iii. 4. 

^ Els dydfAytiffiv rov waOovs. Just. Mart, Dialog. 


out toy reflection on the ptitern and originiil which it re- 
senibletb,-<^ which is indeed to look on the Hood, and not on 
tfce picture ; it being naturally imposnilile to separate thingi 
in notion, whose being do consist in relulion to each other. 
So then, the Sacrament being a typical service, is not, nor 
can be, celebrated without a remembrance of the substance 
which it resembleth : which thing, according as the pre* 
cioQsoess* value, and importance of jt doth proportionably 
impose on us a greater necessity of this duty ; which is then 
rightly performed, when there is a deep impression ofChristt 
crucified made on the soul, by these seals of his death ; than 
which there is not any thing in the world more fit to fasten a 
stamp of itself in the minds of men. 

Permanent and firm impressions do use to be made in the 
minds of men by such causes as these : — 

First, If the object be wonderful ^ and beyon<i the com- 
mon course of things, it doth then »truns;ely nti'tct the 
thoughts; whereas obvious and ordinary things pass through 
the soul, as common people do through the streets, without 
any notice at all. And this is the reason uhy naturally men 
remember those things best, which either tltey did in their 
childhood**, because then every thiiii; brings with it the 
shape of novelty, and novelty is the mother of admiration ; 
or those things which do very rarely fall out, which how- 
soever they may be in their causes natural, yet, with the 
greater part of men, who use to make their observations ra- 
ther on the events, than on the originals of things, they pass 
for wonders. Now what greater wonder hath ever entered 
into the thoughts of men, even of those who have spent 
their time and conceits in amplifying nature witli creatures 
of their own fancying tlian this, — That the God of all the 
world, without derivation fnioi whose life, ull the creatures 
must moulder into their first nothing,— should himself die, 
and expire, the frame of Nature still subsisting ? That he 
who fiileth all things with his presence, should be stretched 
oot upon a piece of wood, and confined nithin a narrow 

p Aug. deGcn. ad liter. 1. 12. cap. 11. Amant hominet incxpcru iiiirari»ac. 
Ea quae sob oculit po«iu sunt, ncglij^imut : quia leu naiura coniparatum ita, ut 
prasimorum tncunofci, longinqua sccteniur ; teu quo<l omnium reiuro cupulo 
laikgnescif, cum facilis uccasio est. Pirn. lib. 8. cpist. 20. Magnitudincm rerum 
CMisoctudo subducit : bol spcctatorcm, niti cum drftcii, non habct ; ncnio obtcf • 
tat latum, nisi Ubcfuntcm. Stntc. Nat q. I. 7. c. 1. <l Jn»t, l^lii. 1. 2. 


stoae ? He who upholdeth all things by his power, should 
be himself kept under by that which is nothing, by death ? 
Certainly, that at which the world stood auiazed,-*that 
which against the course of nature brought darkness on the 
fountain of light, which could no longer shine, when hia 
glory, who derived lustre on it^ was itself eclipsed ;— =-that 
which made the earth to tremble under the burden of so 
bloody a sin ; — that which the angels stoop and look into 
with humble astonishment and adoration ; — that which con- 
sisteth of so great a combination and confluence of won- 
ders; — must needs make a deep impression on the soul, 
though hard as marble, at which the stones themselves of 
the temple did rend asunder. 

Secondly, Those things use to make impressions on the 
understanding, which do move and excite any strong pas- 
sion of the mind ; there being ever a most near activity and 
intimate reference between passion and reason, by means of 
that natural affinity and subordination which is between 
them. Observe it in one passion of love, how it removes 
the mind from all other objects, firmly fixing it on one 
thing which it most respecteth. For as knowledge makes the 
object to be loved, so love makes us desire to know more of 
the object^. The reason whereof is that inseparable union 
which nature hath fixed in all things between the truth and 
good of them ; either of which, working on the proper fa- 
culty to which it belongeth, provokes it to set the other fa- 
culty on work, either by distinction, as from the understand- 
ing to the passion, — or by insinuation, as from the passion 
to the understanding ; — even as fire doth not heat without 
light, nor enlighten without heat. Where the treasure is, 
the earth cannot be absent ; where the body is, the eagles 
must resort. If I know a thing to be good, I must love it ; 
and where I love the goodness of it, I cannot but desire to 
know it ; all divine objects being as essentially good as they 
are true, and the knowledge and love of them being as na- 
turally linked, as the nerve is to the part which it moveth, 
or as the beam is to the heat and influence by which it 
worketh ^. Now what object is there can more deserve our 
love, than the death of Christ? Certainly if it be natural 

n Noo pattor inc quicquam ncscire de eo quern anem. Plm, EpuU ' Dr. 

JafksoHp of Faith, sect. 1. cap. 8. sect. 8. 


for men to loYe where they have been loved before * ; and if 
in that case it be 6t, that the quantity of the former love 
•honld be the rule and measure of the latter ; how can it be, 
that oar love to him should not exceed all other love, even 
as he JQBtly requireth ? — ** since greater love than this hath 
not been seen, that a man should neglect the love of him- 
self, and lay down his life for his enemies \** And if we love 
Christ, that will naturally lead us to remember him too; 
who as he is the life, and so the object of our love, so he is 
the tmth likewise °, and so the object of our knowledge. 
And therefore the same apostle, who did rejoice in nothing 
bat Christ crucitied ' (and joy is nothing else but love per- 
fected, for they differ only as the same water in the pipe, 
and in the fountain), did likewise, notwithstanding his emi- 
nency in all pharisaical learning, desire to know nothing but 
JesQS Christ, and him crucified ^ Such a dominion hath 
love on the mind, to make permanent and firm impressions. 

Lastly, Those things work strongly upon the memory^ 
which do mainly concern and are beneficial to man. There 
is no man, not dispossessed of reason, who in sickness doth 
forget the physician ; neither did ever any man hear of any 
one starved, because he did not remember to eat his meat. 
Beasts * indeed I have heard of (but those very strange ones 
too) which, upon turning aside from their meat, have for* 
gotten the presence of it . but never were any so forsaken 
by nature, as to forget the desire and enquiry after what they 
wmnted. And the reason is, because wheresoever Nature 
hath left a capacity of receiving further perfection from 
some other thing, there she hath imprinted an appetite to 
that thing : and there is such a sympathy between the fa- 
culties of nature, that the indigence of one sets all the rest 
on motion to supply it. Now what thing was there ever 
more beneficial unto mankind than tlie death of Christ ? In 
comparison whereof, all other- things are as dross and dung. 
The name% and fruit, and hope of a Christian, would be all 
hot shadows, if Christ had not died. By his humility, are 
we exalted ; by his curse, are we blessed ; by his bondage. 

• TWs wvooiK^af f0 fOiov^i, Arist, Rh«i. lib. 2. < 1 John xit. 19. Rom. 

▼. 7, S. « John XT. 13. ' Gal. f i. 12. 1 1 Cor. H. 2. > Sen^t, 

de BcacC * Tocum ChrittUni nomioit et poodus ct Iructut, Mon 

TtTtnU coat. Marc. 1. 3. c. b. 


are we. made free; by his stripes^ are we healed: we, who 
were vessels of dishonour^ had all our miseries emptied into 
hiai, in whom dwelled the fulness of the Godhead. What- 
soever evils he suffered ^ ours was the propriety to them, 
but the pain was his: all that ignominy and agony^ which 
was unworthy so honourable a person as Christ, was neces- 
sary for so vile a sinner as man. 

Infinite it is, and indeed impossible, to take a full view of 
all the benefits of Christ's death. Yet because the remem- 
brance of Cbrist'^s death here, is nothing else but a recorda- 
tion of those invaluable blessings, which by means of it 
were, together witli his holy blood, shed down upon the 
church, I will touch a little upon the principal of them. 

That Christ Jesus is,, unto his church, the author and ori- 
ginal of all spiritual life**, the deliverer • that should come 
out of Sion, that should, set at liberty his people ^ spoil, 
principalities and powers «, lead captivity captive ^ take 
from the strong man all his armour *, and divide the spoils ; 
is a truth so clearly written with a sunbeam, that no Craco- 
vian heretick dare deny it. Let us then see by what means 
he doth all this. And we will not here speak of that work, 
whereby Christ, having formerly purchased the right, doth 
afterwards confer, and actually apply, the benefit and inte- 
rest of that right unto his members, which is the work of his 
quickening Spiril, but only of those means which he used to 
procure tlie right itself; and that was, in general, Chrises 
merit. The whole conversation of Christ on the earth, was 
nothing else but a continued merit, proceeding from a dou- 
ble estate, an estate of ignominy and passion procuring, — and 
an estate of exaltation and hcnour, — applying his benefits. 

The passion of Christ was his death ; whereby I under- 
stand not that last act only of expiration, but the whole 
space between that and his nativity, wherein being subject 
to the law of death, and to all those natural infirmities, 
which were the harbingers of death ^, he might, in that 

b IIU in corpore Christi vulnera non erant Christi Tulnera, scd Utronis. /im- 
bros, Serm. 44. ds Sancto latrone. « Sibi quidcm tndigna, homini autem ne- 

cessaria, et ita jam Deo digna, quia nihil tarn di^num Deo qu^m salus hominis. 
Tert, cont. Marc. 1. 2. c. 27.— Quodcunque Deo indignum est, mihi expedit. Jd. 
dc Carn. Chris, c^p. 5. d John vi. 47. * Rom. xi. 26. ' John viii. 36; 

Gal. ii. 4. f Col. ii. 15. h Ephes. iv. 8. 1 Luke xi. 22. ^ £suricnt 

lub diabolo, siticns sub Samaritide, &c. TrrL 


whole space, be as truly called, ' a man of ileatli/ as Adam 
was a dead man* in the virtue of the curse that very day, 
beyond which notwithstanding he lived many hundred years, 
that which we call death, being nothing else but the con- 
sammation of it '". 

The estate of exaltation is the resurrection of Christ ; 
whereby the efficacy of that merit which was on the cross 
consummated, is publicly declared ; and his intercession 
wherein it is proposed and presented unto God the Father, 
aa an eternal price and prayer in the behalf of his church. 
Now the benehts, which by this merit of Christ^b we receive, 
are of several kinds. Some are privative, consisting in an 
immantty from all those evils which we were formerly sub- 
ject unto, whether of sin or punishment. Others are posi* 
live, including in them a right** and interest unto all the pre- 
rogatives of the sons of God. The one is called an 'expi- 
ation, salii^faction, redemption, or deliverance :' the other, 
* a purchase, and free donation of some excellent blessing.** 
Redemption, thus distinguished, is either a redemption of 
grace, from the bondage and tyranny of sin ; or a redemp- 
tion of glory, from the bondage of corruption : and both 
these have their parts and latitudes. 

For the first. In sin we may consider three things : the 
state or nuiss of sin; the guilt or damnableness of sin ; and 
the corruption, stain, or deformity of sin. 

The state of sin is a state of deadness% or immobility in 
nature, towards any good. The understanding is dead and 
disabled for any spiritual perception ; the will is dead and 
disabled for any holy propension ; the affections are dead 
and disabled for any pursuit ; the body dead and disabled 
for any obedient ministry ; and the whole man dead, and 
by consequence disabled for any sense of its own death. 
And as it is a state of death ^ so it is a state of enmity too : 
and therefore in this state, we are the objects of Ood^s ha- 
tred and detestation. So then, the first part of our deli- 
Termnce respects us, as we are in this state of death and 
enmity: and it is (as I said before) a double deliverance ; 
negative, by removing us out of this estate ; and positive, 

1 Vide ZtawuM de Imms. ^i *° Homine, c. 8. irt. 2. <" Se7%ec, Epitt. 

> '£e«id«r, Jobo i. 1 X •*Bphcs. ti. 1 . 


by constituting us in another, which is an estate of life and 

First, The understanding is delivered from the bondage 
of ignorance, vanity, worldly wisdom, mispersuasions, car- 
nal principles, and the like; and is (after removal of this 
darkness and veil) opened, to see and acknowledge both its 
own darkness, and the evidence of that light which shibes 
upon it. Our wills and affections are delivered from that 
disability *! of embracing or pursuing of divine objects^ and 
from that love of darkness and prosecution of evil which is 
naturally in them**; and after this are wrought unto a sorrow 
and sense of their former estate, to a desire and love of sal- 
vation, and of the means thereof, with a resolution to make 
use of them. And the whole man is delivered, from the 
estate of death and enmity ', unto an estate of life and re- 
conciliation, by being adopted for the sons of God. Of 
these deliverances, Christ is the author, who worketh them 
(as I observed) by a double casualty : the one, that where- 
by he meriteth them ; the other, that whereby he conveyeth 
and transfuseth that which he had merited. This conveying 
cause is our vocation ^ wrought by the Spirit of Christ ef- 
fectively, by the Word of life and gospel of regeneration in- 
strumentally; by means of both which (this latter as the seed, 
that other as the foimative virtue that doth vegetate and 
quicken the seed) are we, from dead men, ingrafted into 
Christ, — and, of enemies, made sons and co-heirs with Christ 
But the meritorious cause of all this, was, that price which 
Christ laid down, whereby he did ransom us from the estate 
of death, and purchase for us the adoption of sons. For 
every ransom and purchase (which are the two acts of our 
redemption) are procured by the laying down of some price, 
valuable to the thing ransomed and purchased ". Now this 
price was the precious blood of Christ; and the laying down 
or payment of this blood, was the pouring it out of his 
sacred body, and the exhibiting of it unto his Father in a 
passive obedience. And this is to be applied in the other 

q 1 Cor. ii. 14. r Gen. ▼!. 5. • 2 Cor. iti. 5. 1 Pet. it. 9. 2 Cor. 

iii. 15, 16. Acts. xxvi. 18. t 2 Cor. Hi. 8. 16, 17. Rom. x. 8. James i. 18. 

3 Thes. ii. 14. I Pet. i. 23. « 1 Cor. vi. 20. 


The second consideration then of sin, was, the guilt of it ; 
which is, the binding orer unto some punishment, pre- 
scribed in the law. So we have here a double deliverance, 
from the guilt of sin, and from the bondage of the law. 

First, For sin, though it leave still a stain in the soul, 
yet the sting of it is quite removed : though we are not per* 
fedly cleansed from the soil, yet are we soundly healed from 
the mortalness and bruises of it. 

Then for the law, we are first freed from the curse of thi» 
law *: it is not unto us a killing letter, nor a word of death, 
iiiasmach as it is not that rule according unto which we ex* 
pect life. 

Secondly, We are freed from the exaction of the law ; 
we are not necessarily bound to the rigorous performance of 
each jot and tittle of it, a performance unto which is ever 
annexed legal justification : but our endeavours, though im- 
perfect, are accepted, — our infinnities, though sundry, are 
forgiven % for his sake, — who was under both these bondages 
of the law for our sakes. And as we are thus delivered from 
the guilt of sin ', so are we further endued with positive 
dignities, interest and propriety to all the righteousness of 
Christ, with which we are clothed as with a garment : claim 
unto all the blessings which the law infers upon due obedi- 
ence performed to it, and the comforts which from either of 
these titles and prerogatives may ensue. And this is 
the second branch of deliverance, conveyed by the act of 
justification, but merited, as the rest, by the death of Jesus 

The third consideration of sin, was the corruption of it ; 
from the which likewise we are by Christ delivered. Sin 
doth not any more rule, nor reign, nor lead captive those 
who are ingrafted into Christ, — though for their patience, 
tnal, and exercise' sake, and that they may still learn to live 
by fiuth, and to prize mercy, the remnants of it do cleave 
fitft unto our nature ; like the sprigs and roots of ivy to a wall 
which will never out, till the wall be broken down and new 
built again. Sin is not like the people of Jericho, utterly 
destroyed ; but rather, like the Oibeonites, it liveth still ; but 
in an estate of bondage, servitude, and decay : and besides 

sGal. iii. 13. 7 Mai. iii. 17. Gal. iv. 4,5. • Rnm. v. sUi. 14. 


this« we are enabled to love the law in our inner man, to de- 
light in it% to pel-form a ready and sincere, though not 
an exact and perfect obedience to it; we are made partakers 
of the Divine nature ; the graces with which Christ was 
anointed, do from him stream down unto his lowest mem- 
bers, which of his fulness do all receive ^, and are all re- 
newed after God^s image in righteousness and true holiness^. 
The next part of our redemption was from the bondage of 
corruption, unto the liberty of glory, which likewise is by 
Christ performed for us"*, which is a deliverance from the 
consequents of sin; for sin doth bind over unto punishment, 
even as the perfect obedience of the law would bring a man 
unto glory. Now the punishments due unto sin are either 
temporary or eternal, consisting principally in the oppres- 
sions and distresses of nature. For as sin is the evil of our 
working, so punishment is the evil of our being: and it in- 
cludes not only bodily and spiritual death, but all the in- 
choations and preparatory dispositions^ thereunto ; as in the 
soul, doublings, distractions, tremblings^ and terrors of con- 
science, hardness of heart, fearful expectation of the wrath 
that shall be revealed ; — in the body, sickness, poverty, 
shame, infamy, which are as so many earnests. and petty 
payments of that full debt, which will at last be measured 
out to all the wicked of the world. Even as amongst the 
Romans ^ their prelusory fights with dull and blunt weapons, 
were but introductions to their mortal and bloody games. 
And besides this deliverance, there is in the soul peace and 
serenity, — in the body «, a patient waiting for redemption, — 
and, in the whole man, the pledges of that eternal glory 
which shall be revealed ; of all which, the only meritorious 
cause is the death of Christ *". This alone is it which hath 
overcome our death, even as one heat cureth, one flux of 
blood stoppeth, another, — and hath caught Satan, as it were, 
by deceit, with a bait and a hook. This is it which hath 
taken away the enmity between God and man, reconciling 
us to the Father*, and by the prayer of that precious blood, 
hath obtained for us the right of children. This is it which 

• Rom. vii. 22. % ^ John i. 16. c Ephes. iv. 24. ^ Rocn. riii. 

• Zeaman de Imag. Dei in Homine, cap. 8. f Lips. Saturn. S Rom. v. and viii. 
*» Aug, dc Doclr. Christ. 1. I. c. 14. — Tert. conu Gnost. cap. b.^-^Cypr. in Symb. 
i Ephes. ii. 16, 19. 


todk away the guilt of sin» and cancelled the bond that was 
ia force against us ^, swallowing up the curse of the law, and 
inmbling Christ unto the form of a servant, that thereby we 
might be made firee^ This is it which removeth, both tempo- 
ral and eternal punishment, from the faithful, it having been 
« perfect payment of our whole debt ; for inasmuch as Christ 
himself said on the cross^ *' It is finished,'' we are to con- 
clude, that the other work of resurrection was not properly 
an essential part of Christ'^s merit, but only a necessary con- 
aequent required to make the passion applicable and valu- 
aUe to the church. As, in coined metals, it is the substance 
of the coin, the gold or silver only, that buyeth the ware, 
bol the impression of the King's image is that, which makes 
that coin to be current and passable ; it doth not give the 
▼aloe or worth to the gold, but only the application of that 
Tahie unto other things ;— even so the resurrection and inter- 
oesaion of Christ do serve to make actual applications of 
those merits of his to his church, which yet had their con- 
summation on the cross. 

And if it be here demanded, how it comes to pass, that, if 
all these consequents of sin be removed, the faithful are still 
subject to all those temporal evils both in life and death, 
which, even in the state of nature, they should have under- 
gone, — we answer in general. That the faithful die in regard 
of the state, but not in regard of the sting of death ; they 
are subject to a dissolution, but it is to obtain a more blessed 
union, even ** to be with Christ "".'^ And though a man may 
not take the whole world in exchange for his soul, yet he may 
well take Christ in exchange for his life. It is not a loss of 
oar moQeyy but traffic and merchandise, to part from it, for 
Ae procuring of such commodities as are more valuable ° : 
and St. Paul tells us. That ' to die is gain.' The '' sting," we 
know, ** of death is sin® ;" for sin is the cause of all inward 
discomforts ; for which cause, the wicked are often compared 
to the ' foaming sea p,' which is still tossed and unquiet with 
every vrind ;Jand '* the strength of sin is the law," with the ma- 
lediction and bondage thereof : from the which we being per- 

^CdL ii. 14. Uoha xx. 17. CoL ii. U. Gal. iii. 13. Phil. ii. 7. John 

fii. 3S. 1 John i. 7. ■> Phil. i. 23. > Mercatura est paaea amitteie, 

« m«on hicnrlt. TerL ad Marty r.—Phil. i. 31 . o i Cor. zv. 56. P Psalm 
5. lMi.W.20. Jade V. 13 



fectly delivered, by him who was himself made under the 
law ^, aady by that means, became a perfect and sufficient Sa^ 
viour % — we are, in like manner, delivered from the penalty 
of death : For weaken sin by destroying the law, which is 
the strength of it; and death cannot possibly sting. 

To examine this point, though by way of digression, some^ 
thing further will not be altogether impertinent, because it 
serves to magnify the power of Chrisf s passion. The evils 
which we speak of, are the violations of the nature and per- 
son of a man. And that evil may be considered two ways, 
either physically, as it oppresaeth and burdeneth nature, 
working some violence on the primitive integrity thereof, and 
by consequence imprinting an affection of sorrow in the 
mind, and so it may be called * pain ; ^ or else morally and 
legally, with respect unto the motive cause in the patient, 
sin ; or to the original efficient cause in the agent, justice ; 
and so it may be called *' punishment' Punishment being 
some evil inflicted on a subject for transgressing some law 
commanded him by his law-maker, there is thereunto requi- 
site something on the part of the commander, something on 
the part of the subject, and something on the part of the evil 

In the commander, there must be first a will, unto which 
the actions of the subject must conform ; and that signified 
in the nature of a law. 

Secondly, There must be a justice which will. 

And thirdly, A power, which can punish the transgressors 
of that law. 

In the subject, there must be First, Reason and firee-will (I 
mean originally); for a law, proceeding from justice, pre- 
supposeth a power of obedience : to command imfMssibilities 
is both absurd and tyrannous, befitting Pharaoh, and not 

Secondly, There must be a debt and obligation, whereby 
he is bound unto the fulfilling of that law. 

And lastly. The conditions of this obligation being brc^en, 
there must be a forfeiture, guilt, and demerit, following the 
violation of that law. 

Lastly, In the evil itself inflicted, there is required, First, 
Something absolute, namely, a destructive power, some way 

^ Gal. IT. 4, 5. »Heb. Tii. 25 


or otker c^>iire88ing and disqaieting nature : for as sin is a 
TJoIation offered from man to the law, so punishment must be 
t fiolation retorted from the law to man. 

Secondly, There must be something relative, which may 
mpecty Firati The author of the evil, whose justice, being by 
man's sin provoked^ is, by his own power, and according to 
die sentence of his own law, to be executed. Secondly, It 
may respect the end, for which it is inflicted ; it is not the 
of the creature, whom, as a creature, God loveth, — 
is it the pleasing of the Devil, whom, as a devil, God 
haleftt — bat only the satisfaction of God^s justice, and the 
muifestation of his wrath. 

These things being thus premised, we will again make a 
ioaUe consideration of punishment ; either it may be taken 
improperly and incompletely, for whatsoever oppressive evil 
dodi so draw its original in a reasonable creature from sin, 
as tint, if there were not an habitation of sin, there should 
be no room for such an evil ; as in the man that was bom 
b&ndy diongh sin were not the cause of the blindness, yet 
it was that which made room for the blindness :— Or it may 
be taken properly and perfectly, and then I take it to admit 
of some snch description as this : punishment is an evil or 
piessore of nature, proceeding from a law-giver, just and 
powerful, and inflicted on a reasonable creature for the dis- 
obedience and breach of that law; unto the performance 
whereof it was originally, by the natural faculty of free-will, 
enabbd, whereby there is intended a declaration of wrath, 
sad satisfaction of justice. 

Kow then, I take it, we may, with conformity unto the 
Scfiptiues, and with the analogy of faith, set down these 
eoBclasions : 

First, Consider punishments as they are dolours and pains, 
and as they are impressions contrary to the integrity of na- 
tike temporal evils of the godly are punishments, 
they work the very same manner of natural effects 
in them, which they do in other men. 

Secondly, Take punishments improperly for those evils of 
■atnie, which do occasionally follow sin^ and unto which sin 
bstb originally opened an entrance, which declares how God 
stands dfected towards sin, with a mind purposing the root- 
ing oat and destroying of it : — In this sense likewise may 

H 2 


the afflictions of the godly be called 'punishments/as God 
is said to have been exceeding angry with Aaron *. 

But now these evils, though inflicted on the godly because 
of their sins, as were the death 6f the child to David, the 
tempest to Jonah, and the like ; yet are they not evils in- 
flicted for the revenge of sin (which is yet the right nature 
of a proper punishment ; so saith the Lord, '* Vengeance is 
mine, I will repay it") ; but they are evils, by the wisdom of 
God and love towards his saints, inflicted for the overthrow 
of sin, for weakening the violence, and abating the outrageous- 
ness, of our natural corruptions. As then, in the godly, sin 
may be said to be, and not to be, in a diverse sense ; [so saith 
St. John in one place *, " If we say we have no sin, we de- 
ceive ourselves;*^ and yet in another, '^He that is bom of 
God, sinneth not " :^' it is not in them in regard of its con- 
demnation, although it be in them in regard of its inhabita- 
tion, though even that also is daily dying and crucified :] 
even so punishments, or consequents of sin, may be said to 
be in the godly, or not to be in them, in a diflerent sense. 
They are not in them in regard of their sting and curse, as 
they are proper revenges of sin, although they be in them in 
-regard of their state, substance, and painfulness, until such 
time as they shall put on an eternal triumph over death, the 
last enemy that must be overcome. 

Lastly, I conclude, that the temporal evils which do befall 
the godly, are not formally or properly punishments, nor 
efiects of divine malediction or vengeance towards the per- 
sons of the godly ; who, having obtained in Christ a plenary 
reconciliation with the Father, can be by him respected with 
no other affection (however in manner of appearance it may 
seem otherwise) than with an affection of love and free-grace. 

The reasons for this position are these : 

First, Punishment, with what mitigation soever qualified, 
is ' in suo formali,^ in the nature of it, a thing legal, namely, 
the execution of the law: for Divine law is ever the square 
and rule of that justice, of which punishment is the effect 
and work. Now all those on whom the execution of the law 
doth take any effect, may truly be said to be so far under the 
law, in regard of the sting and curse thereof (for the curse 
of the law is nothing else, but the evil which the law pro- 

* Numb. xii. 9. > I John i. 8. « John iii. 9. 


nooDceth to be inflicted ; so that every branch and sprig of 
tiiat erily mast needs bear in it some part of the nature of a 
curse ; eTen as erery part of water hath in it the nature of 
water) ; but all the godly are wlioUy delivered from all the 
sting and malediction of the law. Christ is unto us *' the 
end of the law ',*" abolishing the shadows of the ceremonial, 
the curses of the moral. " We are no more under the law, 
but under grace ^ f under the precepts, but not under the 
coreoant; under the obedience ', but not under the bondage 
of the law : unto the righteous there is no law, that is, 
'* There is no condemnation to them that are in Christ \'* 
We are dead unto the law by the body of Christ; it hath 
not the least power or dominion over us. 

Secondly, The most proper nature of a punishment is, to 
satisfy an offended justice : but Christ, bearing the iniquity 
of xiB all in bis body on the tree, did therein make a most 
sufficient and ample satisfaction to his Father's wrath, leaving 
nothing wherein we should make up either the measure or the 
▼iriue of his sufferings, but did himself perfectly save us. 
For an infinite person suffering, and the value of the suffer- 
ing depending on the dignity of the person, it must needs 
be, that the satisfaction, made by that suffering, must be 
likewise infinite, and, by consequence, most perfect. 

Lastly, If we consider (as it is in all matters of conse- 
quence necessary ^) but the author of this evil, we shall find 
it to be no true and proper punishment ; for it is a reconciled 
Father % who chasteneth every son whom he receiveth ; who 
as he often doth declare his severest wrath by forbearing to 
punish **, so doth he as often, even out of tenderness and 
compassion % chastise his children ; who hath predestinated 
us unto them '; doth execute his decrees of mercy in them>; 
doth by his providence govern, and by his love sanctify, 
them unto those that suffer them, in none of which things 
are there the prints of punishment. 

> Rom. X. 4. S Rom. ▼!. 14. " Plane et nos %\c dicimui dcoesttssc 

Vtgjttn quoad ooerm, non quoad juititiam. Tert.Ae Monog. c. 7. * 1 Tim. i. 9. 
^ OfDnia rei tntpectio. aoctore cogntto, planior eat. Tert. de fug. in pcrtec. cap. 1. 
* Heb. zii. 6. d Indignantis Dei nujor tuec plaga cat, ut nee tntelligant da- 

beta, oec plangant. Cypr, de Lapsii. * O lervom ilium bcatom, cujus 

emendationi Dominus iostat, cui dignatur irasci. TerL dc Patient, ell. In corri* 
pWndo filk>, quamvis asper^, nunquam frofect6 amor paternut amittiiur. 
>4«g.cp. 5. '1 Thesa. iii. 3. Job. v. 6. I 1 Cor. xi. r.2. 


But if Christ have thus taken away the malignity of all 
temporal punishments, why are they not quite removed? 
To what end should the substance of that remain, whose 
properties are extinguished 7 Certainly, God is so good ^, 
as that he would not permit evil to he, if he were not so 
powerful as to turn it to good. Is there not honey in the 
bee, when the sting is removed ? sweetness in the rose, 
when the prickles are cut off? a medicinable virtue in the 
flesh of vipers, when the poison is cast out ? And can man 
turn serpents into antidotes, and shall not God be able to 
turn the fiery darts of that old serpent into instruments for 
letting out our corruptions ; and all his buffets into so many 
strokes, for the better fastening of those graces in us, which 
were before loose, and ready to fall out ? 

Briefly to conclude this digression, some ends of the re- 
maining death, and other temporal evils (notwithstanding the 
death of Christ have taken away the malignity of them all) 
are, amongst others, these : — 

First, For the trial of our faith ', and other graces. Our 
faith in God*s providence is then greatest^, when we dare 
cast ourselves on his care, even when, to outward appear- 
ances, he seemeth not at all to care for us : when we can so 
look on our miseries, that we can withal look through them. 
Admirable is that faith which can, with Israel, see the land 
of promise through a sea, a persecution, a wilderness, 
through whole armies of the sons of Anak ; which can, with 
Abraham, see a posterity like the stars of Heaven, through a 
dead womb, a bleeding sword, a sacrificed Son ; which, can, 
with Job, see a Redeemer, a resurrection, a restitutiooy 
through the dunghill and the potsherd, through ulcers and 
botches, through the violence of Heaven and of men, through 
the discomforts of friends, the temptations of a wife, and the 
malice of Satan ; which can, with Stephen, see Christ in 
Heaven through a whole tempest and cloud of stones; 
which can, with that poor Syrophcenician woman, see 

^ Deus est adeb bonus, ut non perroitteret malum fieri, si non esset adcb potens, 
ut posset ex malo bonum educere. Aug, in Enchir. ' Heb. xii. 36. Zcch, 

jLiii. 9. Deut. Tiii. 2. 1 Pet. iv. 12.— Conflictatio in adyersis probatio est veritatis. 
Cyj/r. de Mortal, et de Lapsis. ^ Sed quando Deus magts credttur, nisi com 

magis timetur ? Tert,dc fu^ in penec* cap. 1. et vide Apol. cap. ultw — Aug 
epist. 28. ct de Gv. Dei, lib. 10. c. 29. et Chrys* ad Populum Antioch. Horn. 1. 


Cbrift's compassion through the odious name of dog ; which 
cafly in every Egypt, see an Exodus, — in erery Red sea, a 
passage, — in every 6ery furnace, an angel of light, — in 
every den of lions, a lion of Judah,~in every temptation, a 
door of escape, — and in every grave, an *' Arise and sing.^ 

Secondly, They are unto us for antidotes against sin ', and 
Beans of humility and newness of life, by which our faith 
is exercised and excited *", our corruptions pruned, our dis- 
eases cared, oar security and slackness in the race which is 
set before us, corrected ; without which good effects, all our 
afflictions are cast away in vain upon us. He hath lost hia 
affliction'', that hath not learned to endure it. The evils of 
the fiutbful are not to destroy, but to instruct them; they 
lose their end, if they teach them nothing. 

Thirdly, They make us conformable unto Christ's suf- 

Fourthly, They show unto us the perfection of God's 
graces ', and the sufficiency of his love. 

Fifthly, They drive us unto God for succour*', unto his 
Word for information, and unto his Son for better hopes : for 
nothing sooner drives a man out of himself, than that which 
oppresseth and conquereth him. Insomuch, as that public 
ealaoiities drove the heathen themselves to their prayers '« 
and to consult with their Sibyrs Oracles for removing those 
judgements, whose author, though ignorant of, yet under 
iitlae names and idolatrous representations, they laboured, 
as mack as in them lay, to reconcile and propitiate. 

Sixthly, God is in them glorified % in that he spareth not 
his own people ; and yet doth so punish, that be doth withal 
support and amend them. 

Lastly, It prepareth us for glory \ and by these evils con- 

^ Htb. xii. 20. PnL xciv. 12, 13. Sicut tub nno igne aurum rutiUr, palaa fa- 
mat ; m ana eademque vis imiens bonot probac, purificat, eliquat ; malot daiaoat, 
Tmseat, cztenninaL Aug. de Civ. Dd, 1. 1. c. 8. b Jaoentcm fidcm et (panll 

dtxeram) dormientem, censara coelettis erexit. Cypr .—Ezercttia tanr ista, noa 
fanera. Jd, dc Mor. — Sic quotiea ferro vitis abtcinditur, enimpentibus pampinit 
flMliht ava vettitur. /d. de Laud. Mart. — Inaditti in mantclia, ted Celictttr ind- 
dtm : bicidit et ille in ■gritodincs tnai. Teri. oont Gnott. • PerdidtiUi 

otiUtateai calmmitatis, et miserrlmi facci cMis, et pcMiml pcnnansittia. Aug, de Civ. 
Do, Ub. 1. cap. 33. • Ronu viii. 17. V 2 Cor. xii. 9. 4 Hot. v. 1ft. 

vi.1. t Vide .Bruiom. de Form. bb. 2. p. 204 and 208. •UviLS.3. 

2 Sam. zii. 14. Jobn ix. 3. xi. 4. t Hab. zi. 26. xii. 2. 'Ira w^ ftiwrr^ 


vincing the understanding of the slipperinesSi and uncer-* 
tainty of this world's delights ; and how happiness cannot 
grow in that earth, which is cursed with thorns and briers, — 
it teacheth us to groan after the revelation of that life which 
is hid with Christ, where all tears shall be wiped from our 
eyes. So that, in all temporal evils, that which is destruc- 
tive, the sting and malediction of them, is, in the death of 
Christ, destroyed. 

Having therefore so, many motives to make impressions 
on the soul, the wonder of Christ's death, the love of it, and 
the benefits redounding unto us from it, there is required of 
us a multiplied recordation, a ruminating", and often re- 
calling of it to our thoughts, if it were possible at all times, 
to have no word, or thought, or work, pass from us without 
an eye unto Christ crucified, as the pattern, or, if not, 
as the judge of them ; but especially at that time when the 
drift and purpose of our whole sacred business is the celebra- 
tion of his death. 


Of the manner y after which we are to celebrate the memory of 

Christ'^a passion. 

But we may not presume, that we remember Christ's 
death as he requires, when either with a historical memory, 
or with a festival solemnity only, we celebrate or discourse 
of it, except we do it with a practical memory, proportioned 
to the goodness and quality of the thing remembered. 

And, first, We must remember Christ with a memory of 
faith, with an applying and assuming memory, not only in 
the general, that he died, — but in particular, that the reason 
of his death was my salvation and deliverance from death. 
Pilate and the unbelieving Jews, shall one day see him whom 

cuts ^koeo^yA¥, Chrysost. ad Pop. Antioch. Horn. 1. Amtvit quos ▼•caverat in 
salacem, invitare ad gloriam, ut qui gaudeamus liberati,ezultemus etiam coronati, 
&c. Vide Tert. cont. Gnost. cap. 6. « Celcbrantes Sacramenta commovemar, 

quasi unculam findcns, et niminans pecut levocare ad fiauces, et minutatim com- 
mcmorare Dominica inMitutionit czemplum, ut 'semper passio sic in memoria, 
&c. Cyjn-. dc Ccena Dora. 


they bMwe pierced, and remember his death : Judas shall see 
and remember him whom be kissed : the devil shall see and 
remember hira whom he persecuted ; and in every one of 
these, shall their remembrance produce an effect of horror 
and trembling, because they remember him as their Judge '. 
If our remembrance of the love and mercy of his death, not 
only testified, but exhibited and obsignated unto us, were 
no other than that which the wicked spirits have of his jus- 
tice and severity, — it could not be> but that we should as 
readily believe, as they do tremble at his death. 

And indeed (if we observe it) the remembrance of Chrisf s 
death, and the faith in it, are one and the same thing : for 
what else is faith, but a review and reflection of our thoughts 
upon Christ ? a multiplied, and reiterated assent unto the be- 
nefits of him crucified ? And what is remembrance, but the 
returning of the mind back unto the same object, about the 
which it had been formerly employed ? The remembrance 
of Christ is nothing else but the knowledge of Christ re- 
peated, and the knowledge of Christ is all one with the be- 
lief in him^; they which are not by faith united unto him, 
are quite ignorant of him. And therefore we find that St. 
Peter'^s second denial of Christ, is by the evangelists diversely 
related ': in some, " I am none of his;"^ in others, " I know 
not the man : " and certainly, if the one had been true, the 
other bad been true too ; for all complete knowledge must 
have a commensuration to the objects that are known, and 
the ends for which they are proposed. Now all divine ob- 
jects, besides their truth, have together annexed a goodness, 
which is applicable to those that know it ; so that to profess 
the knowledge of it, and yet not know how to apply it to our 
own use, is indeed therefore to be ignorant of it, because 
there is no other end why it should be known, than that 
thereby it might be applied '. And therefore, in the Scrip- 
tm'e-phrase, ' a wicked man and a fool ^ are terms equivalent, 
because the right knowledge of Divine truths doth ever infer 
the love and prosecution of them : for every act in the will, 
whether of embracing or abominating any object, is grounded 

ii. 19. y John xvii. 3. • John zviii. 25. Mttth. xxvi. 72. 

* Nnllom bontun perfecte notcitur, quod nen perfcctc amttur, &c. Vide ^yg* 
1. S3, qiuest. Tom. 4. p. 20S. q. 35. 


CD some precedent judgement of the understanding. Nothing 
that^ by the ultimate dictate of each particular and practical 
judgement^ is proposed as totally and supremely good, can 
possibly be by the will refused, because therein it must 
needs reust the impress of nature, which leads every, as well 
voluntary as necessary agent, unto an infallible pursuit of 
whatsoever is proposed unto it, as a thing able, by the ac- 
cession of its goodness,^ to advance and perfect the nature 
of the other. And therefore whosoever believe not in Cfafisl 
Jesus, and his death, nor do embrace and cling unto it with 
all the desires of a most ardent affection, cannot possibly be 
said to know him ; because however they may have some 
few, broken, faint, and floating notions of him, yet he is not 
by this knowledge proposed unto the will, as its sole and 
greatest good (for then he could not but be embraced), bat 
is in good earnest by the practic judgement undervalued and 
disesteemed, in comparison of other things, whose goodness 
and convenience, unto sensual and corrupt nature, ia repre* 
sented more clearly. Many men may be able to discourse 
of the death of Christ, after a speculative and scholastical 
manner, so profoundly, as that another who truly believes 
in him, sliall not be able to understand it. And yet this 
poor soul, that desires to know nothing but him, — that ac* 
counts all things else dung in comparison of him, — that en* 
deavours to be made conformable unto him in the commu^ 
nion and fellowship of his sufferings ; — that can, in Christ's 
wounds, see his safety, — in Christ's stripes, his medicine,*— 
in Christ^s anguish, his peace, — in Christ's cross, his tri- 
umph, — doth so much more truly know him, as a man that 
is able safely to guide a ship through all the coasts of the 
world, doth better know the regions and situations of coun-. 
tries, than he who, by a dexterity that way, is able to draw 
roost exact aiid geographical descriptions K Boys may be 
able to turn to, or to repeat several passages of a poet or 
orator more readily than a grounded artist, who yet notwith- 
standing knows the elegancy and worth of them far better. 
And a stage-player can haply express, with greater life of 
passion, the griefs of a distressed man, than he can himself, 
although altogether ignorant of the weight and oppression 
of them. 

»> Vidc^rw/.Eth.l. 7. c. 3. 


ItifBOl therefore logical, historical, speculative remem- 
bnnoe of Christ, but an experimental and believing remem- 
hiince oi him, which we are to use in the receiving of these 
acred mysteries^ which are not a bare type and resemblance, 
h«t a seal also, confirming and exhibiting his death unto 
each believing soul. 

Secondly, We must remember the death of Christ with a 
icnemlHance of thankfulness for that great love, which by 
it wa enjoy from him. Certainly he hath no dram of good. 
natare in him, who, for the greatest benefit that can befall 
hini» doth not leturn a recompense of remembrance, which 
coats him nothing ^ Our salvation cost Christ a precious 
piiee, hia own blood ; and shall not we so much as lay up 
die memory of it in our minds, that we may have it forth- 
comiag to answer all the objections^ that can be made against 
oar title to salvation ? Consider with thyself the fearfulness 
sad horror of thy natural estate, wherein thou wert exposed 
to the infinite wrath of Almighty God, — whom thou there* 
fore, being both finite and impotent, wert no way able to 
appease, sobject to the strokes and terrors, not only of thine 
own conscience, a bosom-hell, — but of that most exact jus- 
tice, which it is as impossible for thee to sustain with fo^ 
tieace, as with obedience to satisfy. The creatures thine 
eneoHea, thine own heart thy witness, thy Creator thy 
jsdge ; eternity of expressless anguish, gnawing of consci- 
cace» despair of dehverance, and whatsoever misery the most 
Ksrehing understanding can but imagine, thy sentence : for 
seeovding to his fear, so is his wrath : from this, and much 
nore, hath the death of Christ, not only delivered thee, — ^but 
of a cast-avray, an enemy, a deplored wretch, weltering in 
thine own blood, rotting and stinking in thine own grave, 
hath restored thee not only to thine original interest and 
patrimony, but unto an estate so much more glorious than 
that could have been, by how much the obedience of Christ 
is more precious, than any thy innocency could possibly 
ksve performed. 

Consider the odious filthiness of sin, the pertinacious ad- 
kerence thereof unto thy nature ; so that nothing but the 
iocamation and blood of the Son of God, the creator of the 

< Qoi meminit, sine impendio gratus est. Senec* de Bcncf. 


world, could wash it out. Consider the justice, and indis* 
pensable severity of our God against sin, which would not 
spare the life of his own Son, nor be satisfied without a 
sacrifice of infinite and co-equal virtue witli itself. Consider 
that it was thy sins, which were the associates with Judas, 
and Pilate, and the Jews, to crucify him: it was thy hypo- 
crisy which was the kiss, that betrayed him ; thy covetous- 
ness the thorns, that crowned him ; thy oppression and cru- 
elty the nails and spears, that pierced him ; thy idolatry and 
superstition the knee, that mocked him ; thy contempt of 
religion the spittle, that defiled him ; thy anger and bitter-^ 
ness the gall and vinegar, that distasted him ; thy crimson 
and redoubled sins the purple that dishonoured him : in a 
word, thou wert the Jew that killed him. Canst thou, then, 
have so many members, as weapons, wherewith to crucify 
thy Saviour, — and hast thou not a heart wherein to recog- 
nise, and a tongue wherewith to celebrate, the benefits of 
that blood which thy sins had poured out? The fire is 
quenched by that water, which by its heat was caused to run 
over ; and shall not any of thy sins be put out by the over- 
flowing of that precious blood, which thy sins caused to run 
out of his sacred body ? 

Lastly, Consider the immensity of God^s mercy, and the 
unutterable treasures of grace, which neither the provoca- 
tions of thy sin, nor the infinite exactness of his own jus- 
tice, could any way overcome, or constrain to despise the 
work of his own hands, or not to compassionate the wretch- 
edness of his creature, though it cost the humiliation of the 
Son of God, and the examination of his sacred person to 
perform it. Lay together all those considerations ; and cer- 
tainly they are able even to melt a heart of adamant, into 
thoughts of continual thankfulness towards so bountiful a 

Thirdly, We must remember the death of Christ with a 
remembrance of obedience; even the commands of God 
should be sufficient to enforce our obedience. It is not the 
manner of law-makers to use insinuations, and plausible 
provokements, but peremptory and resolute injunctions upon 
pain of penalty. But our God deals not only as a Lord, but 
as a Father; he hath delivered us from the penalty, and now 
rather invites than compels us to obedience, lest, by persist- 


ing in «io, we should make void unto ourselves the benefit uf 
Chrot's death, yea, should crucify him afresh, and so bring 
upon ourselves, not the benefit, but the guilt of his blood. 
Is it nothing, think we, that Christ should die in vain, and 
take upon him the dishonour and shame of a servant to no 
purpose. And disobedience, as much as in it lies, doth 
nullify and make void the death of Christ. Is it nothing 
that that sacred blood of the covenant should be shed only 
to be trodden and trampled under foot as a vile thing? And 
certainly he that celebrates the memory of Christ's death in 
this holy Sacrament*^ with a wilfully polluted soul, doth not 
commemorate the sacrifice, but share in the slaughter of 
him; and receives that precious blood, not according to the 
institution of Christ, to drink it, — but with the purpose of 
Judas and the Jews, to shed it on the ground ; — a cruelty so 
much more detestable than Cain^s was, by how much the 
blood of Christ is more precious than that of Abel. In the 
phrase of Scripture, 'sinning against God,' and ' forgetting of 
him,' or ' casting of him behind our back,' or ^ bidding him de- 
part from us,' or ' not having him before our eyes,^ are all of 
equal signification : neither is any thing called remembrance, 
in divine dialect, which doth not frame the soul unto af- 
fectionsS befitting the quality of the object that is remem- 
bered. He is not said to see a pit, though before his eyes, 
who, by star-gazing or other thoughts, falls into it ; nor he 
to remember Christ, though presented to all his senses at 
once, who makes no regard of his presence. 

Divine knowledge, being practical, requires advertence 
and consideration, an efficacious pondering of the conse- 
quences of good or evil, and thereby a proportionable go- 
vernment of our several courses; — which whoso negiecteth, 
may be properly said to forget, or to be ignorant of what 
was before him ^, though not out of blindness, yet out of in- 
considerateness, as not applying close unto himself the ob- 
ject represented ; which, if truly remembered, would infallibly 
frame the mind unto a ready obedience and conformity 

m kwmi^mf furrit^, moL fAffiip im-tv^tw icapvofifupos. Chrys. in 1 Cor. Hum. 27. 
• Verba oodtue connotant ifiectut. August, de Gen. ad literam, 1. 7. c. 20. 
' Vtda Coimukm Comment, in c. 8. Tbcophiast. Cbaract. p. 271. 


Lastly, We must remember the death of Christ with 
prayer unto Ood : for as by faith we apply to ourselves, so 
by prayer we represent unto God the Father that his death, 
as the merit and means of reconciliation with him. As 
prayer is animated by the death of Christ (which alone is 
that character, that adds currentness unto them), so is the 
death of Christ not to be celebrated without prayer, wherein 
we do with confidence implore God^s acceptance of that sa- 
crifice for us, in which alone he is well pleased. *' Open 
thine eyes imto the supplication of thy servants, to hearken 
unto all for which they shall call unto thee,^ was the prayer 
of Solomon > in the consecration of the temple. What, 
doth God hearken with his eyes unto the prayers of his peo- 
pie ? Hath not he that made the ear, an ear himself, but 
must be fain to make use of another faculty unto a difierent 
work t Certainly, unless the eye of God be first open to 
look on the blood of his Son, and on the persons of his 
saints, bathed and sprinkled therewith, his ears can never be 
open unto their prayers. Prayer doth put God in mind of 
his covenant**, and covenants are not to be presented without 
fleals. Now the seal of our covenant is the blood of Christ : 
no testament is of force but by the death of the testator. 
Whensoever therefore we present unto God the truth of his 
own free covenant in our prayers ', let us not forget to show 
him his own seal too, by which we are confirmed in our 
hope therein. Thus are we to celebrate the death of Christi 
and in these regards is this holy work called by the ancients 
' an unbloody sacrifice,' in a mystical and spiritual sense, — 
because, in this work, is a confluence of all such holy duties, 
as are in the Scripture called ' spiritual sacrifices.' And in 
the same sense, was the Lord's table ofttimes by them call- 
ed an '* altar,"" as that was which the Reubenites e^ted on 
the other side of Jordan, not for any proper sacrifice, but to 
be a pattern and memorial of that, whereon sacrifice was 

t 1 KiDgs Till. 52. h Isai. zltii. 26. Psal. Ixxxiz. 49. Isai. IxiT. 8, 12. 

Jer. xiv. 8, 9, 21. * Amhros. de Sacnm. lib. 4. c. 6. et Chry$. — Deo litabilis 

hostia bonus animus, pura mens, sincera conscientia ; hsec nostra sacrificia, hwtc 
pia sapva sunt. MinuL FHix in Octavio. 



It^eremces of practice from the several ends of this holy 


Here then, inasmuch as these sacred elements are insti- 
tuted io present and exhibit Christ unto the faithful soul, we 
may infer with what affection we ought to approach unto 
hira, and what reverent estimation to have of them. Happi- 
nesSy as it is the scope of all reasonable desires, so the con- 
finnatioQ of that happiness is the solace and security of those 
that desire it. " He/' said the prophet, speaking ot Christ. 
'* shall be the desire of ail nations ;'* inasmuch as, without 
him, that happiness which all do naturally desire, is but a 
meteor and fiction. So then we see, that even the light of 
our inbred reason, seconded and directed by divine truths, 
doth lead as unto a desire of Christ, who alone is the author 
and matter of that happiness, which is the true, though un- 
known object of all our natural desires. Now this happi- 
ness in Christ we cannot have, till we have actual fruition of 
him ; enjoy this blessedness we never can, till we are united 
to him, no more than a dissected member enjoys the vital 
influences of the soul and spirits. Union unto Christ we 
oaooot have, until it please him, by his Spirit, as it were, to 
stoop from that kingdom where now he is, and to exhibit 
Imoaelf unto those, whom it pleaseth him to assume into the 
unity of bis body. Other way to enjoy him here, we can 
have none ; since no man can, at his pleasure or power, lift 
up his eyes with Stephen to see him, or go up with St. Paul 
to the heavens, to enjoy him. Now it hath pleased the wis- 
dom of Christ (whose honour ever it is to magnify his 
power in his creatures' weakness ^, and to borrow no parcel 
of glory in his service from those earthly and elementary 
instruments which he useth in it), by no other means to ex* 
hibity and confirm the virtue of his sacred body unto us, 
with the life and righteousness that from it issueth, but only 

k 1 Cor. i. 21. 2 Cor. iv. 7. 


by those poor and ordinary elements of bread and wine ia 
his sacrament ; unto which therefore he requireth such reve- 
rence^ such hunger and affection, as is, in reason, due to the 
hand that reacheth, to the seal that secureth, to the food 
that strengtheneth that spiritual life in us, without which 
we cannot possibly reach unto the end of our very natural 
and created desires, happiness and tranquillity. It behoves 
us, therefore, to beware how we give entertainment to any 
carnal thoughts, which go about to vilify and undervalue 
the excellency of so divine mysteries from the outward 
meanness of the things themselves. Say not, like sullen 
Naaman *, '' Is not the wine in the vintner^s cellar, or the 
bread of mine own table, as good, and as nourishing as is 
any in the temple 7*^ Certainly, if thou be commanded some 
great work for the procuring of so great a good, as there 
had been between the service and the reward no dispropor- 
tion; so would even reason itself have dictated unto us a 
necessity of obeying, rather than of disputing: how much 
rather when he biddeth us only to eat and live. 

True it is, that these creatures naturally have no more 
power to convey Christ, than wax hath in itself to convey a 
lordship : yet as a small piece of wax, when once, in the vir- 
tue of a human covenant or contract, it is made the instru- 
ment to confirm and ratify such a conveyance, is, unto the 
receiver, of more consequence than all the wax in the town 
besides, and is, with the greatest care, preserved ; — so these 
elements, though physically the same which are used at our 
own tables, yet in the virtue of that holy consecration, 
whereby they are made the instruments of exhibiting, and 
the seals of ascertaining God^s covenant of grace unto us, — 
are unto us more valuable than our bams full of grain, or 
our,presses full of grapes, and are to be desired with so far 
distant an affection from the other that are common, as 
heaven is above earth. 

Secondly, In that these elements are consecrated and ex- 
hibited for confirmation of our faith, we thence see how the 
church hath her degrees of faith ^, her measure of the Spi- 
rit, her deficiencies of grace, her languishings, ebbings, 

i 2 Kings V. 12, 13. "« i Thess. iii. 10. Luke xyii. 5. Rom. i. 19. 1 John 
i. 16. PhU. 1. 19. Ephes. iy. 12, 1.3. Col. ii. 6, 7, Ephes.i?. 15. 1 P«t ii. 2. 


imperfections, her decays, blemishes, and falls, which make 
lier stand in need of being perfected, builded, rooted, esta- 
bfisbed in faith and righteousness. All things under the mid- 
dle region are subject to winds, thunders, tempests, the con. 
tinoal uncertainties of boisterous weather ; whereas in the 
Heavens there is a perfect uniform serenity and calmness : 
ao when a Christian comes once to his own country unto 
Heaven, he then comes unto an estate of peace and se- 
curity; to be filled with the fulness of God, where thieves 
do not break through nor steal, where neither flesh nor Sa- 
tan have any admission, no storms of temptation, no ship* 
wreck of conscience, but where all things are spiritual and 
peaceable °. But in this earth, where Satan hath power to 
go from place to place to compass the world, to raise his 
tempests against tlie church, even the waves of ungodly men, 
— we can have no safety from any danger, which either his 
subtilty can contrive, or bis malice provoke, or his power 
execute, or his instruments further: and therefore we are 
here subject to more or fewer degrees of faintness in our 
faith, according as our strength to resist the common Adver* 
■ary ia less or greater ^ As in the natural, so in the mys- 
tical body, though all the parts do in common partake of 
life, yet one is more vital than another, the heart and head 
than the hands and feet ; yea, the same part is, at one time, 
more active and quick than at others ; one while, overgrown 
with humours, and stiffened with distempers, — another while, 
fiee, expedite, and able for the discharge of any vital office. 
And this is that which drives us to a necessity of recovering 
our strength, and making up our breaches by this holy Sa- 
crament; which should likewise tell us in what humble es- 
teem we ought to have our perfectest endowments, they 
being all subject to their failings and decays. 

T^rdiy, In that these mysteries do knit the faithful toge- 
iber into the unity of one common body, we see what fellow- 
fi^ellng the faithful should have of each other ; how they 
ahonid interest themselves in the several states and affec- 
tions of their fellow-members, to '^ rejoice with those that 

» Fvs taperior mundi et ordinatior, nee io nubem cogitur, nee in tempesutem 
impelliciir, ncc yenatur in tuibinem ; omnt turauUu Ciirct \ inferioni fulminant. 
J«- de ira, I. 3. c. 6. Rtikkoj^, i. 101.— Mininias reium diicordia turbat ; Pacem 
■amaui tcncnt. Lur. ii. 272. * Ephcj. iii. 19. v. 13. Job 1. 7. ii. 2. 



rejoice, and to weep with those that weep p." As we should 
think the same things "i, and so agree in a unity of judge- 
ments, because all led with one and the same spirit, which 
is the " Spirit of Truth '^;^so we should all suffer, and do the 
same things, and so all concur in a unity of affections, be- 
cause all animated by the same spirit, which is the spirit of 
love too. Where there is dissension and disagreement, 
there must needs be a several law ; where the law is diverse, 
the government differs too ; and in a different government, 
there must of necessity be a different subjection '. He then 
that doth not sympathize with his brother, but nourisheth 
factious and uncharitable thoughts against him, doth therein 
plainly testify, that he is not subject (at least totally) unto 
the same prince with him, and then we know that there are 
but two princes, a Prince of Peace, and a prince of darkness. 
Nature is in all her operations uniform and constant unto 
herself; one tree cannot naturally bring forth grapes and 
figs ^ Out of the same fountain, cannot issue bitter water 
and sweet". The selfsame vital faculty of feeling which is 
in one member of the body, is in all, because all are ani* 
mated with that soul, which doth not confine itself unto any 
one. The church of God is a tree planted by the same 
hand % a garden watered from the same fountain ^, a body 
quickened by the same Spirit'; the members of it are all 
brethren, begotten by one Father of mercy, generated by 
one seed of the Word, delivered from one womb of igno- 
rance, fed with one bread of life, employed in one heavenly 
calling, brought up in one household of the church, tra* 
vellers in one way of grace, heirs to one kingdom of glory ; 
and when they agree in so many unities, should they then 
admit any fraction or disunion in their minds? From 
Adam, unto the last man that shall tread on the earth, is the 
church of God but one continued and perfected body : and 
therefore we find that, as in the body, the head is affected 
with the grievances of the feet, though there be a great dis- 
tance of place between them ; so the holy men of God have 

P Rom. xii. 15. q Phil. ii. 2. r John ziv. 26. xv. 26. Gal. vi. 2. 

• Rom. viii. U. v. 5. vii. 23. « Luke vt. 44. o James iii. 11, l2. 

* Itai. 7. 7. Ezek. xvii. 24. Cant. iv. 12* 13. Ephes. v. 23. Rom. xii. 5. 
Acts xi. 1 . XV. 36. T 1 Cor. xii. 26. * Isai. Ixiv. 


monnied, and been exceedingly toached with the afflictions 
of the church eren in after-ages, though between them did 
intenrene a great distance of time. 

Certainly then, if the church of God lie in distress, and 
we stretch ourselres on beds of ivory'; if she mourn in 
sackcloth, and we riot in soft raiment ; if the wild boar in 
the forest break in upon her, and we send not one prayer to 
driTe him away ; if there be cleanness of teeth in the poor, 
and oar teeth grind them still ; if their bowels be empty of 
food, and ours still empty of compassion ; if the wrath of 
God be inflamed against his people, and our zeal remain 
•till as frozen, our charity as cold, our affections as be- 
numbed, onr compassion as stupid as ever it was ; in a word, 
if Sion lie in the dust, and we hang not up our harps, nor 
pray for her peace; as we can conclude nothing, but that 
we are onnatural members, so we can expect nothing but 
the cnrse of Meroz ^ who went not out to help the Lord. 

Fourthly, In that this Sacrament is God's instrument to 
ratify and make sure our claim unto his covenant, we 
learn : — 

First, Therein to admire and adore the unspeakable love 
of God, who is pleased not only to make, but to confirm his 
promises unto the church. As God, so his truth, whether of 
judgements or promises, are all in themselves immutable and 
infallible in their event ^ ; yet notwithstanding, as the sun, 
though in itself of a most uniform light and magnitude, yet, 
by reason of the great distance, and of the variety of mists 
and Tapours, through which the rays are diffused, it often 
seemeth in both properties to vary ; so the promises of God, 
however in themselves of a fixed and unmovable certainty, 
yet, passing through the various tempers of our minds, one 
while serene and clear,— >4mother while, by the steam of pas- 
sions uA temptations of Satan, foggy and distempered, — do 
appear under an inconstant shape. And for this cause, as 
the sun doth itself dispel those vapours, which did hinder 
the right perception ; so the grace of God, together with 
and by the holy Sacrament communicated, doth rectify the 
mind and compose those diffident affections, which did be- 
fore interoept the efficacy and evidence thereof. 

• Amof vi. 4,7. ^ Judges v. 29. cjatnesi. 17. 

t 2 


God made a covenant with our fathers ; and not account- 
ing that enough, " he confirmed it by an oath, that by two 
immutable things, wherein it was impossible for God to lie, 
they might have strong consolation, who have had refuge to 
lay hold on the hope that is set before them"*." 

The strength, we see, of the consolation depends upon the 
stability of the covenant : and is God's covenant made more 
firm by an oath than by a promise ? The truth of God is as 
his nature, without variableness or shadow of changing*; 
and can it then be made more immutable ? Certainly as to 
infiniteness in regard of accession, so unto immutability in 
regard of firmness, there cannot be any accession of degrees, 
or parts ; all immutability being nothing else but an exclu- 
sion of whatsoever might possibly occur to make the thing 
variable and uncertain. So then the oath of God doth no 
more add to the certainty of his word, than do men's oaths 
and protestations to the truth of what they affirm : but be- 
cause we consist of an earthly and dull temper, therefore 
God, when he speaks unto us, doth ingeminate his compella- 
tions, " O earth, earth, earth, hear the Word of the Lord ^" 
So weak is our sight, so diffident our nature, as that it seems 
to want the evidence of what it sees s. Peradventure God 
may repent him of his promise, as he did sometime of his 
creature^. Why should not the covenant of grace be as 
mutable as was that of work^ ? God promised to establish 
Sion for ever * ; and yet Sion, the city of the great God, is 
fallen. Was not Shilo beloved ^, and did not God forsake it? 
Had not Coniah been as the signet of his hand^, and has he 
not yet been cast away ? Was not Jerusalem a vine of God's 
planting % and hath not the wild boar long since rooted it 
up? Was not Israel the natural olive °, that did partake of 
the fat and sweetness of the root, and is it not yet cut ofiT, 
and wrath come upon it to the uttermost ? Though God be 
most immutable, may he not yet alter his promise ? Did 
the abrogation of ceremonies prove any way a change in 
him, who was as well the erector as the dissolver of them? 
Though the sun be fastened to his own sphere, yet may he 

* Hcb. vi. 18. • James i. 17. f Jcr. xxii. 9. f Vd praesenlem 

desidcramus. PUn. Pancg. »» Gen. vi. 6. » Psalm xlviii. 8. k Jer. 

¥ii. 24. I Jcr. xxii. 28. « Isai. v. 1. » Rom. xi. 21, 24. 


be mored by another orb. What if God's promise, barely 
coosidered, proceed from his antecedent and simple way of 
beneTolence towards the creature ; but the stability and cer- 
tainty of his promise in the event depend on a second reso- 
lution of his consequent will, which pre-supposeth the good 
use of mine own liberty ? May not 1 then abuse my free- 
win, and so frustrate unto myself the benefit of God'^s pro- 
mise ? Is not my will mutable, though God's be not ? May 
not I sink and fall, though the place on which I stand, be 
finn ? May not I let go my hold, though the thing v/hich I 
bandle, be itself fast ? What if, all this while, I have been 
in a dream, mistaking mine own private fancies and mis-per- 
suasions for the dictates of God's Spirit? mistaking Satan 
(who useth to transform himself) for an angel of light ? God 
hath promised, it is true, but hath he promised unto me ? 
Did he ever say unto me, " Simon, Simon V' or •* Saul, 
Sanl P,** or " Samuel, Samuel ^ V Or if he did, must he 
needs perform his promise to me, who am not able to fulfil 
my conditions unto him ? 

Thus, as unto men floating upon the sea, or unto distem- 
pered brains, the land and house, though immovable, seem 
to reel and totter ; or as unto weak eyes, every thing seems 
double ; — so the promises of God, however built on a sure 
foundation, his counsel and fore-knowledge ', yet unto men, 
prepossessed with their own private distempers, do they seem 
unstable and frail, — unto a weak eye of faith, God's covenant 
to be (if I may so speak) double *, to have a tongue and a 
tongue, a promise and a promise, that is, a various and un- 
certain promise. And for this cause (notwithstanding diffi- 
dent and distrustful men do, indeed, deserve what they sus- 
pect, and are worthy to suffer what they unworthily do fear) 
doth God yet, in compassion towards our frailty, conde- 
scend to confirm his promises by an oath, to engage 
the truth of his own essence for performance, to seal the 
patent which he hath given with his own blood, and to ex- 
hibit that seal unto us so oflen, as, with faith, we approach 

•Lokexzii. 31. P Acu ik. 4. q 1 Sam iii. 10. ' iTim. ii. 19. 

* Diios Deos casci pcrrspcxitee se czistimi^erunt ; unum cnini nun intcgr^ vidc- 
nnti lippientibu* cnim Bingulirin laceritk uumciosa ot. 7fr/. cont. Afurt. I 1. 
c2,'—Scnf€. Episc. 3. 


imto the communion of these holy mysteries. And who can 
sufficiently admire the riches of this mercy, which makes 
the very weaknesses and imperfections of his church, occa- 
sions of redoubling his promises unto it? 

Secondly, In that this Sacrament is the instrumental cause 
of confirming our faith from this possibility, yea, facility of 
obtaining, — we must conclude the necessity of using so great 
a benefit, wherein we procure the strengthening of our 
graces, the calming of our consciences, and the experience 
of God's favour. In the natural body there being a conti- 
nual activity and conflict between the heat and the moisture 
of the body, and by that means a wasting, depastion, and 
decay of nature, it is kept in a perpetual necessity of suc- 
couring itself by food : so in the spiritual man, there being, 
in this present estate, an unreconcilable enmity between the 
Spirit and the fleshy there is, in either part, a propensioo 
towards such outward food, whereby each in its distresses 
may be relieved. The tiesh pursues all such objects as may 
content and cherish the desires thereof, which the apostle 
calleth '' the provisions of lust.'^ The Spirit, on the con- 
trary side, strengthens itself by those divine helps, which 
the wisdom of God had appointed to confer grace, and to 
settle the heart in a firm persuasion of its own peace. And 
amongst these instruments, this holy Sacrament is one of 
the principal ; which is indeed nothing else but a visible 
oath, wherein Christ giveth us a taste of his benefits, and en- 
gageth his own sacred body for the accomplishing of them ; 
which supporteth our tottering faith, and reduceth the soul 
unto a more settled tranquillity. 

Thirdly, In that in this one all other types were abrogated 
and nullified, we learn to admire and glorify the love of God, 
who hath set us at liberty from the thraldom of ceremonies, 
from the costhness and difficulty of his service, with which 
his own chosen people were held in bondage \ under the 
pedagogy and government of schoolmasters, the ceremonial 
and judicial law, as so many notes of distinctions, charao- 
teristical differences, or walls of separation between Jew and 
Gentile ^, until the coming of the Messiah ; which was the 
time of the reformation of all things *, wherein the Gentiles 

• Gal. ir. 3. v. 1. Acts. xv. 10. « Ephes. ii. 14. * Hcb. ix. 10. 


were by his death to be iagrafted into the same stock ^, and 
maife partakers of the same juice and fatness ; the shadows 
to he remoTed, the ordinances to be cancelled % the law to 
be abolished. For " the law came by Moses, but grace and 
troth by Jesus Christ* ;'' grace, in opposition to the curse of 
the moral law ; truth, in opposition to the figures and resem- 
blances of the ceremonial law. The Jews in God's service 
were bound unto one place, and unto one form ; no temple 
or ministration of sacrifices without Jerusalem ^, nor, with- 
out express prescription, no use of creatures without diflfer- 
ttice of common and unclean : whereas, unto us^ all places 
are lawful and pureS all things lawful and pure; every 
country a Canaan, and every city a Jerusalem, and every 
oratory a temple. It is not an ordinance, but a prayer, 
which sanctifieth and maketh good unto our use every crea- 
ture of God *. 

Bat yet though we, under the gospel, are thus set at 
liberty from all manner of ordinances which are not of intrin- 
secaU eternal, and unvariable necessity; yet may this liberty, 
in regard of the nature of things indifferent, be made a ne- 
cessity in respect of the use of them. We may not think^ 
that our liberty is a licentious and unbounded liberty, as if 
Christ had been the author of confusion, to leave every man 
in the external carriages of his worship, unto the conduct of 
his prirate fancy. This were to have our liberty' for a cloak 
of naughtiness, and as an occasion to the flesh ^ ; but we 
most always limit it by those general and- moral rules of 
piety, loyalty, charity, and sobriety. 

Use all Uiings we may, indifferently, without subjection 
or bondage onto the thing, but not without subjection unto 
God and superiors. Use them we may, but with temper- 
ateness and moderation ; use them we may, but with respect 
to God^s glory « ; use them we may, but with submission to 
aotfaority *• ; use them we may, but with avoiding of scan- 
dal '. Christian liberty ^ consisteth in the inward freedom 
of the conscience, whose only bond is a necessity of doc- 

f Rom. xi. 17. Hcb. x. 1. ■ Col. ii. 14. 2 Cor. iii. 11, 13. » John i. 17. 

* John IT. 21, 23, • 1 Cor. ri. 12. Tit. i. 15. «» 1 Tim. i¥. 5. Rom. 

xir. 14. Actsx. 15. • 1 Pet. ii. 16. G»l. v. 13. ^ Gul. v. 13. • 1 Cor. 
1. 31. h Rom. xiii. I, 2. 5. « 1 Cof. viii !». k Sec Dr. FtHd of 

the Church, I. 1 c. 32,33. 


trine; not in outward conformity or observances only, whose 
bond is a necessity of obedience, and subordination unta 
higher powers ; which obeying, though we become thereby 
subject unto some human or ecclesiastical ordinances, the 
conscience yet remains uncurbed and at liberty. 

Secondly, We have hereby a great encouragement to serve 
our God in Spirit and in Truth \ being delivered from all 
those burdensome accessions, which unto the inward wor- 
ship were added, in the legal observances: — in Spirit, in op- 
position unto the carnal ; in Truth, in opposition unto the 
typical ceremonies. The services of the Jews were cele- 
brated in the blood and smoke of unreasonable creatures ; 
but ours, in the gospel °^, must be a spiritual, a reasonable 
service of him : for as in the Word of God the letter pro- 
fiteth nothing, it is the Spirit that quickeneth ° ; so in the 
worship of God likewise, the knee, the lip, the eye, the 
hand alone, profiteth not at all ; it is the Spirit that Wor- 

It is not a macerated body, but a contrite soul which be 
respecteth. If there be paleness in the face, but blood in 
the heart; if whiteness in the eye, but blackness in the 
soul ; if a drooping conscience, but an unbended consci- 
ence ; if a knee bowing down in the temple of God, and 
thoughts rising up against the grace of God ; the head like 
a bulrush, and the heart like an adamant ; — in a word, if 
there be but a bodily and unquickened service, a schism in 
the same worshipper, between his outward and his inward 
man ; he that is not a God of the dead, but of the living, — 
he that accounteth, in the Levitical law, carcases as unclean 
things (as being in the nearest disposition to rottenness and 
putrefaction), will never smell any sweet savour in such ser- 
vices. " What have I to do," saith God, " with your sacri- 
fices ® V* and, '* My soul hateth your new moons, and your 
appointed feasts p." " My sacrifices, and my sabbaths, they 
were by original institution *>, but your carnal observance 
of them hath made them yours ^'^ Even the heathen 

I John iv. 24. m Rom.xii. 1. n 2 Cor. iii. 6. o isai. i. 11, 13, U. 

P Amos r. 21. « Ezod. xx. 10. Ezck. xx. 12. Isai. iviii. 13. ' Vestra 

dicit, quae secundum libidinero suam, non secundum rciigionem Dei, cclebrando 
sua jaic, non Dei, fecerant. Terl. Cont. Marcion. 1. 2. c. 22. 


idols ' themselTes did require rather the truth of an inward, 
tbaa the pomp of an outward worship ; and therefore they 
forbade all profane people any access to their services'. And 
God, certainly, will not be content with less than the deviL 

Sixthly, In that, by tl&ese frequent ceremonies, we are 
led unto the celebration of Christ's death, and the benefits 
thereby arising unto mankind ; we may hence observe the 
Datoral deadness and stupidity of man^s memory in the things 
of his salvation. It is a wonder how a man should forget 
his Redeemer that ransomed him with the price of his own 
blood, to whom he oweth whatsoever he either is, or hath ; 
him whom each good thing we enjoy, leadeth unto the ac- 
knowledgment of. Look where we will, he is still not only 
in us, but before us. The wisdom of our minds, the good* 
ness of oar natures, the purposes of our wills and desires, 
the calmness of our consciences, the hope and expectation 
of cor sonls and bodies, the liberty from law and sin ; what- 
ever it is in or about us, which we either know, or admire, 
or enjoy, or expect, he is the treasury whence they were 
taken ; the^ fulness whence they were received ; the head 
which transferreth ; the hand which bestoweth them. We 
are on all sides compassed, and even hedged "* in with his 
blessings : so that, in this sense, we may acknowledge a 
kind of ubiquity of Christ's body, inasmuch as it is every 
where even visible and palpable in those benefits which 
flow from it. And yet wc, like men that look on the river 
Nile, and gaze wondrously on the streams, remain still ig« 
norant of the head and original from whence they issue. 
Thus, as there is, between blood and poison, such a natural 
antipathy, as makes them to shrink in, and retire at the 
presence of each other ; so though each good thing we en- 
joy, serves to present that precious blood, which was the 
price of it, unto our souls j yet there is in us so much venom 

• Coltos Deorum optimus idcmque castissimus, ut eos temper purk, integrA, 
tncorropci ec mente ct tocc vcocreris. Cic. de Nit Deorum. I. 2. — Sicut ncc in 
victimb qnkksn, licet opima tint, auroqoe prsefiilgeint, deorum ett honot, ted piA 
ac recti voluntate Tenerantium. Sen, de Benef. 1. 1. c. 6. et Epist. 95. — Ad divos 
>rtffint<> catt^. Cie. de legib. lib. 2w— Animadverto etiam Deos ipsot non tarn 
accuratis adorantium precibns, quAm innoccntia et tanctititc, Isetari. Plin. Paneg. 
^ Semper impist inttitutionet arcent profanot, &c. Tert, in Apol. c. 7. Oi) y^ 
^ifut relit 3cfifAiMf ri rod \&ym nvcr^pia 8ii|7ffur9ai, Citm. Alcx.'^Jfrvm. 1. 5.— 
Vide Bfiuon, de Formulis, lib. 1. « Job. i. 10. 


of siUf as makes us still to remove our thoughts from so pure 
an object As, in the knowledge of things, many men are 
of so narrow understandings, that they are not able to raise 
them unto consideration of the causes of such things, whose 
effects they are haply better acquainted with than wiser 
men ; it being the work of a discursive head to discover the 
secret knittings, obscure dependences of natural things on 
each other; — so, in matters of practice in divinity, many 
men commonly are so fastened unto the present goods which 
they enjoy, and so full with them, that they either have no 
room, or no leisure, or rather indeed no power nor will, to 
lift up their minds from the streams unto the fountain, or 
by a holy logic to resolve them into the death of Christ ; 
from whence if they issue not, they are but fallacies, and 
sophistical good things ; and whatever happiness we expect 
in or from them, will prove a ' non sequitur' at the last. 
Remember and know Christ, indeed, such men may and do, 
in some sort, sometimes, to dishonour him, at best, but to 
discourse of him : but as the philosopher * speaks of intem- 
perate men, who sin not out of a full purpose and uncon- 
trolled swing of vicious resolutions, but with checks of 
judgement and reluctancy of reason, that they are but ' half 
vicious ' (which yet is indeed but a half truth), so certainly 
they, who though they do not quite forget Christ, or cast 
him behind their back, tio yet remember him only with a 
speculative knowledge of the nature and general efficacy of 
his death, without particular application of it unto their own 
persons and practices, have but a half and halting knowledge 
of him. Certainly a mere schoolman, who is able exactly 
to dispute of Christ and his passion, is as far from the length, 
and breadth, and depth, and height of Christ crucified, 
from the requisite dimensions of a Christian, as a mere sur- 
veyor or architect, who hath only the practice of measur- 
ing land or timber, is from the learning of a geometrician. 
For as mathematicks, being a speculative science, cannot 
possibly be comprised in the narrow compass of a practical 
art; so neither can the knowledge of Christ, being a saving 
and practic knowledge, be complete, when it floats only in 
the discourses of a speculative brain. And therefore Christ 
at the last day will say unto many men, who thought them- 

• i/ifAiw6tniipos, Arnt. Eth. vii. 10. 3. Zell, p. 326. 


sel?es great clerks, and of his near acquaintance^ even such 
as did preach biniy and do wonders in bis name. That he 
newer knew them^ ; and that is an argument, that they hke- 
wise neyer knew him neither. For as no man can see the 
sun, but by the benefit of that light, which from the sun 
fihineth on him ; so no man can know Christ, but those on 
whom Christ first shineth, and whom he vouchsafeth to 
know. Mary Magdalen could not say ' Rabboni " to Christ, 
till Christ first had said ' Mary ' to her. And therefore that 
we may not fail to remember Christ aright, it pleaseth him 
to institute this holy Sacrament, as the image of his cruci- 
fied body, whereby we might as truly have Chrises death 
presented onto us, as if he had been crucified before our 

Secondly, We see here who they are, who, in the Sacra- 
ment, receive Christ, — even such as remember his death 
with a recognition of faith, thankfulness, and obedience. 
Others only receive the elements, but not the Sacrament : 
as when the king seals a pardon to a condemned malefactor, 
the messenger that is sent with it, receives nothing from the 
king but paper written and sealed, but the malefactor (unto 
whom only it is a gift) receives it as it were a resurrection. 
Certainly there is a staflf as well of sacramental, as of com- 
mon bread: the staiF of common bread is tlie blessing of tlie 
Lord ; the stafi* of the sacramental is the body of tlie Lord. 
And as the wicked, which never look up in thankfulness 
unto God, do often receive the bread without the blessing ; so 
here the element without the body ; they receive indeed, as 
it is fit unclean birds should do, nothing but the carcase of 
a sacrament; the body of Christ being the soul of the 
breail, and bis blood the life of wine. His body is not now 
any more capable of dishonour ; it is a glorified body, and 
therefore will not enter into an earthy and unclean soul: as 
it is corporally in Heaven, so it will be spiritually and sacra* 
mentally in no place but a heavenly soul. — Think not, that 
thoa bast received Christ, till thou hast efiectually remem. 
bered, seriously meditated, and been religiously affected and 
inflamed with the love of his death : without this, thou 
mayst be guilty of his body ; thou canst not be a partaker 
of it. Guilty thou art, because thou didst reach out thy 

s Mattb. Tti. 22, 23. 7 Git. iii. 1. 


hand with a purpose to receive Christ into a polluted souI| 
though he withdrew himself from thee. Even as Mucius 
Scsevola was guilty of Porsena's blood, though it was not 
he, but another whom the dagger wounded : because the 
error of the hand cannot remove the malice of the heart. 


Of the subject, who may wilh benefit receive the holy Sacra- 
ment ; with the necessary qualificatiotts thereunto: of the 
, necessity of due preparation. 

We have hitherto handled the Sacrament itself: We are 
now briefly to consider the subject whom it concerneth, in 
whom we will observe such qualifications, as may fit and 
pre-dispose him for the comfortable receiving, and proper in- 
terest in these holy mysteries. Sacraments, since the time 
that Satan hath had a kingdom in the world^ have been ever 
notes and characters whereby to distinguish the church of 
God from the ethnic and unbelieving part of men ; so that 
they being not common unto all mankind, some subject unto 
whom the right and propiiety of them belongeth, must be 
found out. 

God, at the first, created man upright, framed him after 
his own image, and endowed him with gifts of nature, able 
to preserve him entire in that estate wherein he was created. 
And because it was repugnant to the essential freedom * 
wherein he was made, to necessitate him by any outward 
constraint, unto an immutable estate of integrity ; he there- 
fore so framed him, that it might be within the free liberty 
of his own will to cleave to him, or to decline from him. 

Man, being thus framed, abused this native freedom, and 
committed sin ; and thereby, in the very same instant, be- 
came really and properly dead. For as he was dead judi- 
cially in regard of a temporal and eternal death (both which 
were now already pronounced, though not executed on him), 
so was he dead actually and really, in regard of that spiritual 
death, which consisteth in a separation of the soul from 

• Justin Martyr in Dialog, cum Tryph. 


Gody and in an absolute immobility unto divine operations. 
But man's sin did not nullify God^s power : he that made 
him a glorious creature, when he was nothing, could as 
easily renew and rectify him when he fell away. 

Being dead, true it is, that active concurrence unto his 
own restitution he could have none ; but yet still the same 
passive obedience and capacity which was in the red clay, 
of which Adam^s body was fashioned unto that divine image 
which God breathed into it, the same had man, being now 
fallen, unto the restitution of those heavenly benefits and 
habitual graces which then he lost: save that in the clay, 
there was only a passive obedience ; but in man fallen, there 
is an active rebellion, crossing resistance % and withstanding 
of God's good work in him. More certainly than this he 
cannot have ; because howsoever, in regard of natural and 
reasonable operations, he be more self-moving than clay, 
yet, in regard of spiritual graces, he is full as dead : even as 
a man, though more excellent than a beast, is yet as truly 
and equally not an angel, as a beast is. So then, thus far 
we see all mankind do agree in an equality of creation, in a 
UDiVersality of desertion, in a capacity of restitution. 

God made the world, that therein he might communicate 
his goodness unto the creature, and unto every creature in 
that proportion, as the nature of it is capable of. And man, 
being one of the most excellent creatures, is amongst the 
rest capable of these two principal attributes, holiness and 
happiness : which two, God, out of his most secret counsel 
and eternal mercy, conferreth on whom he hath chosen and 
made accepted in Christ the Beloved, shutting the rest either 
oat of the compass, as heathen; or at least out of the inward 
privileges and benefits of that covenant which he hath es- 
tablished with mankind, as hypocrites and licentious 

Now as, in the first creation of man, God did, into the 
unformed lump of clay, infuse, by his power, the breath of 
life, and so made man; so, in the regeneration of a Chris- 
tian, doth he in the natural man, who is dead in sin, breathe 
a principle of spiritual life, — the first act, as it were, and the 
original of all supernatural motions, whereby he is consti- 
tuted in the first being of a member of Christ. 

• Acts vii. 51. Rom. vii.23. 


And this first act is faith \ the soul of a Christian, that 
whereby we live in Christ ; so that till we have faith, we are 
dead, and out of him. And as faith is the principle (next 
under the Holy Ghost) of all spiritual life here, — so is baptism 
the Sacrament of that life% which, accompanied and raised 
by the Spirit of grace, is unto the church, though not the 
cause, yet the means, in and by which this grace is conveyed 
unto the soul. 

Now as Adam, after once life was infused into him, was 
presently to preserve it by the eating of the fruits in the 
garden^, where God had placed him, because of that con- 
tinual depastion of his radical moisture by vital heat, which 
made nature to stand in need of succours and supplies from 
outward nourishment ; — so after man is once regenerated and 
made alive, he is to preserve that faith which quickeneth 
him by such food, as is provided by God for that purpose, 
it being otherwise of itself subject to continual languishings 
and decays. And this life is thus continued and preserved, 
amongst other means, by the grace of this holy Eucharist, 
which conveys unto us that true food of life, the body and 
blood of Christ crucified. So then, inasmuch as the Sacra^ 
ment of Chnsfs supper is not the Sacrament of regenera- 
tion, but of sustentation and nourishment ; and inasmuch as 
no dead thing is capable of being nourished (augmentation 
being a vegetative and vital act); and lastly, inasmuch as the 
principle of this spiritual life is faith, and the Sacrament of 
it baptism ; — it followeth evidently. That no man is a sub- 
ject qualified for the holy communion of Christ's body, who 
hath not been before partaker of faith and baptism. 

In Heaven, where all things shall be perfected and re- 
newed, our souls shall be in as little need of this Sacrament, 
as our bodies of nourishment. But this being a state of 
imperfection, subject to decays, and still capable of further 
augmentation ; we are therefore by these holy mysteries to 
preserve the life, which by faith and baptism we have re- 
ceived: without which life, as the Sacrament doth confer 
and confirm nothing, so do we receive nothing neither, but 
the bare elements. 

Christ is now in Heaven, no eye sharp enough to see him, 

k 1 John V. 13. « John iii. 5. Tit. iii. 5. •» Gen. i. 29. 


no ann long enough to reach him, but only faith. The Sa* 
crafflent is but the seal of a covenant * ; and covenants es* 
aentially include conditions, and the conditions on our part 
is (aith : no faith, no covenant ; no covenant, no seal ; no 
seal, no Sacrament : Christ and Belial will not lodge to- 
gelher ^ 

Having thus found out the first necessary qualification of a 
man for the receiving of the holy Eucharist, without which, 
he is absolutely as uncapable of it, as a dead man of food ; 
we may more easily look into the next more immediate and 
particular, consisting in that preparatory act of examination 
or trial of the conscience*, touching its fitness to communi- 
cate ; because the former is to be the rule and measure, by 
which we proceed in the latter. 

Some things there are which men learn to do by doing of 
them *, and which are better performed, and the dangers in- 
cident unto them better avoided by an extemporary dex- 
terity, than by any pre-mcditation or forecast. But yet gene- 
rally, since- matters of consequence are never without some 
perpiexed difficulties, not discernible by a sudden intuition ; 
and since the minds of men are of a limited efficacy, and 
therefore unfit for any serious work, till first dispossessed of 
all different notions which might divert, and of all repugnant 
principles or indispositions which might oppose it in the 
performance of any great business, set upon with sudden, 
uncomposed, and uncollected thoughts ; — it is very neces- 
sary before we undertake any serious and difficult work, 
both to examine the sufficiency, and to prepare the instru- 
ments by which we may be enabled to perform it. 

Thus we see in the works of nature, those which admit of 
any latitude or degrees of perfection, are seldom done with- 
out many previous dispositions to produce them. In plants 
and vegetables, the earth is to be opened, the seed to be 
scattered, the rain to moisten, the sun to evocate and excite 
the seminal virtue, and after all this comes a fruitful harvest : 
and so in generation of all other natural bodies, there are 
ever some antecedent qualities introduced, by means where- 
of. Nature is assisted and prepared for her last act. So in 

• Rom. IT. 11. f 2 Cor. vi. 15. f I Cor. xi. *> *A ydp M 

wuof, Tovro woiovTTMt iiuMvoiu¥. Anst. Eih. I. 2. c. 1. — In 
ooosUiom. 5m.— -Vktobitttf io aionte. Gen. xxii. 14. 


the works of art, we find how wrestlers, and runners in 
races, did supple their joints with ointments, and diet their 
bodies, that by that means they might be fit for those bo- 
dily exercises : how those Roman fencers, in their gladia- 
tory fights '^y did first use prefatory or dulled weapons, 
before they entered in good earnest into the theatre ; and 
then their custom was, first, to carry their weapons to the 
prince to have his allowance of the fitness of them, before 
they used them in fighting. The Lacedemonians were wont 
to have musical instruments before their wars \ that thereby 
their courage might be sharpened, and their minds raised 
unto bold attempts. And we read of Scipio Africanus™, 
that ever before he set himself upon the undertaking of any 
great business, his manner was to enter the Capitol, to sub- 
mit his projects to the judgement of the gods, and to implore 
their aid and allowance for the good success of such his enter* 
prises. A thing, for the substance of it, practised by all the 
ethnics, before they addressed themselves unto any work 
of consequence, whose constant use it was to have recourse 
unto their gods in prayers, for benediction and encourage- 
ment. And it was a religious observation in the Roman 
superstitious sacrifices, for a servant that stood by, to put 
the priest in mind of what he was about, and to advise him 
to consider maturely, and to do with his whole mind and 
endeavour that work he was to perform. And whatsoever 
vessels or garments were in those solemnities used, were be- 
forehand washed and cleansed, that they might be fit in- 
struments for such a work. Thus far we see the light of rea- 
son, and the very blindness of superstition, enforceth a ne- 
cessity of preparation unto any great, especially divine 

If we look into the holy Scriptures, we may find Gt>d 
himself a pattern of these deliberate preparations. In 
making the world, it had been as easy for him in one simple 
command to have erected this glorious frame at once, as to 

k Vide Lipsii Satur. 1. 2. c. 19. > ^ul. Gell, Noct. Attic, lib. i. 11. 

"B Liv. i. 26. — Plin, Pancg. in initio.— Ctc. de legib. 1.2. et in Vatinium. So- 
lenne hoc ante bella ; — yirg, i^n. 1. 8. et 11. — Xenoph. Cyrop. i. 7. — Macrob. 
Satur. 1. 3. c. 15.— Ante epulas; AthenamsX, 4. — Liv, 1.49. — yirg, /En. 1. 1. 
—Ante Nuptias ; Servius ad Virg. JEn, 1. 3. — Vid. Brisson, de Formulis, lib. 1. 
— Servius ad illud Virg>, ' Pur&que in veste Sacerdoe.' y£n. 12. 


be nz days id the Atshioning of it : but to exhibit unto us an 
example of temperate and advised proceedings, be first pro- 
rides the materials, and then superadds the accomplishment 
and perfection. In the dispensing of bis judgements, he first 
prepares them before he inflicts them : he hath whet his 
sword, and bent his bow, and made ready his arrows, before 
be strikes or shoots. His eye comes before his hand : he 
comes down to see Sodom ", before to consume it. He ex- 
amines before he expels: "Adam*, where art thou?*' be- 
fore he drives him out of Paradise. Nay, in the very sweet- 
est of all his attribotes, his mercy, we find him first consider 
his people Israel <*, before he sends Moses to deliver tliem. 
In like manoer, our blessed Saviour, though having in him 
the folness of the godhead, the treasures of wisdom, and 
grace without measure, he was therefore perfectly able to 
discharge that great work unto which the Father had sealed 
him, — waa yet pleased to prepare himself*', both unto his 
prophetical and sacerdotal obedieace by baptism, fasting, 
temptation, and prayer; that the practice of this great work, 
where it is was not necessary, might be a precedent unto us, 
who are not able of ourselves to think, or to do any good 
thing. In the building of Solomon's temple ^ the stones 
were perfected and hewed, before they were brought ; there 
was neither hammer, nor axe, nor any tool of iron heard in 
the house, while it was in building. And so should it be 
in the temple, of which that was a type, even in the mystical 
body of Christ : every man should be first hewed and fitted 
by repentance, and other preparatory works, before he 
should approach to incorporate himself into that spiritual 
and eternal building. In the observation of Levitical cere- 
monies, we may note. That before the celebration of the 
passover % the Lamb was to be taken and separated from the 
flock three days ere it was slain : in which time, the people 
might, in that figure, learn to sanctify themselves, and to be 
separated from sinners. And our Saviour Christ, in the cele- 
bration of the last supper', would not have so much as the 
room unprovided , but he sent his disciples beforehand about 
it; teaching us, that in sacred things there should be first a 

I. zviii. 21. * Gen. iii. 9. P Ezod. iii. 7, 8. q Mitth. iii. 13. 

IT. 13. zxvi. 36. r 1 Kings vt. 7. • Exod. xii. 3, 6. < Mark xiv. 13, 15. 

VOL. 111. K 


preparation before a celebration. So then we see in general 
the necessity of preparing and deliberating, before we ad- 
dress ourselves unto the performance of any holy work ; and 
if any where, certainly in this work of the Sacrament most 
necessary it is. Though God's commands by his apostle 
were bond enough to enforce us the necessity of obedience, 
depending rather on the Author ", than on the emolument of 
the law ; yet God, who is not wanting always to win men 
unto the observance of what he requires, urgeth us there- 
unto, not only with an argument of debt, because we are his 
servants, but with an argument of profit too ; because the 
omission of it will not only nullify unto us the benefit of his 
Sacrament, but make us guilty of that very blood, which 
was shed for the salvation of the world, and turn that into 
judgement which was intended for mercy. 

What this danger of being * guilty of Christ^s blood ' is, I 
will not stand long to explain. 

Briefly, To be guilty of the body ^nd blood of Christ, is 
to offer some notable contempt and indignity unto the suf- 
ferings of Christ, to sin against the price of our redemption, 
and to vilify and set at nought the precious blood of the 
Bew covenant *, as if it were a common and profane thing, 
when men out of ignorant, sensual, secure, presumptuous, 
formalizing, inconsiderate, and profane affections, approach 
unto Christ's table to communicate of him. To be guilty of 
blood is, in some sort or other, to shed it, and to join with 
the crucifiers of Christ ^r— a sin, which as it drove Judas to 
despair, and to end with himself, who had begun with his 
Master, — so doth it, to this day, lie with the heaviest curse 
that ever that people endured, on the offspring of those 
wicked Jews, whose imprecation it was, " His blood be on 
us, and on our children.'' As Christ on the cross, was, 
in regard of himself, offered up unto the Father, but in 
regard of Pilate and the Jews, crucified ; — so is his blood in 
the Sacrament by the faithful received, — by the wicked, shed 
and spilt on the ground ; when, not discerning or differencing 
the Lord^s body from other ordinary food, they rush irre- 
verently to the participation of it. For a man may be guilty of 

» Prior est auctoritas impcrantit quam utilius servientis. Tert, dc Poenlt. c. 4. 
« Heb. X. 29. J Chrysott, in 1 Cor. Horn. 27. 


the blood of Christ, though be receive it not at all ; as a man 
msj of murder \ tboogb be bit not the party, against whom 
biB weapon was directed. It is not the event, but the pur- 
pose, which specifies the s\n\ The anger of a dog is as 
great, when he barks at the moon, which is above his malice, 
as when at a man, whom he may easily bite. The malice of 
the apostate, who shot up darts against Heaven ^ was no less, 
then if be had bit the body of Christ, at whom he shot. 
If that which is done unto the apostles of Christ, is done 
onto him, because they are bis ambassadors ; and if that 
which is done unto the poor and distressed flock of Christ, 
is done unto him, because they are his members; — then 
surely that which is done unto the Sacrament of Christ, 
most needs be done unto him too, inasmuch as it is his re- 
presentation and image. For a man may be guilty of trea* 
son, by o&ring indignity to the picture, coin, garment, or 
seal of a prince. The dishonour that is done to the image 
(it being a relative thing), doth ever reflect on the original 
itself. And therefore the Romans % when they would disho- 
nour any man, would show some disgrace to the statues that 
had been erected to his honour, by demolishing, breaking 
down, and dragging them in the dirt. 

Again, A man may be guilty of the blood of Christ, by 
reaching forth his hand to receive it, having no right unto 
it A sacrilege it is to lay hold wrongfully on the Lord's 
inheritance, or on any thing consecrated to the maintenance 
of his worship and service ; but this certainly is so much the 
greater, by how much the Lord's body is more precious than 
his portion. To counterfeit right of inheritance unto some 
kingdom, hath been ever, amongst men, unfortunate and 
capital. We know bow ill it succeeded with the counterfeit 
Nero amongst the Romans "* ; and that forged Duke of York 
in the time of Henry the Seventh. And surely, no less suc- 
can their insolence be, who having, by reason of 

'VohaCM factt HomicidMn. • Omnia tcelcri etiam ante cffectum opcrii, 

^— i.»wwi calps satis est, perfecu sunt. Sen. dc Const, cap. 7. 4. ^ Quid ? tu 
pQtas, com stolidus ille Rex rouUitudine telonim diem obtcurasset, uUam sagit- 
Hm in solem incidiste? Sen, ibid. c. 4. 2. « Descendant ttatose rtsteroqua 

•eqnontar, &c. Juvenal. Sat. 10. Effigies Pisoni^ traxerant in Gemonias, ac dctel- 
IcfaiBt. Tac. Hist. I. 3. 14.— VexiUarius comitantis Galbaro cobortis deieptam 
Galbs imaginem solo afflixit. Tac. Hitt. 1. 1. <* Tac. Hitt. 1. 2. 

K 2 


their unworthy approach, no claim nor interest unto the 
benefit of Christ's body, do yet usurp it, and take the king- 
dom of Heaven, as it were, by rapine and presumptuous 
violence. Certainly, if Christ will not have the wicked to 
take his Word % much less his body into their mouths. If 
the rain that falleth to the ground, returns not empty ', but, 
according to the quality of the ground on which it falls, 
makes it fruitful, either in herbs, meet for the use of men 
that dressed it, — or in thorns and briers that are near unto 
cursing; impossible it is, that the blood of Christ in his Sa- 
crament should be inefiectual, whether for a blessing unto 
the faithful, or for a curse to those that unworthily receive 
it So then, necessary it is, that before -the communication 
of these sacred mysteries, a man prepare himself by some 
previous devotions : and for this cause we find our Saviour 
Christ washing his disciples' feet ^ that is, cleansing their 
earthly and human afiections before his institution of this 
Sacrament. And we find Joseph of Arimathea ^ wrapping 
his dead body in a clean linen garment, and putting it into 
a new tomb, never yet defiled with rottenness and corruption. 
And can we imagine, that he that endured not an unclean 
grave or shroud, will enter into a sinful and unprepared soul? 
The everlasting doors must first be lifted up, before the King 
of Glory will enter in. 


Of the form or manner of examination required, which is, 
touching the main qualification of a worthy receiver^ Faith : 
the demonstration whereof is made^ first ^ f^om the causes ; 
secondly^ from the nature of it. 

Having thus discovered the necessity of preparation, and 
that standing in the examination and trial of a man's con- 
science ; it followeth, that we conclude with setting down 
very compendiously die manner of this examination, only 
naming some principal particulars. 

• Psalm 1. 16. f Heb. vi. 7. g John xiii. 5. h Matth. 

zxvii. 59, 60. 


The main query is. Whether I am a fit guest to ap- 
proach God's table, and to share in the fellowship of his 

The sufferings of Christ are not exposed unto the rapine 
and violence of each bold intruder ; but he who was first the 
author, is for ever the dispenser of them. And as in the dis- 
pensation of his miracles, for the most part, so of his sufiier- 
ings likewise, — there is either a question premised, '' Be- 
lieTest thou Y* or a condition included, "Be it unto thee, 
as thou belicTest'* But a man may be alive, and yet unfit 
to eat, nor capable of any nourishment by reason of some 
daogerons diseases, which weaken the stomach, and trouble 
it with an apepsy, or difficulty of concoction. And so faith 
may sometimes in the habit lie smothered, and almost stifled 
with some spiritual lethargy, binding up the vital faculties 
from their proper motions. And therefore our faith must be 
an operative and expedite faith, — not stupified with any 
known and practised course of sin, which doth ever weaken 
our appetite unto grace, they being things inconsistent. 

The matter, then, we see of this trial, must be that vital 
qualification, which pre-disposeth a man for the receiving of 
Uiese holy mysteries ; and that is Faith. 

To enter into such a discourse of faith, as the condition of 
that subject would require, were a labour beyond the length 
of a short meditation, and, unto the present purpose, imper- 
tinent. We will therefore only take some generalities about 
the causes, nature, properties, or effects of faith, which are 
the usual mediums of producing assents ; and propose them 
by vray of interrogation to the conscience; that so the major 
and minor being contrived, the light of reason in the soul 
may make up a practical syllogism, and so conclude either 
its fitness or indisposition towards these holy mysteries. 

First, For the causes of faith, — not to meddle with that 
extraordinary cause, I mean, miracles; — the ordinary are the 
Word of God, and the Spirit of God : the Word as the seed, 
the Spirit as the formative and seminal virtue, making it ac- 
tive and effectual. For " the letter profiteth nothing ; it is 
the Spirit which quickeneth." What the formality of that 
particular action is, whereby the Word and Spirit do implant 
this heavenly branch of faith in the soul (faith itself having 
in its nature several distinct degrees, some intellectual of 


assent, some fiducial of relmnce and confidence, some of 
abnegation, renouncing, and flying out of ourselves, as in^ 
sufficient for the contrivance of our own salvation ; and so, 
in congruity of reason, requiring, in the causes producing 
them, several manners of causalities), as I take it not neces- 
sary, so neither am I able to determine. I shall there- 
fore touch upon some principal properties of either; all 
which, if they concur not unto the original production, do 
certainly to the radication and establishing of that divine 
virtue, and therefore may justly come within the compass of 
these premises ; from the evidences of which, assumed and 
applied, the conscience is to conclude the truth of its faith 
id Christ. 

And, first. For the Word, to let pass those properties which 
are only the inherent attributes, and not any transient ope- 
rations thereof (as its sufficiency, perspicuity, majesty, self^ 
authority, and the like), let us touch upon those which it 
carrieth along with it into the conscience, and I shall ob* 
serve but two ; its light ', and its power ^ : even as the sun, 
wherever it goes, doth still carry with it that brightness 
whereby it discovereth, and that influence whereby it quick* 
eneth, inferior bodies. 

First, For the Word, the properties thereof are, First, To 
make manifest, and to discover the hidden things of dark- 
ness ; for '* whatsoever doth make manifest, is light." The 
heart of man naturally is a labyrinth of darkness ' ; his 
worlos, works of darkness ; his prince, a prince of darkness, 
whose projects are full of darkness ; they are depths, de- 
vices, craftiness, methods. The- Word of God alone is that 
light which maketh manifest the secrets of the heart ; that 
glass wherein we may see, both ourselves '°, and all the de- 
vices of Satan against us, discovered °. 

And, secondly, By this act of manifesting, doth light dis- 
tinguish one thing from another. In the dark, we make no 
difierence of fair or foul, of right or wrong ways, but all 
are alike unto us. And so while we continue in the blind-* 

> 2 Pet. i. 19. Psalm cxix. ^ Rom. i. 16. * Rom. i. 21. m pian- 

gendK tenebrs, in quibus me mea facultas latet. Aug. Confes. 1. 10, c 32. 
BEphes. V. 11. Rev.ii. 24. 2Cor. ii. 11. xi. 3. 11. 1 Cor. xiv. 15^ 
James i. 1 John. ii. 11. 



nets of oar nataral estate, we are not able to perceive the 
distinction between divine and natural objects; but the Word 
of God, like a touchstone, discovereth the differences of truth 
and falsehood, good and evil, and, like fire, separateth the 
precious from the vile. 

Secondly, Light is -quickening, and a comforting thing. 
The glory of the saints *" is ' an inheritance of light ;^ and 
tbey are ' children of light,' who shall shine as * the sun in 
the firmament :'* whereas darkness is both the title and the 
portion of the wicked. The times of darkness p men make 
to be the times of their sleeping, which is an image of 
death ; it is in the light only that men work : and so ' the 
Word of God' is a comforting word; it was ' David's de- 
light "<*, his 'honeycomb/ And it is a quickening Word 
too, for it is the ' Word of life.' 

Lastly, Light doth assist, direct, and guide us in our 
ways ; and so doth the Word of God : it is '* a lantern 
to our feet, and a light unto our paths.'' 

Secondly, For the power of the Word, it is twofold, even 
as all power is : a governing power, in respect of that which 
is under it ; and a subduing power, in respect of that which 
is against it. 

First, The Word hath a governing power, in respect of 
those which are subject to it ; for which cause it is every 
where called a ' law, ' and a ' royal,' that is, a commanding 
sovereign 'law:' it bears dominion in the soul, conforming 
each faculty to itself, directeth the righteous, fumisheth 
auto good works, raiseth the drooping, bindeth the broken, 
comforteth the afflicted, reclaimeth the straggling. 

Secondly, It subdueth all enmity and opposition', dis- 
eomfiteth Satan, beateth down the strong holds of sin ' ; it 
is a sword to cut off, a weapon to subdue, a hammer to 
break in pieces whatsoever thought riseth up against it'. 
Now then, let a man's conscience make but these few de- 
mands unto itself: — 

Hath the light and power of God's Word discorered itself 
unto me ? Have the Scriptures made me known unto my- 
self? have they unlocked those crooked windings of my 

• Colos. i. Ephct. V. P John vi. 68. xli. 35. 1 Ptalm cxix. ' Hcb. 
ill. 12. • 2 Cor. X. 4. ' Jcr. xxiii. 29. 


i^erverse heart? have they manifested unto my soul^ not 
only those sins which the light of reason could have dis^ 
cemed, but even those privy corruptions, which I could not 
otherwise have known ? have they acquainted me with the 
devices of Satan, wherewith he lieth in wait to deceive? 
have they taught me to distinguish between truth and ap- 
pearances, between goodness and shadows, to find out the 
better part, the one necessary thing, and to adhere unto it? 
Am I sensible of the sweetness and benefits of his holy 
Word? doth it refresh my soul, and revive me unto every 
gdod^work? Is it unto my soul like the honeycomb ", like 
pleasant pastures % like springs of water, like the tree of 
life ^ ? Do I take it along with me wheresoever I go, to pre- 
serve me from stumbling and straggling in this valley of dark- 
ness, and shadow of death ? 

Again, Do I feel the power of it like a royal commanding 
law, bearing rule in my soul? Am I willing to submit and 
resign myself unto the obedience of it ? Do I not, against 
the clear and convincing evidence thereof, entertain in my 
bosom any the least rebellious thought? Do I spare no 
Agag, no ruling sin? withdraw no wedge or Babylonish 
garment, no gainful sin? make a league with no Gtbeonite, 
no pretending sin ? But do I suffer it, like Joshua, to de- 
stroy every Canaanite, even the sin, which, for sweetness, 
I rolled under my tongue ? Doth it batter the towers of Je- 
richo, break down the bulwarks of the flesh, lead into cap- 
tivity the corruptions of nature, mortify and crucify the old 
man in me ? Doth it minister comforts unto me, in all the 
ebbs and droopings of my spirit, even above the confluence 
of all earthly happiness, and against the combination of all 
outward discontents ? And do I set up a resolution thus 
always to submit myself unto the regiment thereof? in 
one word, doth it ' convince me of sin' in myself, and so hum- 
ble me to repent of it ;— ' of righteousness' in Christ, and so 
raise me to believe in it; — of his spiritual 'judgement' in go- 
verning the souls of true believers by the power of love, and 
beauty of his graces, and so constrain and persuade nie to 
be obedient unto it ? 

« Fsalm cxix. > Psalm xxiii. J Isai. xii. 3. xlix. 10. 


These are those good premises, out of which I may infaU 
libly concliide, that I have had the beginnings, the seeds of 
iaith shed abroad in my heart, which will certainly be fur- 
ther quickened by that holy Spirit, who is the next and prin- 
cipal producer of it 

The operations of this holy Spirit, being as numberless as 
mil the holy actions of the faithful, cannot therefore all pos- 
nbly be set down. I shall touch at some few, which are of 
principal and obrious observation. 

First of all, The Spirit is a Spirit of liberty' and a Spirit 
of prayer ; it takes away the bondage and fear * wherein we 
naturally are (for fear makes us run from God, as from a 
ponishing and revenging judge ; never any man in danger 
fled thither for succour, whence the danger issued ; fear is 
so far from this ^, that it betrayeth and suspecteth those very 
assistances which reason offereth) — and it enableth us to 
have access and recourse unto Ood himself, whom our sins 
had provoked ; and in our prayers, like Aaron and Hur, it 
sappoTteth our hands, that they do not faint nor fall. It 
raiseth the soul unto divine and unutterable petitions, and 
it meiteth the heart into sighs and groans that cannot be 

Secondly, The Holy Ghost is compared unto a * witness,' 
whose proper work it is to reveal and affirm some truth, 
which is called in question. There is in a man's bosom, by 
reason of that enmity and rebellion betwixt the flesh and the 
spirit, and by means of Satan'^s suggestions, — sundry dia- 
logues and conflicts, wherein Satan questioneth the title we 
pr^end to salvation. In this case, the spirit of a man (as 
one cannot choose but do, when his whole estate is made am- 
biguoas) staggereth, droopeth, and is much distressed : till 
at last the Spirit of God, by the light of the Word, the tes- 
timony of conscience, and the sensible motions of inward 
grace, layeth open our title, and helpeth us to read the 
evidence of it, and thus recomposeth our troubled thoughts. 
Thirdly, The Spirit of God is compared to a seal "^ ; the 
work of a seal is, first, to make a stamp and impression in 

> Rom. viii. 2. » 2Tifn. \,7, ^ Witd. xrii. 11. — ^Timor etiam auxtlla 

rdormidat. 6. Cur/. ^ Ephes. iv. 3S.— Cuicunque rci ponit ti;:nuin, ide6 

peois fti^nam, ne confuM cum aliis k te non potsit a|i^osci. .^ug, in Job. 


some other matter ; secondly, by that means to difference 
and distinguish it from all other things : and so the Spirit of 
God doth fashion the hearts of his people unto a conformity 
with Christ, framing in it holy impressions, and renewing 
the decayed image of Ood therein ; and thereby separateth 
them from sinners^ maketh them of a distinct common* 
wealth under a distinct government ; that whereas, before, 
they were subject to the same prince, laws, and desires with 
the world,— being now called out, they are new men, and 
have another character upon them. 

Secondly, A seal doth obsignate and ratify some cove- 
nant, grant, or conveyance to the person to whom it be- 
longeth. It is used amongst men for Sonfirraing their mu- 
tual trust in each other. And so certainly doth the Spirit of 
Ood pre-affect the soul with an evident taste of that glory, 
which in the day of redemption shall be actually conferred 
upon it ; and therefore it is called ' a hansel, earnest, and 
firsUfruit of life \' 

Fourthly, The Spirit of God is compared to an ointment. 
Now the properties of ointments are. First, To supple and 
assuage tumoura in the body ; and so doth the Spirit of 
God mollify the hardness of man's heart, and work it to a 
sensible tenderness, and quick apprehension of every sin. 

Secondly, Ointments do open and penetrate those places 
unto which they are applied: and so the unction * which the 
faithful have, teacheth them all things, and openeth their 
eyes to see the wonders of God's law, and the beauty of 
his graces. In vain are all outward sounds or sermons, un- 
less this Spirit be within to teach us ^. 

Thirdly, Ointments do refresh and lighten nature, because 
as they make way for the emission of all noxious humours, 
so likewise for the free passage and translation of all vital 
spirits, which do enliven and comfort. And so the Spirit of 
God is a Spirit of consolation, and a Spirit of life ; he is ths 
Comforter of his Church b. 

Lastly, Ointments in the Levitical law '', and in the state 

*^ Ephcs. i. 14. • 1 John ii. 2(^. f Sonus vcrborum nostrorum aures 

pcrcutit ; maglster intus est ; quantum ad me pertinet, omnibus locutus sum ; 
sed quibus unctio ilia intlis non loquitur, indocti rcdcurt: magisteria forin- 
secus adjutoria quaedam sunt ; cathedram in Cctlo habet, qui corda docet. Attg, 
in Job. Tract. 4. 9 John ziv. 16. ^ Exod. zxx. 25, 30. 


of the Jews^ were for coDsecration and sequestratioD of 
tbiiigs unto some holy use : as Christ is said to be anointed 
bj his Father ^ unto the economy of that great work, the 
fedemption of the world : and thus doth the Holy Ghost 
anoint us to be a royal priesthood, a holy nation ^, a people 
set at liberty. 

Fifthly and lastly, I find the Holy Ohost compared unto 
fire ^f whose properties are. 

First, To be of a very active and working nature, which 
stands never still, but is ever doing something. And so the 
Spirit of God, and his graces, are all operative in the hearts 
of the faithful ; they set all where they come, on work. 

Secondly, The nature and proper motion of fire is to as- 
cend ; other motions whatever it hath, arise from some out- 
ward and accidental restraint, limiting the nature of it. And 
so the Spirit of God ever raiseth up the afiiections from earth, 
fiuteneth the eye of faith upon eternity, ravisheth the soul 
with a fervent longing to be with the Lord, and to be ad- 
mitted unto the fruition of those precious joys which here it 
sospireth after. As soon as ever men have chosen Christ to 
be their head, then presently, ' ascendunt de terra,' they go 
up out of the land *", and have their conversation above, 
where Christ is. 

Thirdly, Fire doth inflame and transform every thing that 
is combustible, into the nature of itself. And so the Spirit 
of God filleth the soul with a divine fervour and zeal, which 
pvrgeth away the corruptions and dross of the flesh, with 
tlie spirit of judgement, and with the spirit of burning. 

Fourthly, Fire hath a purifying and cleansing property, to. 
draw away all noxious or infectious vapours out of the air» 
to separate all soil and dross from metals, and the like. 
And so doth the Spirit of God° cleanse the heart, and in hea- 
Tenly sighs, and repentant tears, cause to expire all those 
steams of corruptions, those noisome and infectious lusts 
which fight against the soul. 

Fifthly, Fire hath a penetrating and insinuating quality, 
whereby it creepeth into all the pores of a combustible 
body. And, in like manner, the holy Spirit of God doth 

• Heb. u 9. k I Pkt. ii. 9. » 1 Thcss. w. 19. ■ Hos. i. II. 

■ Spirittis ATflorifl, Isai. iv. 4. 


penetrate the heart, though full of insensible and inscrutable 
windings ; doth search the reins, doth pry into the closest 
nooks and inmost corners of the soul, there discovering and 
working out those secret corruptions which did deceive and 
defile us. 

Lastly, Fire doth illighten, and by that means communi-i 
cates the comforts of itself unto others. And so the Spirit, 
being a spirit of truth, doth illuminate the understanding, 
and doth dispose it likewise to discover its light unto others 
who stand in need of it : for this is the nature of God's 
grace. That when Christ hath manifested himself to the soul 
of one man, it setteth him on work to manifest Christ unto 
others ; as Andrew to Simon ^ ; and the woman of Samaria 
to the men of the city ^ ; and Mary Magdalen to the disci- 
ples ^i. It is like ointment poured forth, which cannot be 
concealed', ''We cannot,'^ saith the apostle, '^ but speak the 
things which we have heard and seen %" and " they who 
feared the Lord," in the prophet, '< spake often to one 

These propositions being thus set down, let the con- 
science assume them to itself in such demands as these : — 

Do I find in myself a freedom from that spirit of fear and 
bondage, which maketh a man, like Adam, to fly from the 
presence of Ood in his Word ? Do I find myself able, with 
affiance and firm hope, to fly unto Ood as unto an altar of 
refuge in time of trouble, and to call upon his name? and 
this not only with an outward battology and lip-labour, but 
by the spirit to cry 'Abba, Father?' Doth the testimony 
of God's Spirit settle and compose such doubtings in me, as 
usually arise out of the war between flesh and faith? Do I 
find a change and transformation in me from the vanity of 
my old conversation unto the image of Christ, and of that 
original justice wherein I was created? Do I find myself 
distinguished and taken out from the world, by heavenly- 
mindedness and raised aflections, by renouncing the de» 
liu.hts, abandoning the corruptions, suppressing the motions 
of secular and carnal thoughts? solacing my soul, not 
with perishable and inconstant contentments, but with that 

' • John i. 41. P John iv. 29. <1 John xx. 17. ' Prov. xxvii. 16. 

• Acts iv. 30. * Mai. iii. 16. 


blessed hope of a city made without hands, immortal, unde- 
filed, and that fadeth not away ? Do I find in my heart an 
habitual tenderness, and aptness to bleed, and relent at the 
danger of any sin, though mainly crossing my carnal de* 
lights, and whatever plots and contrivances 1 might lay for 
furthering mine own seeular ends, if, by indirectness, sinful 
engagements, and unwarrantable courses, I could advance 
them ? Do I find myself, in reading or hearing God*s 
Word, inwardly wrought upon to admire the wisdom, assent 
tfDto the truth, acknowledge the holiness, and submit myself 
onto the obedience of it ? Do 1, in my ordinary and best 
composed thoughts, prefer the tranquillity of a good con- 
science and the comforts of Ood's Spirit, before all out- 
side and glittering happiness, notwithstanding any discou- 
ragements that may be incident to a conscionable conver- 
sation ? 

Lastly, Are the graces of God operative and stirring in my 
soul : is my conversation more heavenly, my zeal more fer- 
vent, my corruptions more discovered, each faculty in its se- 
veral sphere, more transformed into the same image with 
Christ Jesus? Are all these things in me ? — or, in defect of 
any, do the desires and longings of my soul after them, ap* 
pear to be sincere and unfeigned, by my daily employing all 
my strength, and improving each advantage to further my 
proficiency in them ? Then I have an evident and infallible 
token, that having thus far partaken of the Spirit of life, and, 
by consequence, of faith, whereby our souls are fastened 
onto Christ, — I may with comfort approach unto this holy 
table, wherein that life which I have received, may be fur- 
ther nourished and confirmed to me. 

The second medium, formerly propounded for the trial of 
faith« was the nature and essence of it. To find out the 
formal nature of faith, we must, first, consider, that all faith 
is not a saving faith j for there is a faith that worketh a 
trembling ", as in the devils ; and there is a faith which 
worketh life and peace', as in those that are justified. 
Faith, in general, is an assent of the reasonable soul^ unto 
revealed truths. Now every medium or inducement to an 
assent, is drawn either from the light which the object itself 

• James ti. 19. * Rom. v. 1. y jifuin, 22. quaest. 1. art. 4. 


proposeth to the faculty ; and this the blessed apostle ' con- 
tradistinguisheth from faith, by the name of ' light :' — or else 
it is drawn from the authority and authenticalness of a nar- 
rator, upon whose report while we rely, without any evi- 
dence of the thing itself, the assent which we produce, is an 
assent of faith or credence. The Samaritans * did first assent 
unto the miracles of Christ, by the report of the woman ; and 
this was faith : but afterwards they assented, because them- 
selves had heard him speak ; and this was sight. Now both 
those assents have annexed unto them either evidence and in- 
fallibility, or only probability, admitting degrees of fear and 
suspicion. That faith is a certain assent, and 'certitudine rei,' 
in regard of the object, even above the evidence of demon- 
strative conclusions, is on all hands confessed : because how- 
soever, 'quantum ad certitudinem mentis,' in regard of our 
weakness and distrust, we are often subject to stagger, — yet, 
in the thing itself, it dependeth upon the infallibility of 
God^s own Wprd^ which hath said it, and, by consequence^ 
is nearer unto him who is the fountain of all truth; and 
therefore doth more share in the properties of truth, which 
are certainty and infaUibility, than any thing proved by mere 
natural reason : and the assent produced by it, is differenced 
from suspicion, hesitancy, or dubitation, in the opinion of 
schoolmen themselves. 

Now then, inasmuch as we are bound to yield an evident 
assent unto the articles of our Christian faith, both intellec- 
tual in regard of the truth, and fiducial, in regard of the 
goodness of them respectively to our own benefit and salva* 
tion; — necessary it is, that the understanding be convinced 
of these two things : — 

First, That God is of infallible authority, and cannot lie 
nor deceive : which thing is a principle, unto which the 
light of nature doth willingly assent 

And, secondly. That this authority, which in faith I thus 
rely upon, ^is, indeed and infallibly, God's own authority. 
The means whereby I come to know that, may be either ex- 
traordinary, as revelation, such as was made to prophets 
concerning future events ; or else ordinary and common to 
all the faithful. 

■ 2 Cor. V. 7. • John iv. 


For discovery of them, we must agaiu rightly distinguish 
the double act of faith. 

IsL That acty whereby we assent unto the general truth of 
the object in itself. 

2nd. That act, whereby we rest persuaded of the goodness 
thereof unto us in particular, with respect unto both ; — with 
these doth a double question arise :— > 

First. Touching the means, whereby a believer comes to 
know, that the testimony and authority within the promises 
lod truths of Scripture he relieth upon, are certainly and in- 
{sllibly God^s own authority. Which question is all one 
with that. How a Christian man may infallibly be assured, 
* iU ut Don possit subesse falsum/ that the holy Scriptures 
are the very dictates of Almighty God. 

For the resolution whereof, in a very few words, we must 
first agree. That as no created understanding could ever have 
invented the mystery of the gospel (it being the counsel of 
God's own bosom, and containing such manifold wisdom, as 
the angels are astonished at ^) ; so it being dictated and re- 
vealed by Almighty Ood, such is the deepness, excellency, 
and holiness of it, that the natural man', whose faculties are 
vitiated by original and contracted corruption, cannot, by 
the strength of his own nuked principles, be able to under- 
stand it : for notwithstanding the grammatical sense of the 
words, and the logical coherence and connexion of conse- 
quences, may be discerned by the common light of ordinary 
reason ; yet our Saviour's !^«yx®^' conviction, and the apos- 
tle's awi^ii and faifipaovi^, 'demonstration and manifestation' 
of the Spirit, is a thing surpassing the discovery and com- 
prehension of natural men : and therefore it is called '* a 
knowledge which passeth knowledge." And this doth plainly 
appear upon this ground : — one principal end, we know, of 
the gospel is, ** to cast down every high thing that exalteth 
itself against the knowledge of God, and to brincr into cap- 
tivitj every thought to the obedience of Christ •*." So that 
vntil such time as the light of evangelical truth have thus far 
prevailed over the conscience, certain it is, that the practical 
judgement is not yet fully convinced of it, or acquainted with 

^ Vide Chrysott. Horn. 7. in 1 Cor. < Ubi ad profundiutem Sacrmmento- 

rum pervencam est,ocnoitPlatt>iiioorum ailigavit subtilitas. — Spirit. 8. 
JohnxvLS. iCor. ii. 4. 2Cor. iv.2. Eph. iv. 19. •! 2 Cor. x. 4, 5. 



that polytheism and corrupt worship which was amongst 

Natural reason then being (notwithstanding any remain- 
ders of strength or vigour in it) too impotent to discover 
the certainty of God^s Word, and unable alone to present 
the gospel as ' objectum credibile,* and as the infallible 
oracle of God ; — It remainetb, that we consider by what 
further means this may be effected. And, in one word, 
there is a threefold different, but subordinate casuality, re- 
quisite to the founding of this assent ^ i: — 

The first is, ministerial, dispositive, and introductory by 
ecclesiastical dispensation, which is likewise twofold : — 

Ist. To those that are bred in her bosom, and matricu- 
lated by baptism, and so from their infancy trained up to 
have a reverend and due esteem of her authority ; there is 
her act of tradition, delivering to her children in this age, as 
she herself, by a continued succession, hath also received : 
this is an indubitate principle to be rested on. That holy 
Scriptures are the Word of God. 

2nd. If the church meet with such as are without her 
bosom, and so will not ascribe any thing to her maternal 
authority in testification and tradition, except she can, 
by strength of argument, evince what she affirmeth, — she is 
not in that case destitute of her * arma prsslusoria,' valid and 
sufficient arguments to make preparation in minds, not ex- 
tremely possessed with prejudice and perverseness, for the 
entertaining of this principle. 

As first. That all sciences have their hypotheses and postu- 
lata ; certain principles which are to be granted, and not 
disputed ; and that even in lower sciences, and more com- 
mensurate to human reason ; yet, ' oportet^ discentem cre- 
dere,^ he must first believe principles for granted, and then, 
after some progress and better proficiency in the study, he 
shall not fail more clearly to perceive the infallibility of them 
by their own light. That therefore which is granted unto all 
other sciences, more descending to the reach of human 
judgement than divinity doth, cannot, without unreasonable 
pertinacy, be denied unto it; especially considering, that 
of all so many millions of men, who, in all ages, have been 

^ Aug. de Doctr. Chriiit. in Proceni.— f/ooArerJib. 3. sect. 8. — Camer. de Ecclet. 
page 411. 


thus contented to believe, first, upon ecclesiastical tradition 
and suggestion, there hath not, in any age, been enough to 
make up a number, who, upon inducements o( argument and 
debate, have forsaken the Scriptures at the last ; — which is a 
strong presumption, that they all who persisted in the em- 
bracing of them, did, after trial and further acquaintance, by 
certain taste and experience, find the testimony and tradition 
of the Church to be therein faithful and certain. 

Secondly, That man being made by God, and subject to 
bis will, and owing unto him worship and obedience, which 
in reason ought to be prescribed by none ether than by him 
to whom it is to be performed ; that, therefore, requisite and 
congruous it is, that the will of God should be made known 
unto his creature, in such a manner, and by such means, as 
that he shall not, without his own wilful neglect, mistake it : 
inasmuch an law is the rule of obedience, and promulgation 
the force of law. 

Thirdly, That no other rule or religiion can be assigned, 
either of Pagans or Mahumetans, which may not manifestly, 
by the strength of right reason, be justly disproved, as not 
proceeding from God, either by the lateness of its original, 
or the shortness of its continuance, or the vanity and brutish- 
ness of its niles, or the contradictions within itself, or by 
K>me other apparent imperfection. And for that of the Jews, 
notwithstanding it had its original from Divine ordination, 
yet from thence likewise it may be made appear out of those 
Scriptures which they confess, to have received its period 
and abrogation : God promising, that as he had the first 
time shaken the mount in the publication of the law, and 
first founding of the Mosaical pedagogy, so he would once 
again shake both the earth and the heaven, in the promulga- 
tion of the gospel. To say nothing, that force of reason 
will easily conclude, that, with such a God, as the old Scrip- 
tures set forth the Lord to be, the blood of bulls and goats 
could not possibly make expiation for sin, but must neces- 
sarily relate to some greater sacrifice, which is in the gospel 
revealed. And besides, whereas the Lord was wont, for the 
greatest sins of that people, namely, idolatry, and pollution 
of his worship, to chastise them notwithstanding with more 
tolerable punishments, (their two greatest captivities having 
been that of Egypt, which was not much above two hun- 

L 2 


dred years,— and that of Babylon^M^hich was but seventy), yet 
now, when they hate idolatry as much as ever their fathers 
loved it, they have lain under wrath to the uttermost, under 
the heaviest judgement of dispersion, contempt, and base- 
ness, and that for fifteen hundred years together : a reason 
whereof can be no other given, than that fearful imprecation, 
which hath derived the stain of the blood of Christ upon the 
children of those that shed it, unto this day ^ 

Fourthly, The prevailing of the gospel by the ministry 
of but a few, and those unarmed, impotent, and despised 
men; and that too, against all the opposition which power, 
wit, or malice could call up, making it appear, that Christ 
was to rule in the midst of his enemies ; — when Lucian, 
Porphyry, Libanius, and Julian, by their wits ; Nero, Severus, 
Dioclesian, and other tyrants, by their swords ; the whole 
world, by their scorn, malice, and contempt, and all the 
arts which Satan could suggest, laboured the suppression 
and extinguishing of it : — the prevailing, I say, of the gos- 
pel by such means, against such power, in the midst of such 
contempt and danger, and that over such persons, as were, by 
long custom and tradition from their fathers, trained up in a 
religion extremely contrary to the truth, and very favourable 
to all vicious dispositions ; and upon such conditions to deny 
themselves, to hate the world and the flesh, to suffer joy- 
fully the loss of credit, friends, peace, quiet, goods, liber- 
ties, life and all, for the name of a crucified Saviour, whom 
their eyes never saw, and whom their ears daily heard to be 
blasphemed ; — such a prevailing as this must needs prove 
the original of the gospel to be divine : for had not God 
favoured it as much as men hated it, impossible it must 
needs have been for it to have continued. 

Fifthly, That the doctrines, therein delivered, were con- 
firmed by miracles and divine operations. And certain it is, 
that God would not, in so wonderful a mauner, have ho* 
noured the figments of men, pretending his name and autho- 
rity to the countenancing of their own inventions. And 
for the historical truth of those miracles, they were not in 
those ages, when the church, in her apologies, did glory of 
them,— and when, if feigned, they might most easily have 

1 Matth. xxvii. 25. 


been disproved, — nor yet by those enemies, who marvellously 
maligned and persecuted Christian religion, ever gainsayed. 

Lastly, That were it not so that ' omne mendacium est 
pellucidum/ and hath ever something in it to bewray itself, 
yet it could noCbe ' opene pretium' for them to lie, in pub- 
lishing a doctrine whereby they got nothing but shame, 
stripes, imprisonments, persecution, torments, death. Espe- 
cially since the holiness of their lives, their humility in de- 
nying all glory to themselves, and ascribing all to God, 
most needs make it appear to any reasonable man, that they 
did not lay any project for their own glory, which they pur- 
posely disclaimed, refused to receive from the hands of such 
as offered it, yea, and registered their own infirmities upon 
perpetual records. 

With these and many other the like arguments, is the 
church furnished to prepare the minds of men, swayed but 
with ordinary ingenuity, and respect to common reason, at 
the least to look further, and make some sad enquiry into 
the doctrine of the gospel ; — there being therein especially 
promises of good things, made without money or price, of 
incomprehensible value, and of eternal continuance. 

But now though a philosopher may make a very learned 
discourse to a blind man, of colours, yet it cannot be, that 
any formal and adequate notion of them should be fashioned 
in his mind, till such time as the faculty be restored ; and 
then all that preceding lecture being compared with what he 
afterward actually seeth in the things themselves, doth mar- 
vellously settle and satisfy his mind. So though the church, 
by these and the like inducements, doth prepare the minds 
of men to assent to divine authority in the Scriptures ;— yet 
till the natural ineptitude and disposition of the soul be 
healed, and it raised to a capacity of supernatural light, the 
work is no whit brought to maturity. 

Two things, therefore, do yet remain after this ministry 
and manuduction of the church. 

IsC An act of the grace of God's Spirit, healing the 
nnderstanding, and opening the eye that it may see won- 
ders in the law, writing the law in the heart; and so making 
it a 6t receptacle for so great a light. 

2nd. The subject, being thus, by the outward motives from 
the church prepared, and by the inward graceof God repaired; 


Then, lastly, the object itself, being proposed, and being 
maturely considered, by reason thus guided and thus assist* 
edy doth then show forth such a heavenly light of holiness, 
purity, majesty, authority, efficacy, mercy, wisdom, com- 
fort, perfection ; in one word, 8uch an unsearchable treasury 
of internal mysteries, as that now the soul is as fully able, 
by the native light of the Scriptures, to distinguish their 
divine original and authenticalness, from any other mere hu- 
man writings, as the eye is to observe the difference between 
a beam of the sun, and a blaze of a candle. 

The second question is. How the soul comes to be settled 
in this persuasion, that the goodness of these truths, founded 
on the authority of God, doth particularly belong unto it ? 
Whereunto I answer in one word, that this ariseth from a 
twofold testimony, grounded upon a preceding work of 
God's Spirit: — 

For, first. The Spirit of God putteth his fear into the hearts 
of his servants, and purgeth their consciences, by applying 
the blood of Christ unto them, from dead works ; which af- 
fections, strongly and very sensibly altering the constitution 
of the mind, must needs notably manifest themselves unto 
the soul, when, by any reflex act, she shall set herself to look 
inward upon her own operations. 

This being thus wrought by the grace of God, thereupon 
there ensueth a twofold testimony. The first, of a man's own 
spirit, as we see in the examples of Job *", David ", Heze-> 
kiah % Nehemiah p, Saul "i, and others ; namely, that he de- 
sireth to fear God's name, to keep a conscience void of of- 
fence, to walk in all integrity towards God and men ; from 
which, and the like personal qualifications, arise joy in the 
Holy Ghost, peace of conscience ', and experience of sweet- 
ness in the fellowship with the Father and his Son. Se- 
condly, the testimony of the holy Spirit*, bearing witness to 
the sincerity of those affections, and to the evidence and 
truth of those persuasions, which himself by his grace stirred 
up. So then. First, The Spirit of God writeth the law in the 
heart, upon obedience whereunto ariseth the testimony of a 
man's own spirit : and then he writeth the promises in the 

aJob. xxxi. n Psalm cxvi. 1. xxvi. 1. 11. • Isai. xxxviii. 3. P Nehem. 
xiii. 14. 22. <l Acts xxW. 16. r John xxi. 15. 17. 2 Cor. i. 12. 

*Rom. viii. 16. 


heart, and by them ratifieth and confirmeth a man's hopea 
and jojB onto him. 

1 Qoderstand not all this, which hath been spoken gene- 
lalJy of all assents unto objects divine, which (I take it) in 
regaxd of their evidence, firmness, and stability, do much 
differ according unto the divers tempers of those hearts in 
which they reside ; but principally unto the chief of those 
assents, which are proper unto saving faith. For assent, as 
I said,- in general, is common unto devils with men ; and 
therefore to make up the nature of true fnith, there is re- 
quired some differencing property, whereby it may be con- 
stituted in the entire essence of saving faith In each sense 
we may observe, that unto the general faculty, whereby it is 
able to perceive objects proportioned to it, there is annexed 
ever another property, whereby, according to the several na- 
tures of the objects proposed, it is apt to delight or be ill- 
uSected with it. For example, our ear apprehendeth all 
sounds in common ; but according as is the harmony or dis- 
cord of the sound, it is apt to take pleasure or offence at it 
Our taste reacheth unto whatsoever is the object of it ; but 
yet some things there are which grievously offend the palate, 
others which as much delight it: and so it is in divine assents. 
Some things in some subjects bring along with them trem* 
blings, horrors, fearful expectations, aversation of mind, un- 
willing to admit or be pursued with the evidence of Divine 
truths, as it is in devils, and despairing sinners : other as- 
sents, on the contrary, do beget serenity of mind, a sweet 
complacency, delight, adherence, and comfort. Into the 
hearts of some men, doth the truth of God shine like light- 
ning, with a penetrating and amazing brightness ; in others, 
like the sun, with comfortable and refreshing beams. 

For understanding whereof, we are to observe \ that, in 
matters practical and divine (and so in all others, though 
not in an equal measure) the truth of them is ever mutually 
embraced, and, as it were, infolded in their goodness : for 
as truth doth not delight the understanding, unless it be a 
good truth, that is, such as unto the understanding bears a 
relation of convenience (whence arise diversities in nien^s 
studies, because all men are not alike affected with all kinds 
of truth); so good doth no way affect the will, unless it be a 

< Dr. Jackson, of Fiiih. 


true and real good : otherwise it proves but like the banquet 
of a dreaming man", which leaves him as hungry and empty, 
as when he lay down. Goodness then, added unto truth, 
doth,^together with the assent^ generate a kind of rest and 
delight in the heart on which it shineth. 

THovf goodness, moral or divine, hath a double relation : a 
relation unto that original, in dependency on, and propin* 
quity whereunto, it consisteth ; and a relation unto that fa- 
culty or subject, wherein it resideth, and whereunto it is pro- 
posed. Good, in the former sense, is that which bears in it 
a proportion unto the fountain of good : for every thing is in 
itself so far good, as it resembles that original which is the 
author and pattern of it, and that is God. In the second 
sense, that is good, which bears a conveniency and fitness to 
the mind which entertains it : good, I mean not always io 
nature, but in apprehension. ' All divine truths are in them- 
selves esseptially good ; but yet they work not always de- 
light and comfort in the minds of men, until proportioned 
and fitted unto the faculty that receives them. As the sun 
is in itself equally light ; the water, in a fountain, of itself 
equally sweet : but according unto the several temper of the 
eye, which perceiveth the one, and of the vessel through 
which the other passeth, they may prove to be offensive and 

But now further, when the faculty is thus fitted to receive 
a good, it is not the generality of that good which pleaseth 
neither, but the particular propriety and interest thereunto. 
Wealth and honour, as it is in itself good, so is it likewise in 
the apprehension of most men ; yet we see, men are apt to 
be grieved at it in others, and to look on it with an evil eye; 
nothing makes them to delight in it, but possession and 
propriety unto it. I speak here only of such divine good 
things, as are by God appointed to make happy his crea- 
ture, namely, our blessed Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, his 
obedience, satisfaction, resurrection, ascension, intercession, 
glory, and whatever else it is, of which he hath been unto 
his church the author, purchaser, conveyor, and foundation. 
Now unto these, as unto other good things, there is a 
double right belonging by free donation from him unto the 

** Isai. xxix. 8. 


cbarch; a right of propriety unto the thin^, and a right 
of possession in the thing. This latter is that which here 
on earth the church suspireth, and longeth after ; that 
other only it is which here we have, and that confinned 
onto us by a double title. The first, as the land of Canaan 
was confirmed unto the Israelites by some few clusters 
of grapes, and other fruits of the land ; 1 mean. By the 
earnest first-fruits and pledges of the Spirit. Secondly, 
By the free promise of Christ, who cannot deceive. Thus 
then at last we have discovered the proper, ultimate, and 
complete object of faith, which is all divine truth and good- 
ness ; unto which there is a right and propriety given to all 
SQch as are Christ^s, though not in actual possession, yet in 
an infallible promise ; and the acts by which they entertain 
that object, assenting, adhering, and delighting in it as 
particularly good. By these two, to wit, the object and 
the act (as all other habits of the mind), so is this of faith 
to be defined. So that from these observations, I take it, 
we may conclude, that the nature of saving faith admits of 
some such explication as this : — 

Faith is a particular, personal, applicative, and experi- 
mental assent unto all divine revelations, as true, and good, 
not in general only, but unto me, — arising out of that sweet 
correspondency which is between the soul, and from that 
relish and experience of sweetness, which the soul, being 
raised and enlightened by God's Spirit, doth find in them. 

I have been over tedious in finding out this definition of 
the nature of faith; and therefore, briefly, from these grounds, 
let the conscience impartially examine itself in such demands 
as these : Do I find in myself a most willing assent unto the 
whole compass of divine truths, not out of constraint, nor 
with grief, reluctancy, and trembling ot spirit? Doth God's 
Word shine on me, not like lightning, which pierceth the 
eyelids, though they shut themselves against it ; but doth 
this find in my heart a welcome and a willing admittance ? 
Am I glad, when I find any divine truth discovered, of which 
formerly I had been ignorant? Do 1 not of purpose close 
mine eyes, forbear the means of true information, stifle and 
smother divine principles, quench the motions and dictates 
of God's Spirit in me? Am I not ignorant willingly of such 
things, the mention whereof would disquiet me in my bosom 


sin, and the enquiry whereunto would cross the reserved 
resolutions and unwarrantable projects which I am peremp- 
tory to prosecute? Am I not so in league with mine own cor- 
ruptions "", that I could heartily wish some divine truths 
were not revealed, rather than, being so, they should sting 
my conscience, and disable me from secure enjoying some 
beloved sin ? Do I assent unto all divine truths as alike 
precious, with equal adherence ? Am I as little displeased 
with the truth of God^s threats as of his promises ? Do they 
as powerfully work upon me to reform, — as the other, to re- 
fresh me ? Do I believe them all, not only in the thesis or 
general, but in the hypothesis, and respectively to mine 
own particular ? 

Again, Do I find my heart fitted unto the goodness of 
divine truth ? Am I forward to embrace with much afifection, 
and loving delight, whatsoever promises are made unto me ? 
Do I find a spiritual taste and relish in the food of life, 
which, having once tasted of, I find myself weaned from the 
love of the world ? from admiring the honours, pursuing the 
preferments, hunting after the applause, adoring the glories, 
and selling my soul and liberty for the smiles thereof? Doth 
the sweetness of those promises, like the fruits brought by 
the spies from Canaan, so much affect me, as that to come 
to the full possession thereof, I am at a point with all other 
things, ready to encounter any Canaanite, or sinful lust that 
shall oppose me, to adventure on any difficulties that might 
deter me, to pass through a sea, a wilderness, through fiery 
serpents, the darts of Satan; yea, if need were, by the 
gates of hell ? Briefly, do I find in my heart (however in 
itself fro ward, and wayward from any good) a more than 
natural liveliness and vigour, which disposeth me to approve 
of the word, promises, and purchases of my salvation, as of 
an invaluable jewel ; so precious, as that all things in this 
world are but as dung in comparison ? to a most fervent 
expectation and longing after them ; to a heavenly persua- 
sion of my happiness by tliem ; and, lastly, to a sweet de- 
light in them, working peace of conscience, and joy in the 
Holy Ghost, a love of Christ's appearing, an endeavour to 
be like unto him, and a desire above all things to be with 

*' Vide August, de Doctr. Christian. 1. 2. c. 7. 


him, and enjoy him, (which are alt so many secret and pure 
issues of the Spirit of adoption)? I may, from these pre- 
mise, infallibly conclude, that I am possessed of a lively 
frith, and thereby of those first-fruits, which bring with 
them ftn assurance of that great harvest of glory in the day 
of redemption: and in the mean time, having this wedding, 
garment, I may, with much confidence, approach God's 
table, to receive there the renewal of my patent unto life. 


Of the third and last mearu for the trial and demonstration of 
faith; namely, from effects or properties thereof. 

The last medium which was assigned for the examination 
of faith, was the properties or effects of it; by which, as by 
steps, we raise our thoughts to the apprehension of faith 
itself. To assign all the consequences or effects of faith, is 
a labour as difficult, as it would be tedious. I decline both; 
and shall therefore touch upon some special ones, which if 
present, all the rest in their order follow with a voluntary 

And now, as, in the soul of man, there are two kinds of 

operations : one primitive and substantial, which we call the 

act of information ; others secondary and subsequent, as, to 

understand, to will, to desire, and the like ; — so faith, being 

(as bath been formerly observed) in some sort the ' actus 

jHimus,' or form of a Christian, I mean, that very ' medium 

nnionis/ whereby the soul of man is really united to Christ, 

hath, therefore, in it two kinds of operations: the first, as it 

were, substantial, — the other, secondary. The former of these 

is that act of vivification or quickening, by which, faith doth 

make a roan to live the life of Christ ', by knitting him unto 

Chrnt, as it were, with joints and sinews % and ingrafting 

him into the nnity of that vine, whose fruit is life *. 

That which doth quicken, is ever of a more excellent na- 
ture, than that which is quickened. Now the soul, being a 
spirit, and therefore within the compass of highest created 

* Fdwcditioo, p. 484. :rG«I.ii. 20. « £phct. iv. 16. • John zv. I » 2. 


perfectioQ, cannot possibly be quickened by any but faioi 
who is above all perfection, which the Heathen themseWes 
have acknowledged to be God : for St. Paul hath observed 
it out of theniy that '' in him we live, and move, and have 
our being." Now unto life, necessary it is, that there be a 
union unto the principal, or original of life ; which, to the 
soul, is God. In regard of the essence of God, nothing can 
be separated from him, he being immense and filling all 
things : but yet in regard of his voluntary communication 
and dispensing of himself unto the creature, the manner of 
his special presence doth much vary. Unto this special union 
of the creature to God (in virtue whereof, the creature is 
quickened, and doth in some sort live the life of God), there 
is necessarily pre-supposed some sinew or ligament, which 
may be therefore called the medium and instrument of life. 
This knot in the estate of man's creation, was the obedience 
of the law, or the covenant of works, which, while man did 
maintain firm and unshaken, he had an evident communion 
with God in all those vital influences, which his mercy was 
pleased to shed down upon him : but once untying this knot, 
and cutting asunder that bond, there did immediately ensue 
a separation between God and man, and, by an infallible 
consequence, death likewise. But God, being rich in mercy, 
and not willing to plunge his creature into eternal misery, 
found a new means to communicate himself unto him, by 
appointing a more easy covenant, which should be the se- 
cond knot of our union unto him,— only to believe in Christ 
incarnate, who had done that for us which we ourselves had 
formerly undone. And this new covenant is the covenant of 
' faith, by which the just do live ' 

But here a man may object. That it is harder for one to 
discern that he doth live in Christ, than that he believe in 
him ; and therefore this can be no good mean by which we 
mav find out the truth of our faith. 

To this we answer. That life must be discerned by those 
tokens, which are inseparable from it. And they are First, A 
desire of nourishment, without which it cannot continue : for 
Nature hath imprinted in all things a love of its own being 
and preservation, and, by consequence, a prosecution of all 
such means as may preserve, and a removal of all such, as 
niay endanger or oppress it. Secondly, A conversion of 


noarahment into the nature of the body. Thirdly, Aug- 
mentation and growth, till we come unto that stature, which 
oar life requires. Fourthly, Participation of influences from 
the vital parts, the head, the heart, and others, with confor- 
mity unto the principal mover amongst them : for a dead part 
it ever withered, immovable, and disobedient to the other 
&cuitie8. Fifthly, A sympathy and communion in pains or 
delights with the fellow-members. Lastly, A free use of our 
senses and other faculties, by all which we may infallibly 
conclude that a creature liveth. 

And so it is in faith. It frameth the heart to delight in 
all such spiritual food, as is requisite thereunto ; disposing 
it upon the view, at least upon the taste, of any poisonous 
thing, to be pained with it, and cast it up. The food that 
nourisbeth faith, is, as in little infants, of the same quality 
with that which begat it, even the Word of life, wherein 
there is sincere milk, and strong meat. The poison which 
endangereth it is heresy, which tainteth the root of faith, 
and goeth about to pervert the assent and impiety, which 
blastetb and corrupteth the branches. All which, the soul 
of a /aithful man abhorreth. 

Secondly, In faith there is a conversion likewise, the virlue 
whereof ever there resides, where the vital power is. In na- 
tural life, the power of altering is in the man, and not in the 
meat; and therefore the meat is assimilated to our flesh: 
but in spiritual life, the quickening faculty is in the meat; 
and therefore the man is assimilated and transformed into 
the quality of the meat. And indeed, the word is not cast 
into the heart of man, as meat into the stomach, to be con- 
verted into the corrupt quality of nature ; but rather as seed 
into the ground, to convert that earth which is about it, into 
the quality of itself. 

Thirdly, Where faith is, there is some growth in grace: 
we grow nearer unto Heaven, than when we first believed; an 
improvement of our knowledge in the mysteries of godliness, 
which like the sun, shines brighter and bnghter unto the 
pierfect day : an increase of willmgness to obey God in all 
things. And as .in the growth of natural bodies, if they be 
sound and healthy, so in this of faith likewise it is universal 
and uniform : one part doth not grow, and another shrivel ; 
neither doth one part grow too big, and disproportioned for 



another ; tbe head doth not increaae in knowledge, and the 
heart decay in love; the heart doth not swell in zeal, and 
the hand wither in charity ; but, in the nourishment of faith, 
every grace receives proporlionably its habitual confirma- 
tion ''. 

Fourthly, By the spiritual life of faith, th- faithful do 
partake of auch heavenly influences, as are fnmi the head 
shed down upon the members. The influences of Christ in 
his church are many, and peradventure, in many things, im- 
perceptible. Some principal I conceive to be the influence of 
his truth, and the influence of his power. His truth is ex- 
hibited in teaching the church, which is illumination ; hia 
power partly in ^iding the church, and partly in defending 
it ; that, is direction,— this, protection. Now in all these do 
they, who are in Christ, according to the measnre and pro- 
portion of his Spirit, certainly communicate. They have 
their eyes more or less opened, like Paul, to see the terrors 
of God, the fearfulness of sin, the rottenness of a spiritnal 
death, the preciousneas of Christ and his promises, the 
glimpses and rays of that glory which shall be revealed. 
They have their feet loosened with Lazarus, that ihey can 
now rise, and walk, and leap, and praise God. Lastly. They 
are strengthened and clothed with the whole arms of God, 
which secureth them against all the malice or force of Satan. 

Fifthly, Where faith is, there is a natural compassion in 
all the members of Christ towards each other. If sin be by 
one member committed, the other members are troubled for 
it; because they are all partakers of that Spirit, which is 
grieved with the sins of his people. If one part be afflicted, 
the other are interested in the pain; because all are united 
together in one head, which is the fountain and original 
of sense. The members of the church are not like para- 
lytic and unjointed members, which cannot move towards 
the succour of each other. 

Lastly, Where faith is, there all the faculties are expedite 
and free in their operations: the eye open to see the won- 
ders of God's law ; the ear open to hear his voice ; the 
mouth open to praise his name ; the arm enlarged towarda 
tbe relief of his servants ; the whole man tenderly sensible 
of all pressures, and repugnant qualities. 

1' Kl^lKVl.. IC. 


The secondary effects of faith, are, amoDgst sundry others, 
such as these : 

First, A love and liking of those spiritual truths, which, by 
faith, I assent unto. For saving faith being an assent with 
adherence and delight, contrary to that of devils, which is 
with trembling and horror (which delight is a kind of relish, 
and experience of the goodness of those objects we assent 
unto); it necessarily follows, even from the dictate of na- 
ture, (which instructeth a man to love that which worketh 
in him delight and comfort) that, from this assent, must 
arise an approbation aud love of those objects, whence doth 
issue such sweetness. 

A second effect is, affiance and hope, confidently, for the 
present, relying on the goodness, and, for the future, waiting 
on the power of God, which shall to the full in time perform 
what he hath in his Word promised, when once the mind of 
a man is wrought so to assent unto divine promises made in 
Christ, as to acknowledge an interest and propriety unto 
them; and that to be at last actually performed not by a 
aian, who is subject both to unfaithfulness in perseverance, 
and to disability in performance of his promises (for every 
man is a liar, either by imposture, ready to deceive, — or by 
impotency, likely to disappoint the expectations of those 
who rely upon him); but by Almighty God, who, the better 
to confirm our faith in him, hath, both by his Word and 
oath, engaged his fidelity, and is altogether omnipotent to 
do what he hath purposed. Impossible it is but, from such 
an assent, grounded on the veracity, and on the all-suffici- 
ency of God, there should result in the mind of a faithful 
man, a confident dependence on such promises, renouncing 
in the mean time all self-dependence, as in itself utterly im- 
potent, — and resolving, in the midst of temptations, to rely 
on him, to hold fast his mercy, and the profession of his 
faith without wavering, — having an eye to the recompense 
of reward, and being assured, that he who hath promised, 
will certainly bring it to pass. 

A third effect of faith is, joy and peace of conscience ; for 
*' being justified by feith, we have peace with God*'." The 

• 'Otfor yifi ripu^w Icri rd wurr9v6fMifO¥f rocrolhop iymrSrai. Just. Martyr, 
Quant. Ortbod. q. 8. ^ Rora. v. I 


mind is, by faith and the impression of sweetness in God^s 
promises, composed unto a settled calmness and serenity. I 
do not mean a dead peaces an immobility and sleepiness of 
conscience, like the rest of a dreaming prisoner : but such a 
peace as a man may, by a syllogism of the practic judge- 
ment, upon right examination of his own interest in Christ, 
safely infer unto himself. The wicked often hath an appear, 
ance of peace, as well as the faithful ; but here is the differ- 
ence: — between a wicked man^s sin and him, there is a door 
shut, which will surely one day open ; for it is but either a 
door of error, or the door of death. For sin lieth at the 
door, ready to fly at his throat as soon as it shall find either 
his eyes open to see it, or his life to let it in upon the soul : 
but between a faithful man and his sin, there is a corner, 
stone, a wall of fire, through which Satan himself cannot 
break, even the merits of Christ Jesus. Briefly, the peace 
which comes from faith, hath these two properties in it, 
tranquillity and serenity too ; otherwise it is but like the 
calmness of the Dead Sea, whose unmoveableness is not 
nature, but a curse. 

The last effect which I shall now name of faith, is. That 
general effect of fructification, purifying the heart*, and dis- 
posing it unto holiness, and new obedience, which is to be 
framed after God^s law. Faith unites us unto Christ : being 
thus united, we are quickened by one and the same Spirit; 
having one Spirit and soul, we must needs agree in the same 
operations ; and those operations must necessarily bear con- 
formity unto the same rule ; and that rule is the law, under 
which Christ himself was for our sakes, made. So that the 
rule to examine this effect of faith by, should be the whole 
compass of God's law, which to enter into, were to redouble 
all this labour past : *' For thy law," saith David, " is ex- 
ceeding wide.'' 

Briefly therefore, in all our obedience observe these few 
rules: — First, The obligatory power which is in the law, de- 
pends upon the one and sole authority of the law-giver, who 
is God. He that breaks but one commandment, ventures to 
Tiolate that authority, which, by the same ordination, made 
one equally obligatory with the rest. And therefore our 


• Acts XV. 9. 


obedience most not be partial, but oniversal unto the whole 
law, inasmach as it proceeds from that faith, which, without 
iodoigence or dispensation, yieldeth assent unto the whole 
compass of divine truth. 

Secondly, As is God, so is his law, a spiritual and a per- 
fect law ; and therefore requires a universality of the sub* 
jecty as well as of the obedience : I mean (besides that per* 
feet integrity of nature, which, in regard of present inhe- 
rence, is irrecoverably lost in Adam, and supplied only by 
the imputed righteousness and integrity of Christ) an inward, 
spiritual, sincere obedience of the heart, from thence spread- 
ing like lines from a centre, unto the whole circumference of 
our nature, unto our words, actions, gestures, unto all our 
parts, without crooked, mercenary, and reserved respects, 
wherein men often, instead of the Lord, make tlieir ends or 
their fears, their God. Lastly, Remember, that, in every 
law, all homogeneal matters to the main duty which is com- 
manded, every sprig, or seed, or original, or degree thereof 
is included, as all the several branches of a tree are fastened 
to one and the same stock. And by these rules are we to 
examine the truth of our obedience. 

But here, before I draw down these premises to an as- 
sumption, I will but name one caution, which is this ;^That 
&ith, as it may be either habitual or actual, so it is the cause 
of these holy actions, either habitually by framing and dis- 
posing the heart unto them, or actually when it is itself, as it 
oug^t ever to be, sound and operative. But sometimes faith 
(so great is the corruption of our nature) admits of a decay 
and languor, wherein it lies (as it were) like fire under ashes 
raked up, and stifled under our corruptions. 

Again, In some there is a weaker, in some a stronger 
fiuth ; according unto which difierence, there must be a dif- 
ference in the measure and magnitude of the effects : but 
yet it is infallibly true, that all or most of those holy fruits 
do, in some seasons or other, bud forth of that stock which 
is quickened .by faith, though sometimes in some men less 
discernible, by reason of corruptions interposed. For it 
usually thus falleth out. That our graces are but like the 
army of Gideon, a small handful ; whereas our corruptions 
are like the Midianites, which lay on the ground as grass- 




hoppers^ innumerable. But yet, in these, God crowneth his 
own meanest gifts with victory and success. 

So then these things being thus proposed, let the con- 
science, without connivance, examine itself by such interro-^ 
gatories as these : Do I find myself live by the faith of the 
Son of God, who gave himself for me ? Do I delight in his 
Word, more than my appointed food, never adulterating it 
with the leaven or dregs of heretical fancies, or dead works ? 
Doth the Word of truth transform me to the image of itselC 
crucifying all those corruptions which harboured in me? 
Do I find myself to grow in all graces, universally and uni- 
formly, towards God and man, not thinking to recompense 
some defects, which my nature drives me unto, with super- 
erogation (as I conceive) and over-performance of such du- 
ties, as are not so visibly repugnant to my personal corrup- 
tions ? Do the beams of the Sun of righteousness, shining 
on my soul, illighten me with his truth, and, with his power, 
sway me unto all good ? Am I heartily affected with all the 
conditions of God's church, to mourn or to rejoice with it 
even at such times, when mine own particular estate would 
frame me unto affections of a contrary temper ? Have I free 
use of all my spiritual senses, to see the light of God, to 
hear his Word, to taste his mercies, to feel with much ten- 
derness all the wounds and pressures of sin ? Do I love all 
Divine truth, not so much, because proportionable unto my 
desires, but because conformable unto God? Am I re- 
solved in all estates to rely on God's mercy and providence, 
and though he should kill me, to trust in him? Do I wholly 
renounce all trust in mine own worthiness, or in any concur- 
rences of mine own naturally towards God ? Do I not build 
either my hopes or fears upon the faces of men, nor make 
either them or myself the rule or end of my desires ? Fi- 
nally, do I endeavour a universal obedience unto God^s law 
in all the whole latitude and extent of it, not indulging to 
myself liberty in any known sin ? Is not my obedience 
mercenary and hypocritical, but spiritual and sincere ? Do 
I not swallow gnats, nor stumble at straws, nor dispense 
with myself for the least of sins ; for irregular thoughts, for 
occasions of offence, for appearances of evil, for the motions 
of concupiscence, for idle words and vain conversation, and 
whatsoever is in the lowest degree forbidden ? And though 


in any, or all these, I may be aometimet OTertaken (aa who 
IB it that can aay, ' I have washed my hands in innocency, I 
am clean from my sins 1^, do I yet relent for it, striTe, and 
resolre against it ? In a word, doth not mine own heart con- 
demn me of self-deceit, of hypocrisy, of halting and dissem- 
bling in Clod's service ? Then may I safely conclndei that 
I have partaken of the saving efficacy of faith, and am fitly 
qoalified to partake of these holy mysteries, whereby this 
good work of faith, began in me, may be strengthened, and 
more p^ected against the day of the Lord Jesus. 

In the receiving of which, we mast ase all, both inward 
and oatward reverence, secret elevations of spirit, and com- 
fortable thoughts touching the mercies of God in Christ, 
tonching the qualities and benefits of his passion, and of our 
sios that caused it. And lastly, for the coarse of our life 
after, we must pitch upon a constant resolution to abandon 
ail sin ; and to keep a strict hand over all our ways ; lest 
turning again with the swine to the mire, that which should 
be die badge of our honour, prove the character of our 
abame'. The Persians' had a festival-time one day in the 
year, which they called ' Vitiorum Interitum/ wherein they 
slew all serpents and venomous creatures; and after that, 
till the revolution of that same day, suffered them to swarm 
again as fiist as ever. If we think in that manner to destroy 
our sins, and only one day in the year, when we celebrate 
this holy festival, — the evil spirit may haply depart for a day 
in policy, but surely he will turn again with seven other 
•pints, and make the end of that man worse than his begin- 
ning. But that ground which drinketh-in the rain which 
cometh oft upon it (and what rain comparable to a shower 
of Chrisf s blood in the Sacrament ?), and bringeth forth 
herbs meet for the use of him that dressed it, receiveth 
blessings from God: a cup of blessing here; but rivers of 
bleaiedness hereafter, in that paradise which is above; 
where He who is in this life the object of our faith and hope, 
shall be the end and reward of them both for ever. 

' IkKTtor de ch«ractere dtmnitor, de quo miliuns hoooratur, jlug,— 
t Brutvm, de Reg. Penic lib. 2. 

M 2 










Ik obedience to your commands, I here humbly preheat 
to your view what you were pleased, with patieuce and 
readiness of affection, lately to attend unto. I consider- 
ed, that though the eboiceness of the auditory might re- 
quire the exactest preparation; yet both the condition of 
the times, and the nature of the duty, did call upon us to 
lay aside our ornaments. And therefore 1 spake with such 
plainness, as might commend the matter delivered, rather to 
the conscience of a penitent, than to the fancy of a delicate 
hearer. The king of Nineveh was a king as well in his 
sackcloth as in his robes : and the truth of Qod is indeed 
fuller of majesty when it is naked, than when adorned with 
the dress of any human contribution, which many times 
takes from it, but never adds any value unto it. 

I looked upon you in your double relation, both comuiuu, 
as Christians, and special, as men intrusted with the manage- 
ing of those arduous and most pressinp^ difficulties^ under 
which this distemper'd kingdom is now groaning. 

And for the quickening of those endeavours which belong 
to you in both those relations, I presented you both with the 
bottom of a nation^s unhappiness, which is sin ; and with the 
top of their felicity, which is God's free, grace and favour : 
that by your serious cares to purge out the one, and to pro- 
cure the other, you might, by Qo^ra blessings on your con- 
!»ultatioDS, dispel that black tempest which hangs over tliis 
kingdom, and reduce the face of things unto calmness and 
serenity again. 

When the children struggled together in the womb of 
Rebekah, she was thereupon inquisitive, If it be su, why am 
I thus*? and she addressed herself to God for a resolution. 

* This Ocdiouion u omitted in tlic Fulio cilitton. 

• Ccn. uv. 22. 


Surely this nation is become like the womb of Rebekah, 
the children thereof struggling in their raother'^s belly to- 
gether ; and when God hath mercifully freed us from foreign 
enemies, brethren are become enemies to brethren, and by 
their enmities likely to tear and torment the bowels of their 
mother, and to ruin themselves. 

And what have we now to do but to enquire the cause of 
these sad commotions. Why are we thus? And surely the 
cause is chiefly where the disease is, within ourselves. We 
have been, like the womb of Rebekah, a barren nation, not 
bringing forth fruits of so many mercies as God had filled 
us withal : so that now it is no wonder, if God cause us to 
be in pain within our own bowels, and to feel the throes and 
strugglings of a travailing woman ^, ready to bring forth her 
own confusion — a Benoni, or an Ichabod, a son of sorrow 
and of shame, to this hitherto so peaceable and flourishing 
a kingdom. 

All that we can comfort ourselves with in these pangs and 
qualms of distemper is, that there are some Jacobs ^ amongst 
us, who, instead of supplanting their brethren, will wrestle 
and have power with God. The people have often peti- 
tioned, sometimes his sacred Majesty, sometimes this Ho- 
nourable House, which are his great council ; many overtures 
and endeavours of accommodation have been tendered ; and 
yet we ^* cry out in our pangs, and have, as it were, brought 
forth wind ; neither have we wrought any deliverance in the 
earth ^." 

I have here therefore presented a new petition, dictated 
and drawn up to our hands by God's own Spirit, unto which, 
both kings and parliament, peers, and prophets, and people, 
must all subscribe, and offer it with prostrate and penitent 
hearts unto him who '^ stands in the congregation of the 
eighty, and judgeth amongst the gods *,"" that he would take 
away all our iniquity, and receive us into favour again, and 
accept of a covenant of new obedience. 

And this petition God is pleased to anticipate with an an- 
swer of grace, in the consequent parts of the chapter whence 
the text is taken ; and that particularly to every branch of 
the petition. He will take away iniquity. His anger shall 

k Hosea xiii. 13. e Gen. zzxH. 24. Hosea xii. 3, 4. <l Isai. xxvi. 17, 18. 
* Psalm Izizii. 1. 


not puoish ; his love shall heal our back-slidings; the great- 
ness of our sins shall not hinder the freeness of this grace. 
He will do us good, and give us life, by the dew of his grace 
reviving us ; and glory, clothing us, like the lily of the field, 
with the beauty of holiness ; and stability, fixing us by his 
grace, as the cedars of Lebanon are fastened upon their 
roots ; and growth or enlargement, as the branches spread 
forth themselves ; and continual vigour and plenty, as 
the olive-tree, which is always green and fruitful ; and 
glorioos comforts, by the sweet savour' of the knowledge of 
Crod, which, like the spice-trees of Lebanon, shall diffuse a 
spiritual perfume upon the names and into the consciences 
o( penitent converts. 

He will present us with the blessings of safety, as well as 
of sanctity and comfort ; we shall under his shadow find 
shelter and protection from all our fears. Though like com 
we be harrowed under the clods, though like a lopped vine 
we seem naked and reduced to lowness, though like 
crashed grapes we lie under heavy pressure ; yet he will 
receive, and enlarge, and comfort us again ; and when we 
are, in our own eyes, as fatherless children, he will set his 
ey^ upon as as a tutor and guardian ; he will hear, and ob- 
serve, and answer, and pity us, enabling us to make good 
ou" covenant by his grace, and causing the fruits of his 
loving kindness to be found upon us. Thus God is pleased 
to borrow the various perfections of other things, to adum- 
brate the united and cumulated mercies, which he promiseth 
onto a converting and petitioning people. 

Yoa have the petition sent you from God, and his answer, 
preventing you, in all the members of it, with the blessings of 
goodness. I have nothing else to do, but to beg of you, and 
of all this great people whom you represent, the subscription 
of your hearts and lives unto this petition : and to beg of 
God, that he would graciously incline the hearts of this 
whole kingdom rather to wrestle with him for a blessing, 
than to struggle and conflict amongst themselves for a curse. 
With which prayer I humbly conclude, commending your 
persons and your weighty affairs to his grace ; and rest 
Your most humble servant in Christ, 

Ed. Reynolds. 

From my Study in Brannston, 
Aupui tkt Sthf 1642. 

• 'J Cor. it. U. 


Christian Reader^ understanding that my sermon, which 
was preached three years since before the Honourable House 
of Commons, on the day of their solemn humiliation, was to 
be reprinted ; I thought fit to peruse, transcribe, and enlarpr^ 
six other sermons, in which I had, at mine own charge, in 
the country, on the ensuing fast days, briefly explained and 
appHed Uiat whole chapter (a portion only whereof was in 
the first handled), and to send them forth, together with it, 
unto the public ; which I was the rather induced to do for 
these two reasons : — 1st Because it hath pleased Ood, in his 
righteous and holy providence, to make me, by a long in- 
firmity, unserviceable to his church in the principal work of 
the ministry — the preaching of the gospel, which is no small 
grief unto me : so that there remained no other means 
whereby my life might, in regard of my function, be useful 
to the church, and comfortable to myself, than by inverting 
the words of the psalmist, and as he made " his tongue 
the pen of a ready writer *," so to make my pen the tongue 
of an unready speaJcer. 2d. I considered the seasonableness 
and suitableness of these meditations unto the condition of 
the sad and disconsolate times wherein we live, very like 
those which our prophet threatened the ten tribes withal 
throughout this whole prophecy, unto which this last chap- 
ter is a kind of use and a most solemn exhortation, pressing 
upon all wise and prudent men such duties of humiliation 
and repentance as might turn threats into promises, and re- 
cover again the mercies, which by their sins they had for- 
feited and forsaken. Which being restored unto them ac- 
cording to their petition, they are here likewise further in- 
structed in which manner to return unto God the praises 
due to his great name. And these two duties of humiliation 
and thanksgiving are the most solemn duties which, in 

* This addicts U omitted in the Folio edition. 
•Pialinzlv. 1. 

172 ;ro the header. 

these times of judgements and mercies, so Tariously inter- 
woven together, the Lord doth so frequently call us unto. 

Places of Scripture I have, for brevity sake, for the most 
part, only quoted and referred thereunto, without transcribing 
all the words ; and have usually put many parallel places to- 
gether, because by that means they do not only strengthen 
the doctrine whereunto they belong, but mutually give light 
unto one another. 

The Lord make us all in this our day so wise and prudent 
as to understand the righteous ways of our God towards us ; 
that we may not stumble at them, but walk in them, and be 
taught by them '* to wait upon him in the way of his judge- 
ments%" and to fix the desires of our soul upon his name, as 
our great refuge, and upon his righteousness, as our great 
business ; till he shall be pleased, by the dew of his grace, to 
revive us as the corn, to make us grow as the vine, and to 
let the scent of all his ordinances be over all our land, as the 
smell and as the wine of Lebanon. 

It will be an abundant return unto my poor and weak en- 
deavours, if I may have that room in thy prayers which the 
apostle Paul desired to have in the prayers of the Ephe- 
siaus ^ '* that utterance may be given unto me that I may 
open my mouth boldly to preach the mystery of the gospel." 

The Lord sanctify all the ways of his providence towards 
us, that when we are*" chastened we may be taught; and 
may be greater gainers by the voice ^ of his rod, than we are 
sufferers by the stripes. 

• Isai. zxvi. 8, 9. b Ephes. ?i. 19. c Psalm zciv. 12. d Micah y'i. 9. 





HOSEA XIV. 1, 2. 

O Israel, rtturn unto the Lord thy God: for thou hastfalten hy 
thine iniquity. Take with you words^ and turn to the Lord : 
ioy unto him. Take away all iniquity ^ and receive us graci- 
ously (or give good); so will we render the calves of our lips. 

Sect. 1. The blessing of Ephraim was according to his 
name, ' fhiitfblness*.' The fniilfuhiess of the earth, a bough 
by a well, and the fruitfulness of the womb and of the 
breasts ^ Contrary unto which two blessings, we find in 
our prophet two judgements threatened against him for his 
siosS ''Though he be fruitful amongst his brethren, an 
east wind shall come, the wind of the Lord shall come up 
from the wilderness, and his spring shall become dry, and 
his fountain shall be dried up ; he shall spoil the treasure of 
all pleasant vessels. Samaria shall become desolate ; for she 
hath rebelled against her God : they shall fall by the sword ; 
their infants shall be dashed in pieces, and their women with 
child shall be ripped up^'' And throughout the whole pro* 
phecy "^^ if you read and observe it, you will find the judge- 
ments of God against Ephraim to be expressed by weeds, 
emptiness, barrenness, dryness of roots, of fruits, of branches, 
of springs, and by a curse upon their children * ; as, on the 
other side, the blessings, here in this chapter renewed unto 
Ephraim repenting, are all expressed by metaphors of ' fruit- 

From these two woful judgements, against the fruitfulness 

• Gen. ill. 52. <l Gen. zlix. 22, 25. Deut. zxziii. 13, 17. « Hm. 

xiii. 15, 16. d Hoi. viii. 7. ix. 2, fi, 16. x. 1, 8. xi. fi. • Um. ii. II, H. 
' Hm. i. 5, 6, 7. • Kolio-edition, p. 491. 


of their springs, and the fruitfulnesB of tbeir wombs, by the 
desolations of a bloody sword, our prophet taketh occasion 
once more for all, to awaken and drive them to a timely re- 
pentance, that so they may recover the blessing of their 
name; — Ephraim may be Ephraim again, a plentiful, a 
fruitful, a flourishing people. That when God*s judgements 
are in the earth ^ they would then at least ' set themselves 
to learn righteousness/ that they may ^ wash their feet in 
the blood of the wicked/ 

Of all nations under Heaven, this land of ours hath had 
the blessing of Ephraim upon it, — fruitfulness of the earth, 
abundance of plenty ; fruitfulness of the womb, abundance 
of people. But our misery is, that the abundance of oi>^ 
sins hath mightily outvied the abundance both of our plenty 
and of our people : sins too parallel to those of Ephraim, if 
you will but read this prophet, and compare the behaviours 
of this nation with him. And this parity of sins hath, no 
doubt, called upon God for a parity of judgements. It is 
but a very little while, since the Lord seemed to call for a 
north wind, as he doth here for an east wind ; t^o armi^ 
there met, ready to look one another in the face. B^ ,l\if 
heart turned, bis repentings were kindled, hie would not giv;^ 
up Ephiraim then. . He seems once more to be ^rawing qf a 
sword, and having in vain * hewed us by his prophet;s„' aa hj^ 
complains, Hos. vi. 6, to try whether hewing us by his 
judgements will work upon us. So that now, though I musit 
read my text, " O Israel,* yet I must apply it, " O Englai^ 
return unto the Lord thy God, for thou hast fallen by thioe 
iniquity. Take with you words,'' 8cc. 

The whole context containeth two general parts : an inyi* 
tation unto repentance, verse L And an institution how to 
perCorm it, in the two verses following. 

Sect. 2. Before we come to the particulars of the iiivitai- 
tion, let us first briefly observe* That, in the midst of judge- 

f Isai. zxvi. 9. Uap^Steyfid ri rois d\Xois yb^ttrBai, fya iXXoi SpSprn 
Xorra B Bm trtfcrx«> ^Miuvoi fiO^riout yttwnm. PUto apad AuL Gelk' k 6. 
c. 14. edit. Oisel. p. 388. Famosos latrones, in his locis, ubi g^rassati sunt, fv/^ 
tigesdot oompluribus placutt, ut et conspectu deterreantur alii ab iisdem facinori- 
but, ff. de pcenis 1. 28. sect, famoaos. Ec in bnitts et in rebus inanimatis obser- 
vma ?indicta. Vid. Pet. Et. Deer. 1. 2. Tit. U.—Zepp. de leg. 1. 1. c. llw— 
Piuf. de fort, Ro.— Psalm lii. 6. Luke xvti. 32. Acts v. 11. Luke zili. I, 7. Jer. 
ill. 8. Dan. iii. 18, 21. Numb. xvi. 38, 40. 


menta propo0e<) against sinnent that are obstinate, God doth 
reserre and proclaim mercy unto sinners that are penitent. 
When a consumption is decreed, yet a remnant is resenred 
to retom<. The Lord will keep his vineyard, when he will 
bom np the thorns and the briers together^. When a day 
of fierce anger is determined, the meek of the earth are called 
apon to seek the Lord K When the Lord is coming ont of 
Us place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their 
miqoity, he calls upon his people to hide themselves in their 
chambers, until the indignation be overpast^. The angel 
which was sent to destroy Sodom, had withal a commission 
to deliver Lot^ Gk>d made full provision for those who 
mourned for public abominations, before he gave order to 
destroy the rest*". Men in their wrath will, many times, 
rather strike a friend than spare a foe : but God*s proceed- 
ings are without disorder ; he will rather spare his foes than 
strike his servants, as he showed himself willing to have 
done in the case of Sodom ". Moses stood in the gap, and 
diverted judgements from Israel*. Yea, God seeks for 
snch^, and complains when they cannot be found \ And if 
be deliver others for them, certainly he will not destroy them 
for others. However it go with the world and with wicked 
men, it shall go well with the righteous ; there shall be a 
sanctuary for them, when others stumble ; and they shall 
pass through the fire, when others are consumed by it % 

Reasons hereof are, — Grod's justice: He will not punish the 
righteous with the wicked : he will have it appear, that there 
is a difference between him that serveth God, and him that 
serveth him not *. God's love unto his people : He hath a 
book of remembrance written before him, for them that fear 
him, and think upon his name : ** And they shall be mine, 
nith the Lord of hosts, in that day when I make up my 
jewds, and I will spare them as a man spareth his own son 
that serveth him '/' Here is a climax and gradation of argu- 
ments drawn from love. In a great fire, and devouring trou- 
ble (such as is threatened Mai. iv. 1), 'property^ alone is a 

t IttL X. 82, 2S. k Int. xzvii. 3, 4. i Zeph. ii. 3. ^ bal. 

xxvi. 20, 21. 1 Gen. six. 15. >" Ezek. ix. 4, 6. o Gen. xviii. 26. 

• Pkalm ciz. 23. P Ezek. xxii. 30. ^ Ezek. xiii. 5. r lui. iii. 10, 1 1. 

▼in. 14, 15, 16. Zech. xiii. 8, 9. • Gen. xviii. 23. Mai. Hi. Id. « Mai. 

iii. 16, 17. 


ground of care ; a man would willingly save and secure that 
which is his own, and of any use unto him ; but if you add 
unto this^ * preciousness/ that increaseth the care. A man 
will make hard shift to deliver a rich cabinet of jewels, 
though all his ordinary goods and utensils should perish. 
But of all jewels, those which come out of the body, are 
much more precious than those which only adorn it. Who 
would not snatch rather his child, than his casket or purse, 
out of a flame ? relation works not only upon the aifection, 
but upon the bowels'". And lastly, the same excellency 
that the word * jewel' doth add unto the word 'mine/ the 
same excellency doth ' service ' add unto the word ' son.** 
A man hath much conflict in himself to take off his heart 
from an undutiful son. Never a worse son than Absalom ; 
and yet how doth David give a charge to the commanders 
to have him spared ! how inquisitive after his safety ! how 
passionately and unseasonably mournful upon the news of his 
death ! But if any child be more a jewel than another, cer- 
tainly it is a dutiful child, who hath not only an interest in 
our love by nature, but by obedience. All these grounds of 
care and protection for God's people in trouble are here ex- 
pressed, 'property,' they are 'mine;' ' preciousness,' they 
are 'jewels ;"* treasures, ornaments unto me ; 'relation,' they 
are 'sons;' 'usefulness,' they are sons that 'serve;' none 
could look on a thing so many ways lovely with the same 
eye, as upon a professed and provoking enemy. 

Lastly, God's name and glory : He hath spared his people, 
even in the midst of their provocations, for his name's sake ^ 
How much more when they repent and seek his face ! He 
will never let it be said, that any " seek the Lord in vain '." 

Sect. 3. But it may be objected. Doth not Solomon say, 
that " All things happen alike unto all ?" and that " no man 
can know love or hatred by that which is before him*?" 
And is it not certain and common, that, in public desola- 
tions, good as well as bad do perish ? Doth not the sword 
devour as well one as another ? 

It is true, God doth not always difference his servants 
from wicked men by temporal deliverances : troubles com- 

« Jer. xxxt. 20. y Deut. xxxiii. 26, 27. Josh. vii. 9. « Isai. xW. Id. 

» Eccles, ix. 1, 2. 


monlj ftnd promiscoously involve all sorts. But there are 
these two things considerable in it : 

First, That many times the good suffer with the bad, be- 
cause they are together corrupted with them ; and when they 
join in the common provocations, no wonder if they suflfer 
io the ' common judgements V Nay, the sins of Qod's peo- 
ple do (especially in this case) more provoke him unto out- 
ward judgements, than the sins of his professed enemies; 
becaose they expose his name to the more contempt ^, and 
are committed against the greater love ** : and he hath future 
judgement for the wicked, and therefore usually beginnetb 
here at his own sanctuary *. 

Secondly, When good men, who have preserved themselves 
from public sins, do yet fall by public judgements, yet there 
is a great difference in this seeming equality ; the same af- 
fliction having, like the pillar that went before Israel, a light 
side towards God's people, and a dark side towards the 
Egyptians ; Ood usually recompensing the outward evils of 
his people with more plentiful evidences of inward and spi- 
ritnal joy. A good man may be in great darkness, as well 
as a wicked man ; but in that case he hath the name of God 
to stay himself upon, which no wicked man in the world 
hath '• The metal and dross go both into the fire together ; 
but the dross is consumed, the metal refined :-hbo is it with 
godly and wicked men, in their sufferings*. 

This reproveth the folly of those, who, in time of trouble, 
rely upon vain things which cannot help them, and continue 
their sins stilL For judgements make no difference of any 
but penitent and impenitent. Sickness doth not compliment 
with an honourable person, but useth him as coarsely as the 
base. Death knocks as well at a princess palace as a poor 
man's cottage. Wise men die as well as fools. Yet poison 
usually works more violently when tempered with wine, 
than with some duller and baser material. In times of 
trouble, usually, the greater the persons, the closer the 
judgements. When Jerusalem was taken, the nobles were 
slain; but the poor of the land had vineyards and fields 
given them ^. 

^ Rev. xviii. 4. « 2 Sam. xii. 14. <l Amot iii. 2. • Ezck. ix. 6. 

I Pet. iv. 17. f Uai. I. 10. i Zach. xiii. 9. Kcclcs. viii. 12, W 

^ Jer. zzzix.6, 10. 

VOL. 111. N 



[Senn. T. 

Therefore, in troubles, we should be more humbled for our 
sins than our sufferings ; because sin is the sting of suffering. 
That mercies should not win us ; that judgement should not 
awaken us; that the rod should speak, and we not hear^; 
that the fire should burn, and we not feel ^ ; that desolation 
should be threatened^ and we not instructed ^ ; that the 
hand of God should be lifted up, and we not see if^; that 
darkness should be upon us, and we not give glory to God °: 
— this is that should most deject us, that in mercies we have 
been wanton, and, in judgements, senseless. Get repentance 
by an affliction, and then you may look on it as traffic, and 
not as a trouble ; like a merchant's voyage, which hath pain 
in the way, but treasure in the end. No afflictions can hurt 
him that is penitent. If thou escape, they will make thee 
the more thankful ; if not, they will bring thee the nearer 
and the sooner unto God. 

The way to be safe in times of trouble, is to get the blood 
of the Lamb upon our doors. All troubles have their com- 
mission and instructions from God, what to do, whither tcy 
go, whom to touch, whom to pass over. Be gold; and 
tiiough the fire come upon you, you shall keep pure nature 
and purity still. ** Godliness," saith the apostle, " hath the 
promises of this life : " and amongst those, one special one 
is, that " we shall not be tempted above what we are able V^ 
Neither are there indeed any distresses, against which there 
is not a refuge and escape for penitent sinners unto some 
promise or other. Against captivity: — When they be in the 
land of their enemies, *'I will not cast them away, nor abhor 
them ^7* Against famine and pestilence : — ** If I shut np 
Heaven, that there be no rain, or if I command the locusts to 
devou? the land, or if I send pestilence among my people ; if 
my people^ which are called by my name, shall humble thenw 
selves, and pray, and seek my fece, and turn from their 
wicked ways ; — then will I hear from heaven, and will foi^ 
give their sin, and will heal their land "*.*' Against sickness : — 
The Lord will strengthen him upon the bed of languishing^ 
and ''make all his bed in his sickness ^'^ Against po* 
verty : — "When the poor and needy seek water, and there ift 

* Mic Ti. 9. 
> Jer. xiii. 6. 
viul3, U. 

k Isti. zlii. 25. 
o 1 Cor. xii. 13. 
r Psalm xli. 3. 

1 Jer. vi. 8. 
P Lev. xzvi. 4. 

« Itai. xzvi. II, 
q 2Cfareo. 


none, I the Lord will hear them S^ 8cc. Against want of 
friends: — ^^ When my father and mother forsake me, then the 
Lord will take me up *." Against oppression and imprison- 
ment: — ''He ezecuteth judgement for the oppressed, be 
looseth the prisoners'.^ Against whatsoever plague or 
trooble*: — He is the God of all consolation : how disconso- 
late soever a man's condition is in any kind, there cannot 
but, within the compass of all consolation, be some one or 
other remedy at hand, to comfort and relieve him : — and so 
mocby by the way, of the invitation in general. 

In the invitation, we have the matter of it, and the motives 
to it The matter is conversion; without that, the hand 
which 18 lifted up in threatening % will fall down in punish- 
ing : and where that is, God hath a book of remembrance 
for his jewels, when his wrath burneth as an oven against 
the stubble \ 

Skct. 4. But this conversion then must have two condi- 
tions in it : — First, It must be ' Ad Dominum,* to the Lord ; 
not merely philosophical, to some low and general dictates 
of reason, such as Aristotle, or Plato, or Epictetus, or Plu- 
tarchf or the like heathen moralists, could furnish us withal, 
without self-denial, lowliness of Spirit, or faith in Christ '. 

Nor merely political, to credit, or profit, or secular ends, 
** propter fiunam, non propter conscientiam V &s the orator 
speaks ; or as our prophet hath it, '^ for corn and for wine ^'* 
As good be an empty vine, as bring forth fruit only to our- 
selves ^ 

But it must be spiritual unto the Lord. '' If thou wilt re- 
turn, O Israel, saith the Lord, return unto me ^" And not 
only *Ad Dominum,' to the Lord; for that may be done 
fidsely % and flatteringly, with a halting and divided heart. 
By the force of semi-persuasions, like that of Agrippa ^ and 

• Ini. xU. 17. Psalm Ixviii. 10. • Psalm xxvii. 10. Ixxii. 12. « Psalm 

od¥i. 7. > 1 Kings Tiii. 37, 38, 39. « Isai. xxvi. 18. 7 Mai. iii. 16. 

* RooLX. 3. Hcb. xi. 6. Ni*n sant bona, qus non de radicc bona proocdunt. 
Ea ipn opera, <|n* dicuntur ante fidem, quamvis ?ideantur hominibus, ' laoda- 
kifia,' inmnia sunt, ut magna vires et cursus celcrrimus pneter Tiam. Aug. 
Eavr. ia I^alm 31. Vide de Spirit, et Lite. c. io, 21. 26. Contra duaa Eptst. Fe- 
lls' 1* 3.C. 7. ep. 106. de 6de et operibuit, c. 14. contra Julian. 1. 4. c 3. * Nl- 
Ii3 ad otfencatioacm, omnia ad conscientiam refcrt. Plin, 1. 1 . ep. 22. 5. Nihil 
opinionis cmsa, omnia conKientiae factam. Stntc, de Vita Bcaia, c. 20. 3. 

* H«. w. 16. « Hos. X. 1. * Jer. iv. 8. • Jcr. iii..lO. 
' Aoa xx?i. 23. 

N 2 


Orpah 9, complimenting with God, and then forsaking him* 
By the force of compulsory impressions, like that of Pha^ 
raoh ^ and Israel * in the wilderness. Promises on the rack ^, 
and pride when there was respite again ; thawing in the smfi, 
and freezing in the shade ; meltincr in the furnace, and out of 
it returning unto hardness again, — like tlie prophet's cake, 
burnt on the one side, and dough on the other. But it 
must be. 

Secondly, ^ Usque ad Dominum;^ so much the original 
word importeth. A full, thorough, constant, continued 
conversion ^ with a whole, a fixed, a rooted, a united, an 
established heart, yielding up the whole conscience and con- 
versation to be ruled by God's will in all things. 

Sect. 6. The motives to this duty are two: First, His 
mercy"*, he is yet thy God; no such argument for our turn- 
ing unto God as his turning unto us. Adam looks on him 
as a judge, and hides ; the prodigal looks on him as a Fa- 
ther, and returns. As the beam of the sun, shining on fire, 
doth discourage the burning of that; so the shining of 
God's mercies on us, should dishearten and extinguish lust 
in us. This is the use we should make of mercy. Say not, 
*' He is my God ; therefore I may presume upon him ; but 
he is mine, therefore I must return unto him. Because he 
is God, I will be afitiid to provoke him ; and because he is 
mine, I will be afraid to forfeit him. He is so great, I must 
not dare to offend him ; he is so precious, I must not ven- 
ture to lose him." — His mercy is a holy mercy, which knows 
to pardon sin, but not to protect it. It is a sanctuary for 
the penitent, not for the presumptuous. 

Secondly, His judgement, and that expressed rather as 
our act than his, " Thou hast fallen by thine iniquity J* If 
mercies^ do not work upon love, let judgements work upon 

C Ruth i. 14. h Exodus vUi. 8. ix. 27, 34. i Psalm Ixxviii. 34, 37. 

^ Semisaucimm hac atque hac rersare voluntatem. j4ug. Confess. 1. 8. c. 8^— 
Plerique ipsius pcenitentis pcenitentiam agunt. Amhros, de Poen. 1. 2. c. 9w— 
*£rd(XAnAoi M roii ifutpn/lfuun furdi^otai. Clem, Mex. 1. 2. Strom. 13. — Irrifor cs% 
non pcenilens, qui adhuc agit quod pcenitet, &c. Jsidor. de Summo Bono. — Ma|^ 
nam rem puta, unum hominem agere: prater sapientem, nemo unum agit^ 
csteri multiformes sunt. JSen. cp. 120 — Ambros, Offic. I. 2. c. 22. 1 Jod 

ii. 12. Acts xi.23. Psalm ivii. 7. Ephes. iii. 27. Psalm Ixxxvi. 11. Heb. zui.9. 
n Joel ii. 12, 13. Isai. Iv. 6, 7. Jer. xxxi. 18. Hos. iii. 5. Psalm cxxx. 4, Ads 
ii. 38. Matth. iii. 2. Isai. Ixiv. 9. » Qui bencficiis non intelligitur, vel plagn 

intelligatur. Cypr, in Demetr. 


fear *• Extremities are a warrant unto importunities. Even 
beathen-marinefB P in a Htorm will cry mightily upon God. 
When there is a deluge coming, is it not time for Noah to 
fear, and to prepare an ark •»? What meanest thou, O thou 
sleeper, to lose the season and benefit of GodV visitations''? 
When there is a tempest orer the ship, heavy distresses and 
distractions both at home and abroad, to be so secure in thy 
wonted impenitency, as if thou hadst had no sins to procure 
these judgements, or no sense to feel them? as if there were 
agreements*, and sealed covenants between thee and (he 
sword that it should not touch thee? If thou be falling, is 
it not high' time to consider thy ways ? to search and to 
judge thyself? to have thine eyes like the windows of Solo- 
mon's temple, broad inwards S to find out thine own provo- 
cations ; and as David speaks % to keep thyself from thine 
own iniquity ? 

Thus when, in one and the same time, mercies and judge- 
ments are intermixed, then is the most solemn season to call 
upon men for repentance. If we felt nothing but fears', 
they might make us despair ; if nothing but mercies, they 
would make us secure. If the whole year were summer, the 
•ap of the earth would be exhausted ; if the whole were win- 
ter, it would be quite buried. The hammer breaks metal, 
and the fire melts it ; and then you may cast it into any 
shape. Judgements break, mercies melt; and then, if ever, 
the sool is fit to be cast into God's mould. There is no 
igure in all the prophets more usual than this, to interweave 
nercies and judgements, like those elegancies which rhetori- 
cians call jj^JfMppa ^, to allure and to bring into a wilderness \ 
And this of all other is the ijftf^a Kplctiiog^ as physicians call 

« Diot animum ad loqticndum libere uliimae roiseriac, Liv, 1. 29. P Inop<( 

Scnatos aaxilii hamani, ad Deos populuui et vota vertit : jussi cum conjugibus ei 

bbeiif lapplicatum ire, et pacem cxpo^ccre Deum. LivA.'S. 7. — Cum stupct caelum, 

ct ant annos, Nudlpedalia denunciantur : Magisiratus purpuras deponunt, faiccs 

icdo atcrtimt, precem indigitant, hottiam inttaurant. Vide Tert. adv. Ptychicos, 

c 16^— CZ«m. Mejc, Stro. 1. 6. p. 4&3. Edit. Heins. — Sozom, 1. 9. c. 6. — Briiton, 

^form. 1. 1. q Heb. xi. 7. ' Perdiditd tot mala, si nondum miferaetse di- 

dfeisd. Sen, ad Helvid. — IVrdidistis utilitatem calamitatif, et misenimi ^ti 

Mb, ct peasimi pennansistia. j4u$, de Cit. Dei, 1. 1. c. 33. • liai. xzviii. 15. 

• 1 KiBgi yn, 4. « PMlm xviii. 23. 'fMmnot rmm mawUfrfmf ittf4p9t rkw mArov 

#nHf^. PUi, de sera numin. vindicU, H'yllenb. p. 34. « Vide Terhtl* 

contn MarcioD. 1. 2. c. 13. J Krw*. Rhct. 1. 5. c. 12. sect, 7. » Hot. ii. 14. 





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VeiB.1, 2.] FOURTEENTH CIlAriKli 0¥ 1I08LA. 183 

And prayers, thus regulated, are most seasonable and 
BOTereign duties in times of trouble ; the key which 
opawth a door of mercy ; the sluice which keepeih out 
an inandation of judgements. Jacob wrestled and ob- 
tained a blessing ^ Amos prayed, and removed a curse K 
The woman of Canaan will not be denied with a denial **. 
The people of Israel will beg for deliverance even then, when 
Grod had positively told them, that he would deliver them no 
more '. Jonah will venture a prayer from the bottom of the 
sea, when double death had seized upon him, the belly of the 
deep, and the belly of the whale ; and that prayer of his did 
** open the doors " of the Leviathan, as the expression is. 
Job zli. 14, and made one of those deaths a deliverance from 
the other. 

O let the Lord's remembrances give him no rest. There is 
a kind of omnipotency in prayer *, as having an interest and 
prevalence with God^s omnipotency. It hath loosed iron 
chains * ; it hath opened iron gates " ; it hath unlocked the 
windows of Heaven'; it hath broken the bars of death ^ 
Satan bath three titles given him in the Scripture, setting 
forth his malignity against the church of God : a ' dragon %' 
to note his malice; a ' serpent*,' to note his subtilty ; and a 
' lion V ^ note his strength. But none of all these can stand 
before prayer. The greatest malice, the malice of Haman, 
sinks under the prayer of Esther^; the deepest policy, the 
counsel of Ahithophel, withers before the prayer of David ^ : 
the hugest anny,an host of a thousand thousand Ethiopians, 
runaway like cowards before the prayer of Asa*. 

How should this encourage us to treasure up our prayers, 
to besiege the throne of grace with armies of supplications, 
to refuse a denial, to break through a repulse! He hath 
blessed those whom he did cripple ' : he hath answered those 
whom he did reproach^: he hath delivered those whom he 

•Hofczii. 4. p Aroosvii. 1, 7. q Mat. xv. 24, 27. r Judg. x. 13, 15. 

* Dek porentiam lervi preccs impcdicbant. Hieron. ad Gaudcntium. * Acts 
xvi. 25. 26. " Acu xii. 5, 10. ' 1 Kings xviit. 41. Fulmcnde coelo pre- 
dbus sais cootra hottium machinamentum cxtor»it, suis pluvia impctiata, cum 
fid Ubofarent Jwl. Capilolin. in Antonino. Vide Justin, Martyr, A^tol. 2. TertuL 
Apol. c 5. 39, 40. Et ad ScapuUm, c. 4. 7 John xi. 40, 43. * Rev. xii. 3« 

• Gen. iii. 1. »» 1 Pet. v. 8. « E«th. iv. Ifl. «« 2 Sam.xv 31. • 2 Chron. 
xW. 'J, 11, 12. f Gen. xxxii. 2h, 28. s Matih. xv. 26, 2«. 


did deny ^. And he is the same yesterday and to-day K If 
he save in six and in seven troubles ^f should not we pray in 
six and seven extremities ? Certainly, in all the afflictions 
of the churchy when prayers are strongest, mercies are 

And therefore let me humbly recommend to the cares of 
this Honourable Assembly, amongst all your other pressing 
afiairs, the providing that those solemn days, wherein the 
united prayers of this whole kingdom should, with strongest 
importunities, stop the breaches, and stand in the gaps of 
judgements which are ready to rush in upon us, may, with 
more obedience and solemnity, be observed, than indeed of 
late they are. It is true, here, and in other cities, and po- 
pulous places, there is haply less cause to complain. But 
who can, without sorrow and shame, behold in our country 
towns, men so unapprehensive either of their brethren's 
sufferings, or of their own sins and dangers, as to give God 
quite over, to let him rest, that they themselves may work ; — 
to come in truth to Jehoram's resolution, ' Why should they 
wait upon God any longer?' to grudge their brethren's and 
their own souls and safeties one day in thirty„and to tell all 
the world that indeed their day's work is of more value with 
them than their day's worship, multitudes drudging and moil- 
ing in the earth, while their brethren are mourning and be- 
sieging of Heaven. I do but name it, and proceed. 

The second part of the institution, was the particular form 
suggested unto them, according unto which their addresses 
unto God are to be regulated, which consisteth of two parts, 
a prayer, and a promise. The prayer is for two benefits : 
the one, ' removal of sin ;' the other, ' conferring good.' In 
the promise or restipulation, we have first their covenant, 
wherein they promise two things: 1st. 'Thanksgiving' 
for the hearing and answering of their prayers. 2nd. A 
' special care' for the amendment of their lives. — Secondly, 
The ground of their confidence so to pray, and of their re- 
solutions so to promise, '' Because, in thee, the fatherless 
findeth mercy." My meditations will be confined within the 
first of these, the prayer of the church in their fears and 
sufferings ; — wherein I shall begin, in the prophet's order, 
with their prayer against sin. Take away all iniquity. 

»• Judges X. 13, 16. » Hcb. xiii. 8. k Job v. VJ. 

Vers. 1,2.] FOURTtKNTll CHAPTKIi OF HOSRA. 185 

The word signifies, 1. To expiate, and make atonement 
by a sacrifice. So the scape-goat (which was a sign of Christ 
our sacrifice as risen and li?ing again) is said to carry the 
sins of the people into the wilderness ^ , thereby signifying 
Christ's taking our sins from us "*. 2. To forgive, which, 
in the court of mercy, is the taking of sin away °. 3. To 
remove or take away by destroying ; so it is used, Hosea i. 6. 
Job xxxii. 22 ; and is sometimes used to express burning ^ 
So sin is said to be destroyed p, to be subdued *^, to be 
purged away with the spirit of judgement and burning ^ 
The meaning then is, ' Take away all our sins from us ; lay 
them upon Christ our sacrifice ; for his merit, pardon them ; 
by his grace, destroy and subdue them ; that so the root of 
judgements being removed, they likewise may therewithal be 
removed too/ — From hence the observation which I shall 
insist upon, is this : — 

Sect. 7. * When God threateneth judgements, we, in our 
conversion unto him, should pray against sins.' — Our eye of 
sorrow should be more upon that which dishonoureth him, 
than upon that which afflicts ourselves; more upon that 
which is contrary to his image, than upon that which is con« 
trary to our own nature ; more upon that which defileth, than 
upon that which paineth us. Pharaoh * cares for nothing 
but the removal of death: Simon Magus* for nothing but 
to have perdition and the gall of bitterness kept from him. 
But good men, like wise physicians, cure the disease at the 
root, as Elisha" did the waters, by putting salt into the 
spring-bead. The angel was smiting the people with a 
plague ; David betakes himself to the right remedy, " I 
have sinned, I have done wickedly * :**— he goes not to the 
physicians, but to the altar, to make atonement for sin; and 
so the plague was stayed. Destruction was threatened 
against Israel for their calf, their murmurings, their re- 
belUons; ^ Moses stands in the gap," to divert it^ ; but how 
doth he do it ? surely by praying against their sins. ** O 
this people have sinned a great sin, O that thou wouldest 
forgave them ' !** A sick man was brought to Christ to be 

( Ler. xvi. 22. » John i. 29. H«b. ix. 28. a PMlm zzxii. I, 5. 

• 2 Sam. ▼. 21. Nmhum i. 5. P Rom. vi. 6. q Mic. vii. 19. ' Itmi. 
W.4. tExod. X. 17. tActsviii. 21. « 2 Kingi ii. 21. « 2 Sara. 

zztT. 17, 25. y Pvilm cvi. 2:1 • Exod. xxxii. 31, 32, 34, 39. 


healed * ; Christ overlooks the disease, and begins at the 
sin: '* Son, be of good cheer^ thy sins are forgiven thee:^ 
and, this being forgiven, the malignity of the disease was re- 
moved, though the matter should have remained. This was 
th<» usual method of David in his troubles **, to throw over 
these Shebas that had wrought his woe, ** Blot out, wash 
thoroughly, cleanse, create, renew ;^' he is far more importu- 
nate for pardon and purging, than for ease and comfort. 
Complaining in trouble, is the work of a man ^ ; but repent- 
ing, is the work of a Christian. 
The reasons of this point are these three : — 
Sect. 8. I. If a judgement should be removed, while sin 
xemains, it is not removed in mercy, but in anger : for, many 
times, God gives over punishing in displeasure, as a man 
.throweth away the rod, when his scholar is incorrigible. 
'* Why should ye be smitten any more ? ye will revolt 
more and more '^.^' If men be settled on their lees, and will 
not be reclaimed, there cannot a heavier punishroetit light 
upon them, than to be without punishment % to be left to 
themselves, and the fury of their own wills, speedily to work 
out their own perdition, that their own pleasures may be- 
:Come their plagues, — and the liberty of their own lusts, their 
sorest bondage. God may take away in wrath, that which 
he sent in anger ^; as, on the other side, he may punish sin 
then when he forgiveth it, and may visit iniquity with rods 
then when he will '' not utterly take away his loving kind- 
ness from a people ^.^ 

II. If a judgement be removed, so long as sin remains, it 
is gone ' cum animo revertendi,' either the same or a worse 
is likely to succeed : for God will overcome whom he 

• Matth. ix. 2. ^ Psnlm xxv. 8. xxxii. 4, 5. xxxviti. 3, 4, 51. c Jam. 

iii. 39, 40. <1 Isai. i. 5. • Hos. iv. 14. Psalm Ixxxi. 11, 12. Ezek. xxiv. 13. 
Rom. i. 24, 28. Rev. xxii. 11. Exaudic propitius, non exaudit iratus: cc runus 
non exaudit propidus, exaudit iratus. — Non parcit propitius, parcit iratiu. Aug, 
contra Jul. 1. 5. c. 4< — Parci sibi putat, cum cxcsecetur, et servetur ad ultimam 
opportunamque vindictam. Au^. in Psalm ix. — Ad utilitatem quosdam non ez- 
aadit; ad damnationem quosdam exaudis. In Psalm xxi.-^Iratus dat amanti, 
quod mal^ amat, in Psalm, xxvi. — Magna ira est, quando peccantibus non 
irascttur Dcus. Hier, ep. 33. ct in Psalm cxl. — Indignantis Dei nuyor ha?c 
plaga. CypT, dc Lapsis* — O servum ilium beatum, cujus emendationi Deus insut, 
cui dignatur irasci, &c. Tcrtul, dc pat. c. 11. ^ Hos. xiii. 11. f Psalm 

xcix. 8, 9, 32, 33. 


\ Pharaoh's stubbornness did not but increase 
his plagnes. God will not endure, that the pride * of man 
sfaoold outrie his justice. If we do not take Christ's warn- 
ing to go and ''sin no more,'' we have great cause to fear his 
inference, that '' a worse thing will come upon us-^.** If we do 
yet exalt ourselves, Ood will yet plead with us ^. If we will 
walk contrary unto him *, he threateneth to do the like unto 
08, and to punish us seven times more for our sins. If we 
do not turn unto him that smiteth us, then his anger in 
smiting shall '* not be turned away, but his hand shall be 
stretched out still "*.^ God can bring clouds after rain ; dis- 
tresses in Ireland, after distractions in Scotland ; and dis- 
tractions in England, after distresses in Ireland ; mischief 
upon mischief, and counsel against counsel; Manasseh against 
Ephraini, and Ephraim against Manasseh, — to vex and weary 
out a sinful people, till they pine away in their calamities. 

III. Sin being removed, though the afflictions should not 
be removed, yet it is sanctified, and turned into good. Re- 
pentance, like the philosopher's stone, can turn iron into 
gold, can make golden afflictions : so the trial of our faith, 
that i», our affliction, is said to be ** more precious than 
gold *." Whereas sin, remaining, is like copperas, which will 
torn wine or milk into ink : it converts the blessing of God 
into the provisions of lusts; cankers learning with pride, 
and wit with profaneness, and wealth with luxury; like leaven, 
which turns a very passover into pollution. As the pearl "*, 
which is an ornament to the woman which wears it, is a 
disease to the iish which breeds it; as the same perfume 
which refresheth a dove, is mortal to a vulture ; as the same 
pillar and cloud was light to Israel, but dark to Egypt; the 
same deep a path to Israel, but a grave to Egypt ;— so the 
same blessings, which by grace are converted into comforts, 
by sin are abused into dishonourable services p. Sweet pow- 
ders can make leather an ornament, when the sanies of a 
plague-sore will render a robe infectious. As it was said of 
Naaman, He was a great man, an honourable man, a mighty 
man of war ; but '* he was a leper "^ :" so whatever other or- 
naments a man hath, sin stains them with the foulest but, 

^ 9-um. iii. 4. i Exod. tx. 17. J John v. 14. ^ Jer. ii. U. > Le?. 

^xxvi. 18,21,21, 2H. *" Isai. ix. 12. ■! Pet. i. 7. • >^/Arn. 1. 3. c 13. 

PUag.ii. 13. <l2Kins» V. 1. 



that can be brought to deprave the fairest endowments : a 
learned man, a weaKhy luan, a wise man, an honourable man, 
bill a wicked man; this makes all those other good tbiugs 
tributary unto Satan. 

And therefore as the gold and silver of the Canaanites ' 
was to pass through the fire, before it could be used by 
Israel; so all other blessings, bestowed on men, must pass 
through the Spirit of judgement and burning, through the 
purifying waters of repentance, before they can bring ho- 
nour to the Author, or comfort to the enjoyer of them. 
When Christ overcometh Satan, " he taketh from hiui all bis 
armour, and divideth the spoils'." How doth he divide the 
spoils? surely he muketh use of that wit, wealth, power, 
learning, wisdom, interests, which Satan used against Christ's 
kingdom, as instruments and ornaments unto the gospel . As 
when a magazine in war is taken, the general makes use 
of those arms which were provided against him, for hia own 
service '. 

And as sin doth thus corrupt blessings, so, on the other 
side, repentance doth sweeten judgements, and can turn af- 
flictions into matter of comfort. As scailet pulls out the 
teeth of a serpent, so this takes away the sting of a judge- 
ment. As wine draweth a nourishing virtue from the fleah 
of vipers" ; as hot birds can feed upon iron, and purge their 
hodies with swallowing of stones : so repentance, though it 
should not remove a judgement, yet can feed upon it; and 
fetch meat out of the eater, and, out of the strong, sweetness. 
There are two evils in afflictioas ; their thorn in the flesh, 
as they are matter of pain ; and their snare to the con- 
science % as they are matter of temptation t as there are two 
things in a chain or fetter, the heaviness whereby it loads, 
and the hardness whereby it galls. Now as a prisoner, 
though he cannot make his chain lighter than it is, yet by 
lining it with wool, or other soil things, he can prevent the 
galling ; so repentance, though it take not away the pain of 
affliction from the flesh, yet by meekening and humbling the 

de Aud. roctis. 

• T(dx«> <nAii<raT 4>fp^T> icoiAai M rvii. Hron. 11. 1|. 
t Qui le dcdebani, uma (mdehant. Ctriar de Bcllo Gkllico, 
. aliquando pro nmcdio fuit. Sea. dc Beuef. 1. 2. c. 18, Mc- 
inihuidis, cum tli ipsa moniltn, |>n>dRuc dicuni. Pint. 


soul, with silence and quietness to ' bear the indignation of 
the LordV ^^^ 'accept of tlie punishment of sin/ it re- 
moveth the temptation and malignity of it from the con- 
science. And thus as Protagoras ', by his natural dexterity, 
ordered the burden which he was to bear, with more ease 
and advantage ; so piety makes judgements, by spiritual 
prodeDce, more easy to be borne : and the light yoke of 
Christ, as bladders in a deep water, bears up the spirits of 
men from sinking, and lighteneth every other burden. And 
therefore as he in Plutarch said of the Scythians % That 
though they had no music nor vines amongst them, yet they 
had gods ; so whatever other things may be wanting to a 
people, yet if God be their God, they are not destitute of 
any happiness. Yea, as those roses ^ are usually sweetest, 
which grow nearest unto stinking weeds ; so the comforts of 
God^B Spirit are strongest, when a man is otherwise per- 
plexed with the greater difficulties. It was promised unto 
Josiah, that he should die in peace "" ; and yet we find, that 
he was slain in war ^ : his weeping and humiliation altered 
the very nature of trouble, and made war to be peace unto 

Sect. 9. Now for the use and application of this point. 
This serveth, first. To instruct us how to deprecate calamities, 
when God shakes his rod over us. There is nothing in all 
the world that God is angry with, but sin : for all other things 
are his own works, in the goodness * of which he rested with 
singular complacency and delight. Sin is that against which 
God*8 arrows are directed ; and as the arrow sticks in the 
butt unto which the mark is fisistened; so the judgements 
which are shot at sin, must needs light upon us unto whom 
sin deaveth. Tlie way then to divert the arrow, is to re- 
move the mark. It is true, God doth sometimes bring af- 
flictions, without respect to the provocations of sin, upon his 
best servants. As if a man should shape, out of a mass of 
gold, some excellent vessel, — though the gold be never so 
pore, yet it must pass through the fire and the hammer again. 
Bat it is certain too, that no afflictions come in anger, but 

7 Mk. Tit 9. Lev. xxvi. 41. Jer. z. 19. . * yiuL Cell, 1. 5. c. 3. • Plut. 

ewfim6c. 4«Tcl C9fmw. b piut, de Sanititc tuend. < 2 Chroo. xzxiv. 2S. 

d 2 Chron. zjult. 24. ^ Usque ad delictum hominit Deus Untum bonus, 

Jode et teverufl, &c. TertuL contn Marc. 1. 2. c. 11, 14. 





with respect to sin. Aud the anger of God is the bitterest 
thing in any calamity. 

Now for diversion of this, there is no way but to get sin 
removed. Take the bark from a tree, and the sap can never 
find way to the boughs. Sin is the ' vehiculum,' which con- 
veys ahame and sorrow to the soul : take away that, and a 
judgement hath no commission. You may find an error in 
it, if you be not the same men that you were, when it issued 
forth; for God shoots no arrows lo hurt the body of his Son. 
It is true. Job complains, that " God's arrows did stick in 
him';" but these were not for destruction", but for trial; ob 
men shoot bullets against armour of proof, not to hurt it, 
but to praise it. Job in this case was brought fnrtli, not as 
a malefactor to suSer, but, as a champion, to triumph. Let a 
man take what course he can, to keep off God's judgements, 
and hide himself in the closest protection that human power 
or policy can contrive ; so long as he keeps his sin with him, 
God's arrows'' will get through at one joint or other. A 
naked man, with innocency, is better armed than Goliah in 
brass or iron. 

We are apt, in our distresses, to howl and repine, to 
gnaw our tongues, and tear our flesh in the anguish of our 
sufferings. Like the silly hart, which runs mourning and 
bleeding, but never thinks of getting out the fatal dart 
which sticks in his side. We look upward ', to see whether 
help will drop into our mouths; and we look downward, to 
see whether human succours will avail us : but we look not 
inward, to find out ' the plague of our own hearts ",' that we 
may be rid of that. Aud till this be done, sin doth as natu- 
rally draw and suck judgement to it, as the loadstone doth 
iron, or turpentine fire. Indefatigable have been the pains of 
this High Court, to make up the breaches that threaten us, 
and to heal the land. Whence comes it, that oar distrac- 
tions remain unremoved ? Certainly, our leaks are not stop- 
ped ; our sins are not thrown away : we labour at the pump 
to get the water out, but we do not take care to cure the pas- 

f Job. *i. 4. 9 Vetbcnt not et laccrat ! non est savilia ; ceitunen csl. Srn. 
dePnv. C.4. U^Tenuttopibuinon vincUur (ides.scclprobiiiur. Cyjir. ile Mutt. 
~-Aig. dc CiT. Dei, 1. 1. c 39, 30. 1, 4. t.3. » I Kings, xa\. M. i Ini. 
riii, 31, 22. k 1 Kinst viii. 38. 


sage at which it enters in: we are old bottles still, and ** God 
will not put new wine into old bottles *." If men would 
spend their murmurings and reproaches rather upon their 
sins than upon their physicians, the work would be sooner 
done. When the temple of God was to be new built, and a 
public restitution of the face of thint^s unto glory and splen- 
dour was in agitation, the prophets '" call upon God's people 
IB special then to repent. Impenitency puts obstructions to 
God's mercy, and to all noble enterprises. So long as our 
lives are as bad as before, how can we expect that our con- 
(btion should be better? In that case, mercies themselves 
become no mercies : as in the case of repentance, judge- 
oients would be no judgements. If we turn from our evil 
ways, God hath engaged himself by a solemn promise, that 
•* he will do us no harm ■.'* Otherwise, to busy ourselves in 
outward ceremonies of repentance, bodily fasting, and ver- 
bal praying, is indeed but to flatter God, and, if we could, 
to deceive him. And God will answer such men, not ac- 
cording to the prayer of their lips, but according to * the 
idol of their hearts ^' 

Sect. 10. Secondly, This teachoth us how to pray against 
sin ; it must be against a//, and in all respects. In the He> 
brew text, there is a kind of a usual transposition of the 
words, ppMvn — ^3 the word all is firsts. Metiiinks it doth 
intimate an intentness of the church upon that point, to 
have, if it were possible, all taken away at the very first. 
If there be one leak in a ship, one gap in a wall, one gate 
in a city, unprovided for ; it is enough to sink a ship, to 
drown m country, to betray a city. One little boy, thrust in 
St a window, can unlock the door for all the rest of the 
tkieves. It was but one Jonah that raised a tempest, but 
one Achan that troubled a camp ; and one sin, generally un- 
lepented of, were enough to undo a kingdom. Do not say 
^ It is a little one, and my soul shall live." Even the philoso- 
pher telleth US % that sometimes itkxaiiucrm iki^Mrrm are iitytrrm^ 
the smallest errors prove most dangerous. How little soever 
it be in its own nature, it becomes heinous by thy allowance. 
It is as much treason for a private man to coin pence ss 

> Matth. Ix. 17. » Hifi. i. 6. Zech. i. 2. b Jer. zzt. 6. • Exck. 

zW. 4, 5. P Duncan* s Stereotype Hebrew Bible, vul. ii. p. 233. <) Arist, 

abet. I. i. et Pulit. 1. 5. c. 8. 

192 S£y£N SERMONS ON THE [Seniu I. 

twenty-shilling pieces ; because the royal authority is as 
much violated by the one as the other. 

This, then, we must first and principally remember. To set 
ourselves against all wu In confession, none to be dis- 
sembled ; in supplication, none to be excepted ; in conver- 
sion, none to be reserved ; never give it over so long as any 
is left — '* O Lord, yet it works, yet it lives, yet it tempts, 
yet it pains me. Sin hath not done accusing of me ; let not 
thy mercy have done forgiving of sin. Sin hath not done 
rebelling in me ; let not thy grace have done subduing of 
sin.^' — When men kill snakes or vipers, so long as they see 
them pant, or offer to thrust out a sting, they strike them 
still. Sin, like the thief on the cross, when it is fast nailed, 
and kept from its old tyranny, yet will, as much as it can, 
revile and spit out venom upon Christ. O therefore give it 
not over ; break the legs of it ; cinicify it clean through, till 
it be quite dead. None can pray, or turn unto God in truth, 
or hope to be delivered from judgements in mercy, so long 
as he holds fast any known sin. Can any man look to re- 
ceive beneBt by the blood of Christ, who hugs the villain 
that shed it ? Is it not treason, knowingly to harbour and 
entertain a traitor ? Whosoever loves and holds fast sin, lies 
unto God in every prayer that he makes. 

This serveth to prove and humble us for our hypocrisy and 
halvings with God in our conversions from sin, and confes- 
sions of it. We are willing to pray for the pardon of them 
all, we would have none hurt us; but when it comes to partr 
ing, and taking all away, this we cannot away with. Some 
are fat, delicate, golden sins ; we would fain spare these, as 
Saul did Agag*^; and hide them, as Achan* did his wedge. 
Herod hears John ' gladly in many things ; but if he restrain 
him of his Herodias, he must expect to be himself restrain* 
ed. Agrippa** will be almost a Christian, but altogether may 
chance bring a chain with it. Jehu * will down with Baal 
and his priests; but he knows not how to part with his 
calves, lest he venture his kingdom. Policy is ever enter- 
ing caveats against piety. Thus men buck, and stand upon 
abatements with Christ, in the bargain of salvation ; not con- 

r 1 Sam. xt. 9. » Josh. vii. 11. < Mark vi. 20. «> Acta xxvi. 28. 

> 2 Kings X. 30, 31. 


sidering, that the purchase of Heaven is like the buying of 
the Sibyl'ft prophecy ; the longer we stand off, the dearer 
epcry day it will cost us ; the more tears, the harder repent- 
mnce, the deeper sorrow, the stronger cries. ITiese men 
know not the price of a soul, nor the worth of a Saviour. 

O ! if Christ should have served us so in dying for sin, as 
many of us do serve him in turning from sin, what a condi- 
tion had our souls been in ! if he had died for some sins, 
and not for others; if he had been unwilling to ' save us to 
die uttennost,' as we are to serve him to the uttermost ; if 
he dionld have stopped before he came to ' consummatum 
eat,^ and left any one drop of that bitter cup for us to drink 
after him ; would it not have caused our belly to swell, and 
o«r thigh to rot, and made us for ever incapable of any other 
mercy, than only a less damnation ? 

Well, beloved, Christ expecteth, that as he died for 
all sin, so we should die to all : he will be counted worthy 
of all acceptation', before he will bestow himself: he 
will not suffer his blood and his mercy to mingle with sin, 
or to be a protection to it: he cannot endure mingling 
of the holy seed with the profane; swearing by God, and 
swearing by Malcham'; Samaritan services^, to be for 
the Lord in one thing, and, for the world and flesh, in ano- 
ther; one step straight, and another crooked; one speech 
Ashdod*, and another Canaan ; to let our conversation be 
'Yea and Nay,' a mungrel service : — * In this, I will do as you 
bid me \ bat in that, 1 will not ;' — like the Jews, that would 
boy Christ's blood with money, but not take the money into 
the treasury ; they were fearful to defile their chests, but not 
to defile their consciences. This Christ cannot away with. 
It is dangerous to say with the Pharisee % ' This I am not, 
and that 1 am not ;* or with the young man ^ ' This and that 
I have done ;' and, in the mean time, to have one thing lack- 
ing, to have one door locked up still, to keep Christ and 

•lTiin.L15. »Zeph. i.5. ^ 1 Rcg.XTii. 33. • Neh. xiii. 24. 

4 Alfcnui iaier cupidiutem noctrmm et pcenitcntuun vices tunu Stn. de Ocio Sap. 
C.27. Maximum judicium malae men tit flue tuatio. ep. 120. — Vir bonus d^Mro- 
fUx^rof. ArisL Ethic. 1. 9. c. 46. Trrpdrfwifoi. 1. I. e. 10.— Mox^pol t^ Mvw 
#*K IXPo^» 1. 8. c. 3. — OOic i^' i¥ fii¥, it* A' r •ti, dXA* iv ?(ci •i)voii«t. 
Cltm. AUx. Strom. 1. 4. Nulli aervorum licet, ex his que dominus imperat, 
quod placueric aMumerc, quod ditplicucht repudiare. Salv. de Prov. 1. 3 
• Luke. zvUi. U. ^ Mark z. 20. 

VOL. 111. <> 


salvation from us. Whosoever keeps a covetous heart for 
the world, or a sensual heart for the flesh, or a proud heart 
for the devil, is unworthy of Heaven by his own election, 
and would not go in thither, if the door were wide open : ht 
would not find there any fuel for these his lusts, any Nabal, 
or Cozbi> or Diotrephes to converse withal. And surely, 
he that hath any one wickedness with allowance *, in God's 
construction is habitually guilty of all **. 

Therefore in this case, as Samuel said to Jesse S *' Ar« 
here all thy children ? if any be left, we will not sit down 
till he come;*^— so we must conceive in our confessions and 
renunciations of sin, that Christ asketh us, "Are here all? 
if any be reserved, I will not take possession, till that be 
cast out.'' There must not a hoof ■" be left in Egypt, if God 
be to be served. God's law, as well as man's, disallows in- 
mates in the same house ; he will not endure a divided heart' ; 
be is heir of all things ; there lies no writ of partition in his 
inheritance ; his title is so good, that he will never yield to 
a composition ; he will have all the heart or none. 

4. We should therefore be exhorted (in time of trouble 
especially) to set about this great work, to fall foul upon our 
sins, to complain against them to God, as the Achans that 
trouble Israel, as the corrupters and betrayers of our peace ; 
to set ourselves in God's eye, and not to dare to lie unto his 
Holy Spirit, by falseness or hypocrisy ; as if we conld re- 
serve any one sin unmortified, ^hich he should not know of. 
But being in his sight, '' to whom all things are naked and 
open "^y" to deal in all sincerity ", and to hate sin even as be 
hates it." 

Sect. 11 . There are five notable duties which these three 
words, ' Omnem toUe iniquitatem,' do lead us unto. 

I. Sense of sin, as of 'a heavy burden,' as the prophet 
David calls it^. Such sense our Saviour requires in true 
penitents, ''Come unto me, all ye that are weary and heavy 
laden p ;" to conceive them heavier than a millstone % than 

f Qui uno pecctrit, otnniam reus est, peccans contn ciritmtem, k qm pMi- 
dent omnia : Aug. ep. 29.--Si pauca simulacra circumferat, in una idololatria 
est ; si unam thensam trahat, Jovis tamen plaustrum est. Tert. — ^Vide Seiu de 
Benef. 1. 4. c. 26, 27. 1. 5. e. 15. b James ii. 10. Luke xvi. 10. Ezek. zrili. 
10, 13. i 1 Sam. xvi. 11. k Ezod. z. 26. i Psalm zU. 9. 

James i. 8. Psalm cziz. 10. ■ Heb. iv. 13. n Gen. xvii. 1. 3 Cor. 

ii. 17. o Psalm xzzviii. 5. P Mattb. xi. 2S. 4 Luke zvn. 2. 

Vers. 1, 2.] FOURTEENTH CUAPTEK OF U08EA. 195 

the weight of a mountain \ O ! what apprehension had St. 
Peter's cooTerts of sin, when they felt the nails wherewith 
tliey had crucified Christ, stickini; fast in their own hearts, 
and piercing their spirits with torment and horror'! Of 
what apprehensions had the poor gaoler of his sins, when he 
came as a prisoner before his own prisoners, springing in 
with monstrous amazement and consternation of spirit, be* 
seeching them to tell him, ^' What he should do'?** 

Consider it in its nature : a universal bruise and sick- 
oess, like those diseases which, physicians say, are ' Cor- 
raptio totius substantia/ from ' head to foot "* f and who 
doth not feel such a universal languor to l)e a heavy bur* 
den? for a man that must needs labour, to have weights 
hang at his hands ; that must needs walk, to have clog^s fiis- 
tcned to bis feet; — how can he choose but cry out with the 
apostle, "O wretched man that I am, who shall deliver 

Consider it in the curse that belongs unto it; "a roll 
written within and without ',^ with curses. 

Look outward ; and behold a curse in the creature, va* 
nily, emptiness, vexation, disappointments ; every creature 
armed with a sting, to revenge its Maker^s quarrel. 

Look inward ; and behold a curse in the conscience, ac- 
CQsinf^ witnessing, condemning, haling to the tribunal of 
vengeance ; first, defiling with the allowance, and after, ter- 
rifying with the remembrance of sin. 

Look upward; and behold a curse in the heavens, the 
wrath of God revealed ' from thence upon all unrighteous- 

Look downward ; and behold a curse in the earth : death 
ready to put a period to all the pleasures of sin, and, like a 
tiap-door, to let down into hell, where nothing of sin will 
remain, but the worm and the fire. 

Look into the Scripture, and see the curse there de- 
scribed ; an 'everlasting banishment* from the glory of 
God's presence: an < everlasting destruction' by the glory 
of his power *. The Lord showing the jealousy of his jus- 
tice, the unsearchableness of his severity, the unconceivable. 
ness of his strength, the bottomless guilt and malignity of 

' take sxiii. 30. • Acu li. 37. > Acti xvi. 23, 30. • Iiai. i. '** ^. 

■Rom. vii. 24. vEick.ii. 10 • Rom. i. 16. •2Thtn,i,U. 

o 2 


sin, in the everlasting destruction of ungodly men, and in 
the everlasting preserving of them to feel that destruction •*. 
*'Who knoweth the power of thy anger?'' saith Moses; 
" even according to thy fear, so is thy wrath ^.'^ It is im- 
possible for the most trembling consciences, or the most 
jealous fears of a guilty heart, to look beyond the wrath of 
God, or to conceive more of it than indeed it is. As in 
peace of conscience, the mercy of God is revealed unto be- 
lievers from faith to faith ; so, in anguish of conscience, the 
wrath of God is revealed from fear to fear. 

A timorous man can fancy vast and terrible fears, fire, 
sword, tempests, racks, furnaces, scalding lead, boiling 
pitch, running bell-metal, and being kept alive in all these 
to feel their torment ; but these come far short of the wrath 
of God : for first. There are bounds set to the hurting power 
of a creature ; the fire can burn, but it cannot drown ; the 
serpent can sting, but he cannot tear in pieces. Secondly, The 
fears of the heart are bounded within those narrow appre- 
hensions, which itself can frame of the hurts which may be 
done. But the wrath of God proceeds from an infinite jus- 
tice, and is executed by an omnipotent and unbounded 
power, comprising all the terror of all other creatures (as the 
sun doth all other light) eminently and excessively in it : it 
bums, and drowns, and tears, and stings, and bruises, and 
consumes, and can nature feel much more than reason is 
able to comprehend. 

O ! if we could lay these things seriously to heart, (and 
yet these are but low expressions of that which cannot be 
expressed ; and cometh as short of the truth itself, as the 
picture of the sun, in a table, doth of the greatness and 
brightness of it in its own orb,) should we not find it neces- 
sary to cry out, *' Take away all iniquity ?" this sickness out 
of my soul,— this sword, this nail, this poisoned arrow, out 
of my heart, — this dagger of Ehud out of ray belly, — ^this 
millstone, this mountain from off my back, — these stings 
and terrors, these flames and furies out of my conscience ? 
Lord, my wounds stink, my lips quiver, my knees treml>Ie, 
my belly rots ; I am feeble, and broken, and roar, and Ian- 

^ Aamdi in oorpore eric non Tivendi caust, ted dolendi. Aug, de Civ. Dei, L 13^ 
«. 3. Prima moit antmim aolentem pellit k corpore ; tecunda noleoMm iccinet 
ia torpore. Ibid. 1. 21 . c, 3. < PMlm xc. 1 1. 


gmsh ; tby wrath lies hard upoD me, and thy waves go over 
my bead. 

O ! if we had but a view of sin as it is in its native fouU 
neas, and did feel bat a touch of that fury that God is ready 
to poor cot upon it; this would stain all the pride of man, 
and sour all the pleasures of sin, and make a man as fearful 
to meddle with it, as a guilty woman with the bitter water 
which caused the curse. Most true was that which Luther 
qpake in this point, *' If a man could perfectly see his own 
erils, the sight thereof would be a perfect hell unto him :^ — 
and this God will bring wicked men unto ; " Reprove them, 
and set their sins in order before them ^T make them take a 
view of their own hearts and lives, fuller of sins than the 6r- 
raament of stars, or a furnace of sparks. '' O consider this, 
ye that forget me,^ saith the Lord, '' lest I tear you io 
pieces, and there be none to deliver you." 

SecT. 12. The second duty is. Confession; for he that cries 
to have sin taken away, acknowledgeth that it lies upon 
him. A full confession, not of many, but of all sins, either 
actually committed, or habitually comprised in our body of 
sio. Am he in the Comedian said *, that he had invited two 
guests to dinner, Philocrates, and Philocrates, — a single 
man, but a double eater ; — so, in examination of ourselves, 
we shall erery one find sins enough in himself to denomi- 
nate him a double and a treble sinner. A free confession, 
not as Pharaoh's, extorted upon the rack ; nor as that of 
Judas, squeezed out with anguish and horror ; but ingenuous 
and penitent, arising from the purpose of a pious heart, that 
Cometh like water out of a spring, with a voluntary free* 
neas ; not like water out of a still, which is forced with fire. 

The third duty is. Weariness and detestation of all sin ; 
for we call not to have a thing removed, till we be weary of 
it. Thus we are taught in the Scripture to be ashamed and 
cmfoonded, to loathe and abhor, to judge and condemn our- 
•ebes ; to throw sin away as a detestable thing, though it 
be a golden or silver sin. A spiritual judgement looks on 
all sin as filthy and stinking '; showeth a man to himself as 
a Teasel full of dung, scum, excrements ; and makes him out 

^ftilfnl.31. • Athenaeus 1. i. ' Psalm zxzviit. 2. Exck. xvi. 63. 

▼i.9,20, 43. ICoff. xi. 31. Itai. xu. 22. IValinxir.3. 2Cuff.vii. 
quen poenitct, vcxaiur tecum. Au§' in Pial. xxxiv. 


of quiet, till he be thoroughly purged* For hatred is mpig 
ra yivfiy against the whole kind of that which we hate. 

The fourth duty is, an Acknowledgment of our own impo- 
tency* to remove sin from ourselves. We have no more 
power than a slave in chains hath to get out of his bondage, 
till another ransom him ; than a dead body in a grave, till 
Christ raise it. Our iniquity takes hold on us, and keeps 
us down, that we cannot hearken or be subject to the will of 
God. If sin were not removed by a greater strength than 
our own, it would most certainly sink us into hell. 

The last duty is. An imploring of God^s mercy and grace, 
that what we cannot do ourselves, he would be pleased to 
do for us. In works of art**, it is hard to build, but easy to 
destroy : but in works of sin, though our weakness is able 
to commit them, yet none but God's power is able to demo- 
lish them. None but Christ is strong enough to overcome 
the strong man ' ; his person only hath strength enough to 
bear the curse of sin ; his sacrifice only merit enough to 
make expiation for sin ; his grace only virtue enough to re* 
move the pollution of sin. Though we should take ' nitre 
and much soap ^,^ our sin would be marked still ; but he 
cometh with ' refiners fire, and with fuller's soap V c^nd can 
wash out all. It was his only business of coming into the 
world, • to destroy the works of the devil "*.' 

Now the things which we pray for in this petition, are 
these three : First, For remission, that God would take away 
the condemnation of sin from us, by not imputing the guilt 
thereof unto us ; but would cause it to pass over on Christ, 
on whom he hath ^ laid the iniquity of his people ^' Such 
an expression the Holy Ghost useth, norn, the Lord hath 
caused thy sin • to pass over ' from thee to Christ • : which 
being obtained, all other judgements are, • ipso facto,' re- 
moved too, so far as they import proper and vindictive pu- 
nishment i*. 

Secondly, For sanctification, that the virtue of Christ's 

f Bpbeg. ii. 1, 5. Psalm zl. 12. Rom. t. 6, 24. 2 Cor. iii. 5. Ja. 
vi. 10, Rom. viii. 7. ^ Facile est momenta quo quis vclit, cedere posscttioiie 

magme fortunse : facere et parare cum difficile atque arduam. Liv. ii. 24. Cor- 
pora lente augescunt, cit6 exstinguuntur. Tacit, Vit. Agric— Arbores magnas dia 
cresoere, un& hori exstirpari. Quint, Curt, 1.7. * Luke xi. 21 . k Jcr. ii. 22. 
> Mai. iii. 3. « I John iii. 8. ■ Isai. liii. fi. •2 Sam. xii. 13. F RoBU 
fv 8. Hcb.ix. 11. Mic.vii. 19. 


demlb, and the grace of big Spirit may subdue the power of 
sioy and cleanse and strengthen our consciences against the 
commands of it, and temptations unto it. 

Thirdly, For continued renovation "i, that as, in sanctifica- 
tioD begun, we have power against all kinds of sin, — so, by 
the coDtinual supplies of the Holy Spirit, we may have further 
power against all degrees and remainders of sin. Thai 
Christ would pursue our sin unto death, as our sin did him ; 
and not give over mortifying it, till his blood be revenged of 
it to the nttermost, and our souls delivered from it to the 

Sect. 13. I shall conclude the 6rst part of the petition 
with a short word of exhortation unto this Honourable As- 
sembly. Those things which God worketh in us ^ and be- 
stoweth upon us by his grace, he also requireth of us by 
his eommand. Sometimes he promiseth to turn us ; some- 
times he commandeth us to turn to him ; sometimes he 
hiddeth as put away sin ; and sometimes he promiseth to 
take it away from us : in the one, showing us what is our 
doty,— and in the other, where is our help. And as this 
latter consideration calleth upon our faith to pray, so the 
former upon our obedience to work. I shall therefore. Right 
Honourable, humbly offer a double exhortation unto all of 
you : — 

Firsts That every one of you would seriously endeavour to 
take away all iniquity from his own person. And unto this 
diere lieth upon you a double obligation ; one with relation 
to the safety of your souls ; for whatever other honour, 
wealth, wisdom, learning, interest a man hath besides, if sin 
tare the predominancy, they are but Satan^s magasine, and 
that man his servant to employ them against God that gave 
them : and the more mercies any man hatli been trusted 
withal, the heavier judgement will be poured out upon the 
breach of that trust Better be a wooden vessel to hold 
wine, than a silver vessel to hold excrements : better be a 
beggar with the treasure of God's grace, than a prince with 
the load of a man's own sins. 

n Ezd[. xxxtI. 26. Jer. zxi. B. Ezdc. xviii. 31 . Iiai. i. 16. Heb. viii. 12. 
' Lex jabet, gratia juvat. jiug. ep. 95. et ep. 144. et 1. 3. contr. 2. ep. Pelag. c. 7. 
— Pecamus at det, qaod ut habemtniu jabct. In Czod. Uiunt. ftb, dc Bono Vidui- 
catb, c. 17. 

200 SLYEV SEIiliONS ON THE [Scnn.I. 

But there is a further tie upon you, with relation unto the 
succeas of that honourable employment, whereunto you are 
called. " Ita nati estis, ut bona malaque yestra ad Rempub- 
licam pertineant '.*' God will be sanctified in all those that 
draw near unto him, as well in civil as in sacred adminis- 
trations. It is very hard for a person in whom sin rules, to 
be constantly faithful to any public and honourable service ; 
for grace only ' establisheth the hearth' Ahithophel, a 
man of great wisdom, falls from David : Joab, a man of 
greitt valour, falls from Solomon. And admit he be faithful, 
yet the sin of his heart sends out a prohibition to the wisdom 
of his head, and the labour of his hand. He that will be a 
fit vessel for his Master's use, must first of all ' purge him- 
self*'; as we first cleanse a vessel, before we use it. When 
Joshua was to negotiate a public reformation, and to admi- 
nister a public service, his * filthy garment' must be taken 
from him, and he must be clothed with change of raiment'. 
Let every one of you make his public service one argument 
more than he had before, for his necessary reformation, and 
let the piety of your lives bear witness to the integrity of 
your honourable undertakings. 

Sect. 14. Secondly, As you must take away sin from 
yourselves, so make it your principal work to * take away 
iniquity out of the land ;' liberty, property, privileges, are 
sacred and precious things, not to be in the least manner 
betrayed : yea, in some sense we may look upon them, as 
the Jews upon their Masorah y, ' tanquam legis et pietatis 
sepem ;"* as a fence and mound unto religion herself. Arbi- 
trary government would quickly be tampering in sacred 
things, because corruption in the church is marvellously 
subservient and advantageous to corruption in the state. 
But the most orient pearl of this kingdom, is our religion; 
and the bitterest enemies unto that, are our sins. These 
are the snuffs that dim our candlestick, and threaten the re- 
moval of it ; these are the leaven that defile our passovers, 
and urge God to pass away and depart from us ; these the 
obstructions between his sacred Majesty and you, and be* 
tween both, and the happiness of the kingdom. Think se- 
riously what ways may be most effectual to purge out this 

• Taet/. Annal. .4. « Heb. liii. 9. 2Tim. ii. 21. « Zach. 

iii. 4, 7. y R. Akibi in Firkc Aboth. 


leaven out of the land. The principal sacrificing knife which 
kills and mortifies sin, is the Word of God, and the know- 
ledge of it. It would have been a great unhappiness to the 
commonwealth of learning, if Caligula' had (as he endea- 
voured) deprived the world of the writings of Homer, Virgil, 
and Livy. But O ! what an Egyptian calamity is it, to have, 
in this sunshine of the gospel, thousands of persons and 
families (as I doubt not but, upon enquiry, it would appear) 
without the Writings of the prophets and apostles ! A Chris- 
tian soldier without his sword, a Christian builder without 
his role and square, a Christian calling without the instru- 
ments and balances of the sanctuary belonging to it. O ! 
therefore that every parish had an endowment fit for a learn- 
ed, laborious, and worthy pastor, — and pastors worthy of 
such endowments,~that provision were made, that every 
family might have a Bible in it, and (if by law it might pos- 
sibly be procured) the exercises of religion therewithal: this 
would be the surest magazine to secure the happiness of a 
kingdom : That all reproachful titles, which the Devil useth 
as scarecrows and whifflers to keep back company from press^ 
ing in upon Christ's kingdom, were, by law, proscribed: 
that scandalous sins were, by the awfulness and severity of 
discipline, more blasted and brought to shame : that the 
Lord's house were more frequented, and his day more sanc- 
tified, and his ordinances more reverenced; and his ministers, 
which teach the good knowledge of the Lord, more encou- 
figed than ever heretofore :— in one word, that all the seve* 
ral fountains of the commonwealth were settled in a sound 
and flourishing constitution : that, in every place, we might 
see piety the elm to every other vine, tlie supporter to every 
other profession ; learning adorned with piety, and law ad- 
ministered with piety, and counsels managed with piety » 
and trade re^^ulated with piety, and the plough followed with 
piety : that when ministers fight against sin, with the sword 
of God's Word, ye who are the nobles and gentry of the 
land, would second them, and frown upon it too ; a frown of 
yours may sometimes do as much service to Christ as a ser* 
mon of ours.. And he cannot but take it very unkindly fronv 
you, if ye will not bestow your countenance on him, wha 

* Sueton. in Calig. c. 34. ed. Cruf. vol. i. p. 529. 


bestowed his blood on you :— that ye would let the strict* 
ness of your lives, and the piety of your examples put wick- 
edness out of countenance, and make it appear (as indeed 
it is) a base and a sordid thing. 

If we would thus sadly set ourselves against the sins of the 
land, no power, no malice, no policies should stand between 
us and God^s mercies. Religion would flourish, and peace 
would settle, and trade would revive, and the hearts of men 
would be re-united, and the church be as a city compacted ; 
and this nation would continue to be, as it hath been, like 
the garden of Eden, a mirror of prosperity and happiness to 
other people ; and God would prevent us, in the second part 
of our petition, with the blessing of goodness ; as soon as 
ever iniquity were removed, he would do us good, which is 
the second thing here directed to pray for, *• Receive us 

Sect. 16. In the original it is aito np, *' take good," to wit, 
to bestow upon us; so taking* is sometimes used for giving: 
he " received gifts for men," so in David ** ; he •' gave gifts 
to men/' so in the apostle''. And it is not improbable, 
that the prophet here secretly leadeth us to Christ the Me* 
diator, who first receiveth gifts from his Father, and then 
poureth them forth upon his church ^, 

The meaning then is, '* Lord, when thou hast pardoned, 
weakened, mortified sin, go on with thy mercy ; and, being 
in Christ graciously reconciled unto us, give further evidence 
of thy fatherly aflection, by bestowing portions upon us. 
They shall not be cast away upon unthankful persons ; ' we 
will render the calves of our lips;' they shall not be bestow- 
ed upon those that need them not, or that know where else 
to provide themselves. It is true, we have gone to the Assy- 
rian ; we have taken our horses instead of our prayers ; ^ and 
gone about to find out good : we have been so foolish as to 
diink that the idols, which have been beholden to our hands 
for any shape that is in them, could be instead of hands, and 
of God unto us, to help us in our need : but now we know 
that men of high degree are but a Iie% that horses are but 
a vanity ^ that an idol is nothing ^, and therefore can give 

• Gen. xliii. 31. ti Psalm Ixviii. 19. ^ IJphcs. iv. 8. * Acts ii. 23. 

•Fsalm Ixii. 9. f Pnalni xxxiii. 17. xx. 7. 1 1 Cor. viii. 4. 


ttothiiig: — that power belongeth unto ihee, iioue else cau do 
it ; that mercy belongeth onto thee, none else will do it : 
therefore since in thee only the fatherless find mercy, be thoa 
pleased to do us good.** 

We will consider the words, First, Absolutely, as a single 
prayer by themselves : — Secondly, Relatively, in their con- 
nexion, and with respect to the scope of the place. 

From the former consideration we observe, that all the 
good we have, is from God : he only niui^t be sought unto 
for it: we have none in ourselves ; '* I know, that in me, 
that is, in my flesh, dwelleth no good >." We can neither 
think, nor speak, nor do it **. 

And missing it in ourselves, it is all in vain to seek for it 
in things below ourselves. 

They can provide for our back and belly ; — and yet not 
that neither without God : the root, out of which the fruits of 
the earth do grow, is above in Heaven ; the genealogy of 
com and wine, is resolved into God '. But if you go to your 
lands, or houses, or treasuries for physic for a sick soul, or 
a guilty conscience, they will all return an ' ignoramus^ to 
that eoqairy. Salvation doth not grow in the furrows of the 
field ; neither are there in the earth to be found any mines 
or harvests of grace or comfort. 

In Ood alone is '^ the fountain of life ^ :" he that only " is 
good *,^ he only " doth good ■*."*• When we have wearied 
onrsehres vrith having recourse to second causes, here at last, 
like the wandering dove, we must arrive for rest. '* Many 
will say. Who will show us any good ? do thou lifl up the 
light of thy countenance upon us^'' From him alone 
'* comes every good gift^:'^ whether temporal, it is his 
blessing that maketh the creature able to comfort us p. The 
woman touched the hem of Christ's garment ; but the virtue 
went not out of the garment, but out of Christ *<. Or whether 
spiritoal, sanctified faculties S sanctified habits', sanctified 
motions*, glorious relations", in predestination, adoption, 

f Rom. ¥11. 18. k Gen. vi. 5. 2 Cor. Hi. 5. Mmtth. xii. 34. Ptalm xIt. 3. 

i H«. U.23. k Psalm xxxvi. 9. ^ Mattb. xiz. 17. ■ Ptalm cxix. 6S. 

>Fnlm iv. 6. •James i. 17. P Prov. x. 2. Match, iv. 4. I Tim. !▼. 5. 
% Luke Tiii. 44. 'I John v. 20. Phil. ii. 13. Jcr. xxxii. 39. Rom. v. 5. 

s Ephca. ii. 8, 9, 10. Col. ii. 11, 12. « 2 Tim. it. 25. Phil. ii. 13. • Ephes. 
i. 5, 6. John i. 12. 


and Christian liberty : excellent gifts *, heavenly comforts ^, 
all and only from him ■. And that without change and alter- 
ation: he doth not do good one while, and evil another ; but 
goodness is his proper and native operation. He is not the 
author of sin, that entered by the devil ; he is not the au« 
thor of death, that entered by sin ; but " our destruction is 
of ourselves *." And therefore though the prophet 8ay^ " Is 
there any evil iti the city which the Lord hath not done?" 
yet he doth it not but only as it is ' bonum justitise,^ good 
in order to his glory. For it is just with God, that they who 
run from the order of his commands, should fall under the 
order of his providence; and doing willingly what he forbids, 
should unwillingly suffer what he threateneth. 

In one word, God is the author of all good, — by his grace 
working it: the permitter of all evil, — by his patience endur- 
ing it: the orderer and disposer of both, — by his mercy, 
rewarding the one, — by his justice, revenging the other, — 
and by his wisdom, directing both to the ends of his eternal 

Sect. 16. This serveth to discover the free and sole 
working of grace in our first conversion, and the continued 
working of grace in our further sanctification ; whatsoever 
is good in us habitually, as grace inhering, — or actually, as 
grace working, — is from him alone as the author of it For 
though it be certain, that when we will and do, ourselves are 
agents, yet it is still under and from him. ** Certum est nos 
facere, cum faciamus ; sed ille facit, ut faciamus %** as the 
great champion of grace speaketh ; by grace we are that we 
are ; we do what we do, in God's service. Vessels have no 
wine, bags have no money in them, but what the merchant 
putteth in : the bowls of the candlesticks had no oil, but 
that which dropped from the olive-branches. 

Other things which seek no higher perfection than is to be 
found within the compass of their own nature "*, may, by the 
guidance and activity of the same nature, attain thereunto : 

« 1 Cor. zii. 6. 7 2 Cor. i. 3. Rora. xv. 13. > Concil. Miievit. Giu. 

iii. 4, 5. — Concil. Arausican. sccund. — Aug. dc Grat. et Lib. Arb. c. 21. 
• Hos. xiii. 9. *» Amos iii. 6. Isai. xlv. 7. — Vid. Tertul. contr. Marckm. 

1. 2. c. 14. c j4ug, dc Grai. et Lib. Arb. c. G, — de Grat. Christ! c. 25. contr. 

2. ep. Pelag. 1. 4. c. 6.— dc Perfect. Justitiat, c. 19. d ^e/^. dc Civ. Dei, 1. 2. 
c. 9,—Fieldt of the Church, 1. 1. c. 2. 


b\U man aspiring to a divine happiness, can never attain 
tfaereooto but by a divine strength : impossible it is for any 
man to enjoy God without God *. 

The truth of this point showeth it in five gradations : — 

1st. By grace, our minds are enlightened ' to know and 
believe him : for spiritual things are spiritually discerned. 

2nd. By grace, our hearts are inclined to love and obey 
him'; for spiritual things are spiritually approved. He only 
by his almighty and ineffable operation worketh in us, " et 
verms revelationes, et bonas voluntates \'^ 

3rd. By grace, our lives are enabled to work what our 
hearts do love ' : without which, though we should will, yet 
we cannot perform ; no more than the knife which hath a 
good edge, is able actually to cut till moved by the hand. 

4th. By grace, our good works are carried on unto per- 
fiectioD^. Adam, wanting the grace of perseverance, fell 
from innocency itself: it is not sufficient for us that he 
prevent and excite us to will \ that he co-operate and assist 
as to work, except he continually follow and supply us with 
a retidae of spirit, to perfect and finish what we set about : 
all our works are begun, continued, and ended in him. 

Lastly, By grace, our perseverance is crowned : for our 
best works could not endure the trial of justice*", if God 
should enter into judgement with us. Grace enableth us 
to work, and grace rewardeth us for working. Grace be- 
ginneth % and grace finisheth both our faith and salvation. 
The work of holiness is nothing but grace ; and the reward 
of holiness is nothing but grace for grace. 

Sect. 17. Secondly, This teacheth us how to know good 
from evil in ourselves. What we look on as good, we must 
see how we have derived it from God. The more recourse 
we have had unto God by prayer, and faith, and study of his 
will, in the procurement of it, the more goodness we shall 
find in it. A thing done may be good in the substance of 

• Amg. de pttientim, c. 18. ^ 1 Cor. ii. 12, 14. Matth. xi. 27. Jer. xxjii. M, 
Vid. Jug, de Grat. Christ. 1. 1. c. 13, 14. et ep. 143. f John vi. 45. Em«k. 

ih.2S. Jer. zxxii. 29. ^ Jug, de Crmt. Chritt. c 24. i Heb. xiii. 20. 

EoA. TU. 18. Phil. ii. 13. ^ 1 Tbeat. t. 22. 1 Pet. t. 10. Jude v. 24. John 

xviL 15. 1 Vid. Jug. Enchirid. c. 31. de Grat. et Lib. Arb. c. 6. et 17.-^Peto 

at acapiam ; et com accepero, rursus peto. Hieron, ad Ctcsiphont. ■> Psalm 

cxliii. 2. Isai. Ixi? . 6. ■ Phil. i. 6. Heb. x\\. 2. 


the "work, and yet evil in the manner of doing it ^: as the 
substance of a vessel may be silver, but the use sordid. 
Jehu's zeal was rewarded as an act of justice, 'quoad sub- 
stantiam operis^;' and it was punished too as an act of 
policy, 'quoad modum/ for the perverse end. A thing 
which I see in the night, may shine, and that shining proceed 
from nothing but rottenness. We must not measure our- 
selves by the matter of things done; for there may be 'Ma- 
lum opus in bona materia ^J* Doeg prays, and Herod hears, 
and hypocrites fast, and Pharisees preach: but when we 
would know the goodness of our works % look to the foun- 
tain, whether they proceed from the Father of lights by the 
spirit of love, and the grace of Christ, from humble, peni- 
tent, filial, heavenly dispositions. Nothing will carry the 
soul unto God, but that which cometh from him. Our com- 
munion with the Father^ and the Son, is the trial of all our 

Thirdly, This should exceedingly abase us in our own 
eyes, and stain all the pride, and cast down all the plumes of 
flesh and blood, when we seriously consider, that in us, as 
now degenerated from our original % there is no good to be 
found ; our wine become water S and our silver dross. As 
our Saviour saith of the devil, when he lies, he speaks * de 
Buo" ,^ of his own ; so when we do evil, we work, ' de dob- 
tro,^of our own, and < secundum hominem,^ as the apostle 
speaks, '' According unto man '." Lusts are our own ' ; our 
rery members' to that body of sin, which the apostle calleUi 
the "old man*;" with which it is as impossible to do any 
good, as for a toad to spit cordials. 

Men are apt to glory of their good hearts and intentions, 
only because they cannot search them^; and, being carnal 
themselves, to entertain none but carnal notions of God^s 
service. But if they knew the purity and jealousy of God, 
and their own impotency to answer so holy a will, they would 

• Phil. i. 15, 16. P 2 Kings z. 30. q 1 Sara. xxi. 7. Mark vi. 20. 

Act! zziv. 25. Isai. Iviii. 3. Matth. vi. 16. xxiii. 2, 3. ' Rebus, ad ima tea' 

dcnlibiu, in imo ponitur fundamcntum : Ecclesia verb, in imo postta, tendic in 
Coelum ; fondamentum ergo nostrum ibi positum est. ^ug. cnarr. 1. in 
Ptalm 29. • Jer. ii. 21. « Isai. i. 22. Ezek. xxii. 18. « Jolin 

¥iii. 44. > I Cor. iii. 3. y Rom. ii. 24. * James i. 14. • Col. 

iii. 5. Ephes. iv. 22. *• Jer. xvii. 11. 


laj their htnds upon their mouths, and with Job '^ abhor 
themselves; and with Isaiah'', bewail the uncleanness of 
their lips ; and with Moses % fear and quake, as not being 
able to endure the things that are commanded ; and with 
Joshua ^ acknowledge that they cannot serve God brcanse 
he is holy. They would then remember, that the law of Ood 
is a law of fire<, and the tribunal of God, a tribunal of fire^; 
Aat the pleadings of God with sinners, are in flames of fire'; 
that the trial of all our works shall be by fire ^; that the God 
before whom we must appear, is a consuming fire K Go now, 
and bring thy straw and stubble, thy drowsy and sluggish 
devotion, thy fickle and flattering repentance, thy formal and 
demure services into the fire, to the law to measure them, to 
the judge to censure them : nay, now carry them to thine 
OWB conscience ; and tell me whether that will not pass the 
Father's verdict upon them, " Sordet in conspectu judicis, 
quod fulget in conspectu operantis "*,** That which is fair in 
thine eye, is filthy in God's. 

Sect. 18. Lastly, This serveth for exhortation unto these 
particular duties : — First, Unto patience and meekness under 
nnj evil, that God may bring upon us ; and that not barely, 
because he doth us good in other things, which was Job's 
argument, '' Shall we receive good from the Lord, and not 
evil*?^ But further, because the very evils that come upon 
«0, are oftentimes by him intended for good, as Joseph told 
his brethren*. We are not angry with the physician when he 
knceth ^, dieteth, and restraineth us of our will : he denieth 
us our will, that we may have our will : a sick man is many 
times most faithfully served, when he is crossed. I lop my 
trees, bruise my grapes, grind my com to fit it to the ends 
wbereonto it tendeth. God's end is merciful when his hand 
is heavy, as John's roll was sweet in the mouth % but bitter 
in the belly : so troubles may be bitter to the palate, but 
profitable to the conscience : like hot spices that bite the 
tongue, but comfort the stomach. 

e Job slit. 5, 6. <> Isai. yi. 5. • Heb. zii. 20. f Joth. xziv. 39. 

I Deac. uxiii. 2. ^ Czek. i. 27. ^ Esck. Izvl. 15, 16. k i Cor. tii. 13. 

1 Hd>. xii. 29. » Greg. n Job. ii. 10. • Ocn. 1. 20. P Me- 

fidu etiam inYitis prodcsc. Srn, ep. 98.-»Qu» per insoavitatem medentur, emo- 
loinento curacionit offensam Rui excusant, ct prssentem injuriam «upenrentur» 
orilitatis gratia cotnmendant. Tert. Ac poenit. c. 10. <l Rev. i. 9. licb. xii. 1 1 . 
Itai. zxYii. 9. xWiii. 10^ 


And as it dictateth patience in suffering evil, so in doing 
our duties, though we suffer contempt and reproaches for it^ 
If we were to receive our rewards from men, their frowns 
might discourage us : but when we have done God's will, 
God himself will be our reward, and make his promises a 
comfort unto us. Moses and Aaron, though their whole 
employments were for the good of Israel, were yet repaid 
with murmuring and discontent ; and the people, like chiU 
dren, ' qui cibum sumunt, sed flentes/ (to use the similitude 
of the orator in Aristotle %) repined at the food which their 
prayers obtained for them, yet nothing dismayed them from 
their duty. '*Etiam post naufragium, tentantur maria^'' 
The woman of Canaan prays on, when she is denied ; and 
Jacob holds with his hands, when his thigh is lamed. Our 
first care must be to be in our way, to be doing our duties ; 
and then though (as Solomon speaks) we should meet " a 
lion in our way," we must not be dismayed ; for angels are 
stronger than lions, and *' he hath given his angels charge 
over us, to bear us in our ways **." Yea, whilst we are with 
him, he himself is with us '. So that the way of the Lord 
is the surest and safest walk that any man can have ; '* The 
way of the Lord is strength to the upright ^.^ 

Secondly, Unto humility : If thou be a vessel of gold, and 
thy brother but of wood, be not high-minded ; it is God that 
maketh thee to differ': the more bounty God shows, the 
more humility he requires. Those mines that are richest \ 
are deepest : those stars that are highest, seem smallest : the 
goodliest buildings have the lowest foundations: the more God 
honoureth men the more they should humble themselves : the 
more the fruit, the lower the branch on which it grows ; pride 
is ever the companion of emptiness. O ! how full was the 
apostle, yet how low was his language of himself ^! ** Least 
of saints ; last of apostles ; chief of sinners ; no sufficiency to 
think ;— no abilities to do ; all that he is, he is by grace.^ Thus 

' Quisquii volens detrahit fanue meae, nolens addit mcrcedi meat. Aug, ooDtr. 
litens PetiHani, I. 3. c. t, • Rbet. I. 3. c. 4. t Sen. cp. 81. « Fkalm 

xd. 8 1 . « 2 Chron. xv. 2. 1 Prov. x. 29. • 1 Cor. iv. 7. Rom. zi. 20. 
nie discernit, qui unde discernaris impertit, po&nam debitam removendo, indebi- 
tam gratiani largtendo. Au^, contr. 2. ep. Pelag. I. 2. c. 7. • Opulentissima 

metalla, quoram in alto latent venae. Sen, Ep. 23. Altissima flumina miniino 
Bono labuntur. Q,CuTt.\.7. ^ Ephcs. iii. 8. 1 Cor. xv. 8. 2Tim. i. IS. 

2 Cor. iii. 5. Rom. vii. 18. — Vid. Aug, de Grat. ci Lib. Arb. c. 8. 


humility teacheth us, in our operation, to draw strength from 
God, not from ourselves : in our graces, to ascribe their 
goodness to God, and their weakness to ourselves. 

Thirdly, Unto dependence and continual recourse to God, 
as the fountain of all good, to keep an open and unobstructed 
passage between him and our soul. Say not, '* I have light 
enough in my house ; I may now shut up my windows ;" 
for light within hath dependence upon immediate supplies 
from the sun without, and so hath grace upon continual 
sofqplies from the Sun of righteousness. God teacheth even 
the husbandman to plough and thresh^. In these things his 
disection is to be implored. Meddle not then with great 
and high affairs without recourse unto him. His name is 
' counsellor V &<><1 his testimonies are counsellors*; let 
them be the rule and square of all your debates. It is re- 
corded for the honour of Scipio ', that he w^U first to the 
C^tol, and then to the senate : but you have more noble ex- 
amples : David is put to flight ', he flees and prays : Ezc- 
ki^ IS at a stand in all his counsels ^, he sends to the pro- 
phet mod prays: Jehoshaphat is in great distress ', and knows 
not wba^ in the world to do, but he prays : Neheniiah is sore 
afraid \ and hath a petition to make to the king, but first he 
flftskas one to God, and prays. Whenever the children are 
come to the birth, and there is no strength to bring forth, all 
the world cannot furnish you with such another midwife as 
prayer, and recourse to God ; it hath delivered even graves 
of their dead. Therefore let me beseech you, whenever you 
Beet with such difficulties as put you to a stand, that you 
know not what to advise or resolve upon, — go to your 
dosets, prostrate yourselves at his throne, whose honour it is 
to be seen in the mount ; beg counsel of him in whom are 
hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Let it ap- 
pear, that you seek his face to direct you, and his glory as 
the supreme end and design of all your consultations ; and 
then try whether he be not a present help in trouble; and 
whether he will not magnify the wisdom of his counsel in 
the perplexity of yours. 

nvta. 2S. <i Itai. ix. 6. • Ptalm cxix. 24. t Liv. 1. 26.— 
AmL Gel. 1. 7. 1.— f^a/rr. Maxim, 1. 1. c. 2. f 2 Sam. xr. 26. 31. 

k Imu. zItiL 3, 4, 14. * 2 Chron. xx. 6. ^ Nehem. ii. :\, 4. 

¥OL. III. V 


Fourthly, Unto fidelity, in the use of any good which 
God bestows upon us; for God gives not talents to men, 
barely to enrich men, but to employ them. Therefore, as 
the vessel hath one passage to let the wine into itself, and 
another to pour it out into the flaggon, so we should not 
only fill ourselves by dependence upon God, but should sup- 
ply others by love and service unto our brethren. 

Right Honourable, This nation hath put into your bands 
all that is outwardly dear unto them, their persons, poster!- 
ties, liberties, estates. In these sad and woful distractions, 
they look upon you as binders, and healers, and standers in 
the gap, and repairers of waste places. God hath called 
you unto a high and a great trust ; and the sad distempers 
of the Cliurch and state, the distresses and desolations of 
Ireland, the doubts and fears, the shiverings and convulsions 
of England, and in these two the interest of all the protes- 
tant churches call upon you, like the man of Macedonia, in 
St. Paul's vision ^ " Come and help us." Now in this great 
strait, when the children are come to the birth, and there ia 
no strength to bring forth, — stir up the graces of God in 
you ; call together all that is within you, to call upon his 
name ; improve the uttermost of your interests in him for 
the state of his church ; manage every one of his gifts to 
the closing of those miserable breaches which threaten an in* 
undation of calamity upon us : wisdom, and learning, and 
piety, and prudence, are healing things. Remember (and O 
that God would put it into the hearts of this whole kingdom, 
from the throne to the plough, to remember) the fate of « 
divided kingdom from the mouth of truth itself: O that we 
would all remember, that misunderstandings, and jealousies, 
and divisions of heart, are a high evidence of God^s dis- 
pleasure, and that " through the wrath of the Lord of Hosts* 
a land is darkened, and (as it were) infatuated, when Ma* 
nasseh is against Ephraim, and Ephraim against Manasseb, 
and every man eateth the flesh of his own arm "'.^' O let os 
all remember what it cost Shechem and Abimelech, what it 
cost Benjamin and the other tribes, even the loss of three- 
score and five thousand men. Remember Priamus and his 
children will laugh ; Babylon will clap their hands, and wag 

lAcuxvi. 2. m |s4t. iz.9, 21. 


their head ; no such time for Shishak the Egyptian to trou- 
ble Jerusalem^ as when Israel is divided °. Let it never be 
•aid of God^s own people, that they are fallen into the curse 
of Midianites, and Amorites, and Edomites, and Philistines, 
to help forward the destruction of one another. O ! that God 
would give this whole nation hearts to consider these things, 
that he would put a spirit of peace and resoWed unity into 
the minds of this whole people, to be true to their own hap- 
pioesB ; and by how much the greater are the subtilties of 
men to divide them, to be so much the more finnly united in 
prayers to God, and in concord between themselves, that 
Ihey may not expose their persons, estates, posterities, and 
(which is dearest of all) their religion, to the crafty and 
bloody advantages of the enemies of the protestant churches, 
who, in human view, could have no way to overthrow them, 
but by their own dissensions. 

I have done with this point, and shall conclude all with a 
▼ery few words of the next, which is drawn from the scope 
and connexion of the prayer, suggested to the judgement 
threatened. It is this: 

Sect. 19. When temporal judgements are felt or feared, 
Ckxl's people should pray for spiritual mercies. Human sor- 
rows cannot overcome, where the joy of the Lord is our 
strength. Thus the Lord seems to have taught his apostle : 
be was nnder some pressing discomfort ; the messenger of 
Satan sent to buffet him ; he prays for particular deliverance, 
and God answers him ' non ad voluntatem sed ad utilita* 
temV implying a direction unto all such prayers, "My 
grace is sufficient for thee p.*' When thou feelest a thorn in 
thy flesh, pray for grace in thy heart; the buffets of Satan 
cannot hurt, where the grace of God doth sudice: so he di- 
lecteth in time of plague and famine, to pray, and to seek 
his &Ge ^ ; to look more after his favour than our own ease ; 
to be more solicitous for the recovering of his love, than for 
the removing of his rod. This is a true character of a filial 
disposition. " In the way of thy judgements,*" even in that 
way, wherein wicked men fling thee off, and give thee over, 

• 8 Ghron. in. 2. o Bonos, qoi non tribuit quod volumus, ut attribumt quod 
■MlU'muii ^m^. ep. 34. torn. 2. p. 42. Exaudieni cmrdinem dctidcrii ejus, noa 
quod toac peccbat, at in roe facercs quod semper pctebat. Conf. i. &. c. S. 
a. p. 82. p2Cor.xii.9. q 2 Chroii. vii. 14. 

P 2 


and quarrell with tbee, and repine against tliee, even in the 
way of thy judgements ** do we wait for thee, and the desire 
of our soul" is more to thy name, than to our own deliver- 
ance '. True disciples follow Christ more for his doctrine 
than his loaves', and are willing to choose rather a£9iction 
than iniquity S 

The grace and favour of God is * life "/ • better than life ':' 
and therefore must needs be the most sovereign antidote to 
preserve, and to bear up the soul above all other discomforts ; 
whereas if he be angry, no other helps are able to relieve us. 
Brass and iron can fence me against a bullet, or against a 
sword : but if I were to be cast into a furnace of fire, it 
would help to torment me ; if into a pit of water, it would 
help to sink me. Now our God is a 'consuming fire V ^^^ 
his breath a * stream of brimstone ".' Human plaisters can 
never cure the wounds which God makes : where he is the 
smiter, he must be the healer too ^ All the candles in a 
country are not able to make day there, till the sun come ; 
and all the contents of the world are not able to make com- 
fort to the soul, till the Sun of righteousness arise, with heal- 
ing in his wings.'^' In a mine, if a damp come, it is in vain 
to trust to your lights ; they will bum blue, and dim, and at 
last vanish : you must make haste to be drawn upward, if you 
will be safe. When God sharpeneth an affliction with his 
displeasure, it is vain to trust to worldly succours ; your de» 
sires and affections must be on ' things above,' if you will be 
relieved. There is no remedy, no refuge from God's anger, 
but to God's grace. Blood-letting is a cure of bleeding ^ 
and a bum a cure against a bum ; and ranning unto God is 
the way to escape him ; as to close and get in with him that 
would strike you, doth avoid the blow. In a tempest at sea, 
it is very dangerous to strike to the shore ; the safest way is 
to have sea-room, and to keep in the main still : — there is no 
landing against any tempest of God^s judgements at any 
shore of worldly or carnal policies, but the way is to keep 
with him still : if he be with us in the ship, the winds and 
the sea will at last be rebuked. 

t Isat. xzvi. 8. • John t!. 29. * John xvt. 21 . xzxr. 9, 10. • fttlm 
ZZX.54 <Ptalmlxui.3. yHeb.xn.29. > Ini. zzz. 33. 

* Hof . Ti. 1 . ^ Galores caloribus oncrande, tansuinis floxum defiisa ratoper 

deprimimus ct venula rerocimtts. Tert, 


Sect. 20. This then should serve to humble us for our car- 
nal prayers in times of judgements, such as the hungry raven, 
or the dry or gaping earth makes, when we assemble our- 
selves for com and wine, for peace and safety, and be, in the 
mean time, careless whether Ood receive us graciously or no. 
Ood mach complains of it, when he slew Israel, the rack 
made him roar, the rod made him flatter, but all was to be rid 
of affliction : it was the prayer of nature for ease, not of the 
Spirit for grace, for their ^' heart was not right ''.'^ The like 
he complains of after the captivity ** : they fasted and prayed 
in the fifth month, wherein the city and temple had been 
homed ; and in the seventh month, wherein Gedaliah had 
heeo alain, and the remnant carried captive ; but they did it 
not oat of sincerity toward God, but out of policy for them- 
selves : and this he proves by their behaviour after their re- 
tain. If you had indeed sought me, you would have re- 
membered the words of the prophets, when Jerusalem was in* 
habited before, and being returned, would now have put them 
to pradke. But Jerusalem, inhabited after the captivity, 
is jusl like Jerusalem inhabited before the captivity : so that 
from hence it appears, that all their weeping and separating 
was not for pious, but politic reasons *. And there is nothing 
imder Heaven more hateful, or more reproachful unto God, 
than to make religion serve turns, to have piety lackey and 
dance attendance, and be a drudge and groom to private 
ends, to make it a cloak to policy, a varnish to rotten wood, 
silver, dross to a broken potsherd. 

O then, when we weep, and separate ourselves, let us not 
then think to mock God with empty ceremonies of repent- 
ance ; let us not assemble ourselves only to flatter away the 
rod from our back, and to get peace and security to our own 
persons ; and then let the favour of God, the power of his 
giace, the comforts of his Spirit, be unregarded as before ; 
as if we (asted and prayed only for our backs aud bellies, 
not for our conscieAces or conversations : for be we well 
assured, he who doth not ask the things which he ought, 
shall not obtain the things which he asks : such a prayer 
begs nothing but a deniaL 

We have, now many fasts together, prayed for making up 

« Pfeilin UxTiii. 34, 37. d Jer. zlii. 12. xli. 1. • Zacli. vii. 5, 6. 

214 SKV£N SEKAIONS ON THE [Seroi. t. 

our breaches, for repairing our ruins, for composing our dis- 
tractionsy for reducing this kingdom unto a happy constitu* 
tion, for a right understanding between the king and his 
great council. These prayers we have not found yet return 
like Noah^s dove, with an olive-branch, a gracious answer 
unto us again. What is the reason ? where is the obstruc- 
tion ? Is not he a God that heareth prayers ? Is it not his 
title ? Doth he not glory in it ? Certainly mercies stop not 
at God, but at us. " We are not straitened in him, but in 
our own bowels." If there come but a little light into a 
room, the defect is not in the sun, but in the narrowness of 
the window : if a vessel fill but slowly, the fault is not in 
any emptiness in the fountain, but the smallness of the pipe* 
If mercies ripen slowly, or stop at any time in the way, it is 
not because they are unwilling to come to us, but because 
we are unfit to enjoy them. Our prayers doubtless, in many 
of us, have not been words taken from him, but from our 
own carnal dictates. 

We would fain have things well in our country; but 
have we hitherto looked after our consciences? Tlie dis* 
tractions without us,— have they driven us to consider the 
distempers within, or to desire the things above ? The un* 
3etiledness of peace in the kingdom, — hath it awakened us 
to secure our peace with God ? We would fain have better 
times'; but have we yet laboured for better hearts? We 
would fain have a right understanding between the king and 
his great council ; but have we yet sadly set about iU to 
have a more clear and sweet communion between us and 
our God? We long to see more good laws ; but are we yet 
come to the care of good lives ? Every one cries out, " Who 
will show us any good?^ but how few think on ^*the light 
of God's countenance.'' 

Hence, hence, beloved, is the miscarriage of all our pray- 
ers. If we would seek God^s kingdom, we are promised other 
things by way of overplus and accession ; as he that buy- 
eth a treasury of jewels, hath the cabinet into the bargain* 
But when we place our kingdom in outward comforts, and 
let our 'daily bread ^ shut all the other five* petitions out 
of our prayers ; no wonder if the ' promises of this life/ 

f Semper dies mili in seculo, boni in Deo. Jug. in Pulm 33. 


which are annexed unto g(Kiline»8, do not anawer those 
prayerSy wherein godliness ia neglected. It were preposter- 
OQ8 to beg^n the building of a house at the roof and not at 
the foundation : piety is the foundation of prosperity. If 
jOQ would have your " children like plants and like polished 
sloneB, your gamers full» your cattle plenteous, no complain- 
ing ia your streets <; " if you would have the king happy, and 
the church happy, and the state happy, and peace and pros- 
perity flourish again; let our chief prayer be, " Lord, make 
us a happy people by being our Ood."" Give us thyself, thy 
grace, thy favour; give us renewed hearts, and reformed lives; 
let not our sins confute, and outcry, and belie our prayers, 
and pray them back again without an answer. And when 
we seek thee and thy Christ above all, we know that with 
him thou wilt freely give us all other things ^."^ The spiri- 
toal good things which we beg, will either remove, or shelter 
and defend us from the outward evil things which we 

Sect. 21. Secondly, This serveth for an instruction unto 
us touching a sanctified use of God's judgements, or threat- 
eoiogsi when we "learn obedience,** as Christ did, "by 
the thii^ which we suffer *;" — when met^rifjMra are /Ao^^jxara, 
that we are chastened and taught together*';— when suffer, 
iugs do quicken spiritual desires ; and the more troubles we 
find in onr way, the more love we have to our country ; — 
when we can say, " All this is come upon us, and yet we 
have not forgotten thee *;'* — when we can serve God as well 
in 'ploughing and breaking the clods,' an in 'treading out 
the com "*;' — when, with Jonah, we can delight in him, even 
in the whale's bellv, and suffer not our love of him to be 
quenched with all the waters of the sea ; when we can 
truly say to him, ' Lord, love me, and then do what thou 
wilt unto me ; let me feel thy rod, rather than forfeit thine 
affection;' — when we can look through the anger of his 

9 Fnlm czliT. 12, 15. h Quieqaid tnihi prseter ilium est, dulce non est i 
qoioqaid mibi rult dare Dominui meus, auferat totum, et tc mihi det. jlug, 
Eamrr. 2. in Ptalm xxy'u — Hie qaod vinum est, non potest esse panii ; quod dbi 
las cft, Doo potest esse potus : Deus tuus totum tibi erit. Manduoibts cum, ne 
ttonmi bibes eum, ne sitias ; illuminabcris ab eo, ne sis c«cus ; fulcieris ab eo, 
nc fkficias. lb, in Psalm xuvi. > Ilcb. v. 8. ^ Psalm zciv. 12. > Psalm 
jiiv. 17,18. n Hos. x. 11. 


chastisements unto the beauty of his commands; and to the 
sweetness of his toying countenance, as by a rainbow we see 
the beautiful image of the sun's light in the midst of dark 
and waterish clouds ; — ^when by how much the flesh is the 
fuller of pain, by so much prayers are fuller of spirit ; by 
how much the heavier are our earthly sufferings, by so mach 
the stronger are our heavenly desires ; — when God threateiH 
eth punishments, and we pray for grace, — this is a sanctified 
use of God's judgements. And this we should all be ex* 
horted unto in the times of distraction, to make it the prin- 
cipal argument of our prayers and study of our lives, to ob» 
tain spiritual good things ; and the less comfort we find in 
the world, to be the more importunate for the comforts of 
God, that by them we may encourage ourselves, as David 
did in his calamity at Ziklag*; when the city Shechem was 
beaten down to the ground, then the men and women fled to 
the strong tower, and shut that upon them ^ " The name of 
the Lord is a strong tower ; the righteous flee to it and are 
safe ^r 

Herein we shall more honour God, when we set him up in 
our hearts as our fear and treasure, and mourn more towards 
him, than for the miseries we feel ; and suspire more after 
him, than all the outward contentment which we want. 

Herein we shall more exercise repentance, for it is worldly 
sorrow which droopeth under the pain of the flesh, but godly 
sorrow is most of all affected with the anger of God. 

Herein we shall more prevail with God, the more heavenly 
the matters of your prayers are, the more prevalent they 
must needs be with a heavenly Father. We have five spirw 
tual petitions unto one for bread ; the more suitable our 
prayers are to God^s will, the more easy access they will have 
to his ear. The covenant of grace turns precepts into pro- 
mises, and the spirit of grace turns precepts and promises 
into prayers. It is not God^s will, that we should live with- 
out afflictions, but < our sanctification is God's will \* The 
more prayers proceed from love, the more acceptable to the 
God of love : — now prayer against judgements proceeds from 
fear ; but prayer for grace and favour proceeds from love. 

Lastly, Hereby we shall more benefit ourselves: God's 

B 1 Sftm. XIX. 6. • Judges iz. 51. P Prov. xviii. IB. q 1 The«. iv. S. 


grace ia much better than our own ease ; it gives us meek- 
ness to submit, it gives us strength to bear, it gives us wis- 
dom to benefit by, our afflictions. 

God's favour is much better than our own ease, and is a 
recompense for suflferings beyond all their evils. A man 
would be contented to be loaded with gold, so he might 
have it for the bearing ; though it be heavy, yet it is pre- 
eioiia, and God's favour turns affliction into gold. " If he 
gives quietness, nothing can give trouble '^;^ and if he keep 
back his grace and favour, nothing can give peace : neither 
wealth, nor honours, nor pleasures, nor crowns, nor all the 
worid, with the fulness, or rather the emptiness thereof, can 
do as mny good at all. Any thing which will consist with 
ibe reign of lust, with the guilt of sin, witli the curse of the 
law, vrith the wrath of God, with horrors of conscience, and 
with the damnation of hell, is too base to be called the good 
of man. ''To do judgement, to love mercy, and walk 
hnmbly with God,** this is *bonum hominis,^ the good of 
man*; **to fear God, to keep his commandments,*^ this is 
' totom hominis,* the whole end, and happiness of man *. 

Of then get remission and removal of sin ; get this ' bonum 
homiois,' the oil of grace in your lamps, peace of God in 
yoor hearts, the streams of the rivers of God in your con- 
sciences: and then, though the earth be moved, and the 
moontains shake, and the waters roar, whatever distractions, 
wltttever desolations happen, * Impavidum ferient ruinae ;* 
thou shalt find a chamber in God^s providence, a refuge in 
his promises, 'a pavilion in the secret of his presence,' to 
protect and to comfort thee above them all. 

r Job zzxiT. 29. • Mich. vi. 8. • Ecdcs. xii. 13. 



HOSEA XIV. 2, 3. 

So will we render the calves of our lips. 3. Asshur shall 

not save us ; we will not ride upon horses : neither wiU we 
smf to the work of our hands^ ) e are our godSf S^c. 

In the whole context, we have before observed two gene- 
ral parts ; ' Israel's prayer/ and ' Israel's promise.^ The 
prayer we have handled ; and do now proceed unto the pro- 
mise, wherein are two things to be considered : 1. The 
covenant itself. 2. The ground upon which they make it ; 
God^s mercy to the fatherless. — First then, of the covenant, 
wherein they promise two things. 1 . Thanksgiving, for God's 
hearing and answering of their prayers. 2. A special care 
for amendment of their lives. 

'* We will retider the calves of our Ups"] The apostle, out of 
the Septuagint, reads it, " the fruit of our lips V It is the 
use of the Scripture to describe spiritual duties by expres- 
sions, drawn from ceremonies and usages under the law ; as 
repentance is called ' washing V — ^^d prayer, ' incense ' ;^ and 
the righteousness of saints^, ' fine linen/ being an allusion to 
the garments of the priests ' ; and Christ ^, * an altar/ where- 
by both our persons and services are sanctified and accept- 
ed s. Thus here, the spiritual sacrifices of praise are called 
' calves,' to show the end of all sacrifices, which were or- 

• Pro Dno legisse Tidentur nO Heb. xiti. 15. ^ Istt. i. 26. c Psalm 

cxli. 2. RcT. V. 8. d Rev. iii. 18. vii. 14. Pulm xzxii. 9. Ezod. xxviii. 2. 

Zscb. iii. 4. PMlm xW. 8. • Rev. xix. 8. ' Vide Reynolds' Conference 

with Hait, c. 8. div. 4. ec Afuin, in Heb. xiii. 10. Habcmus aharc viz. corpui 
Chritti. Hetych, in Liv. 1. 1. c. 4. I Heb. xiii. 10. Rom. xii. I. 1 Peter ti. S 

Isai. Ui. 7. 


daiDed for the stirriog up of spiritual afiections and praises 
unto God ^ : and also to intimate the vanity of ceremonial 
without real services. The beast on the altar was but a car- 
naly — but the faith of the heart, and the confession of the 
mouth, was a reasonable, sacrifice. No point more insisted 
on in the prophets than this*. They had idolatrously disho^ 
noared God with their calves of Dan and Bethel, and they 
had carnally and superstitiously placed all worship and holi- 
ness in the calves of the altar : but now they resolve to wor. 
ship God neither politicly, after human inventions; nor 
peffnnctorily, with mere outward ceremonies : but spiritually 
and from inward affections : for the lips are moved by the 

Now thanksgiving is further called the ^ calves,* or sacri* 
fices ^ of the lips,^ to intimate, that, after all God's rich mer* 
cies upon us in pardoning our sins, and in multiplying his 
grace and spiritual comforts upon us, — we, like beggars, 
have nothing to return, but the bare acknowledgements and 
praises of our lips, words for wonders : and those words too 
bis own gifts; we cannot render them to him, before we have 
received them from him ^. 

SicT. 2. Asshur shall not unt to.] Unto the general con- 
fession of sin, intimated in those words, " take away all im* 
^fmty^** here is added a particular detestation of their special 
•ins, with a covenant to forsake them ; lest, waxing wanton 
with pardon and grace, they should relapse into them ngain. 
The sum is, to confess the vanity of carnal confidence, be- 
taking itself to the aid of men, to the strength of horses, to 
the superstition of idols, for safety and deliverance. All 
which they are, now at last, by their experience and by their 
repentance, taught to abandon, as things which indeed can- 
not, and therefore they are resolved shall not, save them. 

By the Assyrian is here intimated ' all human succour, 
procured by sinful correspondence ;' by a synecdoche of the 
part for the whole. But he is particularly mentioned, 1. 
Because he was the chief monarch of the world ; to show, 
that the greatest worldly succours are vain, when they are 

^ Vide Tertul, contr. Jad«os, c. 5, 6. et de Orationc, c. 1. — /4ug. de Gy. Del, 
1. 10. c 5. ctep. 49. ^Isat. i. 15. Mic. vi. 6, 7, 8. Amotiv.4. v. 5. ii. I. 

Psalm 1. 13, 15. Iziz. 30,31. ^ Psalm cx¥i. 12, 13. Maith. xti. 34. 1 Chfon. 
sziz. 16. 

220 S£V£N S£BI10NS ON TU£ [Serm.II. 

relied upon without, or against God. 2. Because the Scrip- 
ture takes notice often of it as their particular sin, the send- 
ing unto, relying upon, and paying tribute unto him for aid 
and assistance V 3. Because, instead of helping, he did 
greatly afflict them. Their flying unto him, was like a bird's 
flying into a snare, or a fishes avoiding the pole wherewith 
the water is troubled, by swimming into the net. 

By horses we are to understand the ' military preparations 
and provisions^ which they made for themselves, both at 
home, and from Egypt**. 

By the work of their handsy are meant their ' idols,^ which 
were beholden to their hands for any shape or beauty that 
was in them. The same hands which formed them, were 
afterwards lifted up in worship unto them ^ Time was when 
we said, '' These are our gods which brought us up out of 
Egypt P;^' but now we will not say so any more; for how can 
a man be the maker of his Maker ? 

'< For in thee the fatherless jfindeth mercy y] This is the 
ground of their petition for pardon and grace, and of their 
promise of praises and amendment God's mercy in hearing 
the prayers, and in enabling the performances of his people. 
It is a metaphor drawn from orphans in their minority, who 
€u^, 1 • Destitute of wisdom and abilities to help themselves ; 
3. Exposed to violence and injuries ; 3. Committed, for that 
reason, to the care of tutors and guardians to govern and 
protect them. — ^The church here acknowledgeth herself an 
outcast, destitute of all wisdom and strength within, of all 
succour and support from without ; and therefore betaketh 
herself solely unto God's tuition, whose mercy can, and 
useth to, help when all other help fails. 

This is the last link of that golden chain of repentance, 
made up of these gradations. 1. An humble address unto 
God. 2. A penitent confession of sin. 3. An earnest peti- 
tion against it. 4 An imploring of grace and favour* 5. 
Thanksgiving for so great benefits. 6. A covenant of new 
obedience. And lastly, A confidence and quiet repose in God. 

1 Ho8. T. 13. vii. 11, 12. 2 Kings xv. 19, 20. » 2 Chron. i. 16. Isai. zzxi. 1. 
o Isai. xliv. 10, 17. xlvi. 6, 7, 8. Jer. x. 3. xv. 6, 20. Acts xix. 26. p £xoiL 
xxxii. 4. 1 Kings xU. 28. <l Orphanoirophi sunt, qui, praentibus atque sub- 
scantiis destitutes, minores sustcntant, ct cducant velut affectione patcrna. Cod. 
de Episc. et Ckiic. 1. 1. Tit. 1. leg. 32. and 35. 


JLet as now consider, what useful observations tlie words, 
thus opened, will afford unto us. And one main point may 
be collected from the general scope of the place. We see 
after they have petitioned for pardon and grace, they then 
lestipolate and undertake to perform duties of thankfulness 
and obedience. 

Sbct.10. True penitents, in their conversion from sin, and 
hamiliatioD for it, do not only pray unto God for mercy, but 
do farther covenant to express the fruits of those mercies in a 
thankful and obedient conversation. When first we arc ad- 
mitted into the family and household of God, we enter into 
a covenant. Therefore circumcision, whereby the cliildren of 
the Jews were first sealed and separated for God, is called 
his ^ covenant '';^ because therein God did covenant to own 
them, and they did, in the figure, covenant to mortify lust, 
and to serve him ; without which, they were, in his sight, 
bat oncircumcised still. ** I will punish % saith the Lord, 
all thoae that are circumcised vi uncircumcisian ;'^ — so the ori* 
ginal runs*: and the nations there mentioned with Judah, 
who are said to be uncircumcised, did yet use circumcision", 
aa the learned have observed ; but being out of covenant 
with God, it is accounted to them as uncircumcision : and 
so waa that of the Jews too, when they did break covenant 
with God *, And as the Gentiles, being converted, are called 
' Jeway' and said to be ^ bom in Sion ' ;^ so the Jews, living 
impeoitently, are called ' Gentiles ', Canaanites, Amorites, 
Hittites, Ethiopians, Sodomites*.' In like manner, baptism 
aaMNig Christians is called, by the apostle, avni^cmf &ye^ 
jgygryaj which the learned interpret ' the answer, or co« 
veoant of keeping a good conscience' towards God ^ ; the 
word signifying ' a question/ or ' interrogation,^ which some 

zris. 13. * ' Visitabo toper omnes populos incircumcisot :* Venio 

Chdd. *BgiyWfo^ai M wdrrmt wtprrerfoifUrovf dicpo9v9riat airSp, Septu- 
^VB^ t Jer. is. 25. • Herodot. 1. 2. — Atapanut tpud Eineb. de 

Frspant. ETang. L 9. c. 27.— Or^r* in Rom. 1. 2. c. 2. — Cyprian, de ratione 
Cbnincia. — CUm. Alex. Strom. 1. 1. — Pitrii Hieroglyph. 1. 6. — Peter, in Gen. 
Xfii. 13v— rs^l^f. deSacn Philotophit. > Rom ii. 18, 19. Acts Yii. 51. 

7 GaL ¥1. 16. 1 Cor. xii. 2. Psalm Ixxxvii. 4, 5. * Cameron de Eccl. p. 34.— 
Nee hoe noram Scripturia figurate uti transUtione nominum ex comparatione 
cnmbmin, ftc. TerU cont. JudacDt, c. 8. et contr. Marcton. 1. 3. c. B^'-^Ihodati. — 
Beintitu. • Esek. x? i. 3. Hos. xii. 7. Amos ix. 7. Isai. i. 10. » 1 Pcc 

ill. 21. 


would have to be the conscience's making interpellation for 
itself to God ; — others to be as much as SoxifAoo-Mc^ ' the exa- 
mining' of a man'*s self, like that before the Lord^s supper ^. 
[ rather take it as an allusion to the manner of John's bap- 
tism, wherein the people first confessed, and consequently 
renounced sin; and being taken into Christ's seryice, or 
into that kingdom of God which was at hand, did enquire 
after the work which they were to do. And we find the 
same word in Luke iii. 10., which the apostle Peter usetb, 
hn^pdrwf leurov, ^* The people asked him, saying, What shall 
we do T whereby is intimated an engaging of themselves, 
by a solemn promise and undertaking, to the practice of that 
repentance unto which John baptized them. Whence arose 
the grave form of the ancient churches, wherein questions 
were proposed to the person baptized touching his * Faith 
and repentance, renouncing the world, the flesh, and the 
devil,^ with a solemn answer and stipulation obliging there- 
unto. Which custom seems to have been derived from the 
practice, used in the apostles' time, wherein profession of 
faith, unfeigned and sincere repentance, was made before 
baptism*. This is the first dedicating of ourselves, and 
entering into a covenant with God, which we may call, in 
the prophet's expression, * the subscribing,' or giving a 
man's name to God ^ 

Now the covenant between us and God being perpetual, 
« a covenant of salt > ;" as we are to begin it in our own bap- 
tism, so we are to continue it to our lives* end, and upon all 
fit occasions to repeat and renew it, for our further quickening 
and remembrancing unto duties. So did David** : so Jacob ' : 

• 1 Cor. xil. 28. «« Ukc iii. 10. • Acts ii. 38. viii.37. xtI. 3. xix. 4. 

' Icai xliv. 5. jiug. lib. dc fide et operibus, c. 9. — Tert, ad Martyr, c. 2. et 3. ct 
de coron. Milit. c. 3. ct 13. de Habitu mulicb. c. 2. de Spectacul. c. 24. ct lib. de 
Idololatria, Apol. c. 38. — Intcrrogatio Icgitima et Ecclesiastica. Firmil. apod 
Cypr. ep. 75. et ib. cp 70. et 76.Saiv. 1. 6. cod. de Episcop. Audicnt. 1. 34. 
fleet. 1. — Vide Darumm, in jiug. Enchirid. c. 42. — Brision, I. Dominic, de apecnc 
^-Joseph, Ficfcomit, de Antiq. Bapt. 1. 2,^Gatak, of Lots, p. 319.— £jp€ii. in 
Tit. digres. 9. Verbis obligatio contrahitur ex intcrrogatione et respons. ff. de 
obligationibus et Action. 1. 1. sect 7. et de veiborum obligat. 1. 5. lecL 1. 
f De pacto salis, vide Paul, Fagt. in Lcvit. 22, et Perer. in Gen. xix. 16, 17, 26. 
(SfucA-. Antiq. Con viv. 1. 1. c. 30.— Sal durature amicitiae symbolum. Piernu^ 
lib. 31.— Jer. xxxii. 2 Chron. xiii. 5. h Psalm cxix. 106. I Gen. xxyUi. 


Vers, t, 5.] FOURTEENTH CHAPTEK OF H08EA. 223 

SO Asa, and the people in his time ^ : so Hezekiah ' : so Jo- 
siah ** : so Ezra and Nehemiah °. 

Sect. 4. The reasons, enforcing this duty, may be drawn 
from several considerations. 1. From God in Christ, where 
two strong obligations occur, namely, the consideration of 
his dealing with us, and of our relation unto him. For the 
former^ he is pleased not only to enter into covenant with us, 
bat to bind himself to the performance of what he pro- 
miseth. Though whatever he bestow upon us, is all matter 
of mere and most free grace, wherein he is no debtor to us 
at all, yet he is pleased to bind himself unto acts of grace. 
Men love to have all their works of favour free, and to re* 
serve to themselves a power of alteration or revocation, as 
themselves shall please. But God is pleased, that his gifts 
should take upon them in some sense the condition of 
debts ^; and although he can owe nothing to the creature**, 
yet be is contented to be a debtor to his own promise ; and 
having at first in mercy made it, his truth is after engaged to 
the perfonnance of ifi. 

Again, his word is established in Heaven ; with him *' there 
is no variableness, nor shadow of change ;" his ** promises 
are not Yea and Nay, but in Christ, Amen ^^' If he speak a 
thing, it shall not fail *. He spake, and the world was made : 
his Word alone is a foundation and bottom to the being of 
aD his creatures ; and yet, notwithstanding the immutable 
certainty of his promises, when they are first uttered, for our 
he is pleased to bind himself by further ties. ' Free 

k 2 Cbron. xy. 12. 15. 1 2 Chron. xzix. 10. xxx. 5. 23. •2 Cbron. 

zzxiT. 31, 32. B Ezra x. 3. Nehem. ix. 38. « Dignxris eis quibuB omnia 

debia dimittii, etiam promiMionibus mis debitor fieri. Aug, Conf. I. 5. c. 9. — 
NoQ ei aliqoid dedimus, et tenemus debitorcin. Unde debitorem? quia promU- 
aoresf, mm dicimm Deo, * DomiDe : redde quodaccepisti, ted ;' ' redde quod pro- 
aiMd.' Aug. in Psal. xxiii.— Cum promissum Dei redditur, justitia Dei dicitur; 
jonitia caim Dei est, quia redditum est quod promis»um est. Ambrot, in 
Rom. 3.— Justum est ut reddat quod debet ; debet autem quod pollicitus est : 
Ec hjK cat justitia de qua pro«urolt Apostolus promisso Dei. Bern, de grat. et 
lib. arbft. — Licet Deos debituro alicui dct, non taroeo est ipse debitor, quia 
IpK ad tSm non ordinatur, sed potius alia ad ipsum ; et ideo justitia, quandoquc 
Saitur in Deo condecentta su« bonitatis. Aquin. part. 1. qu. 21. art. 1. Nulla 
aKa in Deo justitia, nisi ad se, quasi ad alterum, ut sibi ipsi debitum reddat, 
secBBdmn omdecratiam bonitatis, et rectitudinem volunutis sue. Scohu 4. 
diiL 46. q. P Rom. xi. 35. Job xxii. 3. xxxv. 7, S. 4 Mic. vii. 20. 

r 2 Cor. i. 20. • Josh. xxi. 45. t Quid est Dei Tcri Tcraciiqiie juiatio, 

nisi promiisi cufiBrroatiu, ct infidclium qu»dam incrcpatio ? Aug, de Civ. Dei, 
lib. 16. cap. 32. ^ 


mercy, secured by a covenant, and a firm covenant secured 
by an oath " ; that we, who, like Gideon, are apt to call for 
sign upon sign, and to stagger and be disheartened, if we 
have not double security from God ; we, whose doubting 
calls for promise upon promise, as our ignorance doth for 
precept upon precept, may, by " two immutable things, 
wherein it is impossible for God to lie, have strong consola- 
tioQ.'* Now if God, whose gifts are free, bind himself to be* 
stow them by his promise ; if God, whose promises are sure, 
bind himself to perform them by his oath : how much more 
are we bound to tie ourselves by covenant unto God, to do 
those things which are our duty to do ; unto the doinf;; 
whereof we have such infirm principles, as are a mutablo 
will, and an unsteadfast heart 

For the latter, our relation unto him, — we are his, not only 
by a property founded in his sovereign power and dominion 
over us, as our Maker, Lord, and Saviour "" ; but by a property 
growing out of our own voluntary consent, whereby we sur- 
render, and yield, and give up ourselves unto God ^. We 
are not only his people ', but his willing people, by the inter- 
vention of our own consent. ' We give him our hand^ (as 
the expression is *) which is an allusion to the manner of 
covenants or engagements *^. We offer up ourselves as a free 
oblation', and are thereupon called '* a kind of first-fruits ^J' 
We are his ; the wife is her husband's *. Now such an iiii. 
terest as this, ever presupposeth a contract. As in ancient 
forms of stipulation, there was asking and answering, *' Spon- 
des? Spondeo. Promittis? Promitto. Dabis? Dabo:** — as 
in contract of marriage, the mutual consent is asked and 
given ^ ; so is it here between God and the soul ; the cove- 
nant is mutual s. He promiseth mercy to be ^' our exceeding 
great reward ;'' and we promise obedience, to be his ^ willing 
people;'' and usually according as is the proportion of 

• Deut. vii. 12. Uke i. 72, 73. Heb. vi. 17, 18. « Ptalm c 3. 1 Coc 

vi. 19, 20. .y Rom. vi. 19. 2 Cor. viii. 5. « Psalm ex. 3. « 2 ChiiMi. 

XXX. 8« b Emtttere manum est cautionem stve chirographum dare s ff. dft 

probat. et presumpt. 1. 15< — Junge ergo manus, et coocipe foedot : Stathtt,' ■< 
Hens ubi pacta fides, oommissa que dextera dextrse ? Ovid, — Jiutioian. Inscitiil. 
de verborum obligat. Sect. 1. 1. 3. £F. de ObligaL et Actioa. Sect. 2^— >PiOf. 
tI. 1, 17, IS. Esek. xyu. 18. « Rom. xy. 16. ^ James i. 18. • Ho*, 
ii. 19. Eaek. w'u 8. f Gen. zxtv. 58. f Gen. XYii. 2. 


Strength in our faith to believe God's promises of mercy to 
us, such is also the proportion of care in our obedience to 
perform our promises of duty unto him. 

Sect. 5. II. From ourseWes. And here covenants are 
needful in two respects. 1. In regard of the falseness and 
deceitfuhiess of our corrupt hearts in all spiritual duties. 
The more cunning a sophister is to evade an argument, tlie 
flBore close and pressing we frame it : — the more vigilant a 
prisoner to make an escape^ the stronger guard we keep 
■pon him. Our hearts are exceeding apt to be false with 
God : one while, they melt into promises and resolutions of 
obedience, as Pharaoh and Israel did* ; and presently forget 
mod harden again. Lot's wife goes out of Sodom for fear of 
the judgements, but quickly looks back again, out of love to 
the place, or some other curiosity and distemper of mind. 
Saul relents towards David, and quickly after persecutes him 
again *"• This is the true picture of mane's heart' under a 
strong conviction, or in a pang of devotion, or in time either 
of sickness, or some pressing affliction : on the rack, in the 
furnace, under the rod, nothing then but vows of better 
obedience; all which do oftentimes dry suddenly away like a 
morning dew, and wither away like Jonah's gourd. Thcre- 
fqre, both to acknowledge, and prevent this miserable per- 
fidioosnesB of such revolting hearts, it is very needful to 
bind them unto God with renewed covenants : and since they 
are so apt, with Jonah, to run away, and start aside, to ncg- 
lect Nineveh, and to flee to Tarshitih, necessary is it to find 
them out, and to bring them home, and, as David did S to fix 
and fasten them to their business, that they may not run 
away any more. 

2. In regard of the natural sluggishness, which is in us, 
anto duty. We are apt to faint and be weary, when we meet 
with any unexpected difhculties in God'^s service; to esteem 
the wilderness as bad as Egypt ; to sit down as Hagar did, 
snd cry, to think that half-way to Heaven is far enough, 
and almost a Christian progress enough ; that baking on 
one side will make the cake good enough ; that God will 

• Fnlm Ixxfiii. 34, 37. b I Saxn. xxiv. 17, 19. * InvrrsA ocrasione, 

^Millire tanicm quK Utcbat in ulcere, ct exciMin, non cztirpatam, arborcm in 
tylvun puUnUre videat dentiorcm. Btrn, Scrm. 2. in Assump. Maris, 
k Pnioi Ivu. 7. 



accept of bankrupt-payment^ a noble in the pound, part of 
our hearts and duties for all. We must sometimes venture 
to leap the hedge, for there is " a lion in the way." Now 
to correct this torpor, this acedia, and ^Xxyo^^ta, as the 
apostle calls it^; this pusillanimity and faint-heartedness in 
God^s service, — ^we must bind them on ourselves with re- 
newed ^ covenants, and put the more strength because of the 
bluntoess of the iron ". A covenant doth, as it were, twist 
the cords of the law, and double the precept upon the soul. 
When it is only a precept, then God alone commands jit: 
but when I have made it a promise, then I command it, and 
bind it upon myself. The more feeble our hands and knees 
are, the more care we should have to bind and strengthen 
them, that we may lift them up speedily, and keep them 
straight ** ; and the way hereunto is to come to David's reso- 
lution, ^* I have purposed, that my mouth shall not trans- 
gress P." Empty velleities, wishings, and wouldings will not 
keep weak faculties together. Broken bones must have 
strong hands to close them fast again. A crazy piece of 
building must be cramped with iron bars, to keep it from 
tottering. So if we would indeed cleave to the Lord, we 
must bring purposes of heart, and strong resolutions to 
enable us thereunto '^. Cleaving will call for swearing ^ As 
it should be our prayer, so also our purpose, to have hearts 
*' united to fear God's name' :" whence the phrases of " pre- 
paring, fixing, confirming, establishing, rooting, grounding/' 
and other like, so frequently occarring in the Scripture*. 

Sect. 6. III. From our brethren, that by an holy association 
and spiritual confederacy in heavenly resolutions, every 
man^s example may quicken his brother, and so duties be 
performed with more vigour and fervency, and return with 
the greater blessings. If fire be in a whole pile of wood^ 
every stick will burn the brighter ; the greenest wood thst 
is, will take fire in so general a flame. Men usually have 
more courage in the body of an army, where concurreiit 
shoutings and encouragements do, as it were, infuse mutml 

A Mason sepes legi : dedmae diYitits ; vota sanctimoniae : tilendam sminente. 
Pirke Aboth. m i Thes. v, 14. n Ecclcs. x. 10. • Hcb. xii. 13^ U. 

P Psalm xvil. 3. q Acts xi. 23. r Deut x. 20. • Psalm Ixzxvl. II. 

« 2 Chron. xxx. 19. 1 Chron. xxix. 18. Epba. iii. 17. Heb. xiii. 9. Jama V. f- 


Bpiiita into one another, than when they are alone by them- 
selves. David rejoiced in but recounting the companies 
and armiea of God'a people, when they went up to Jerusa- 
lem in their solemn feasts ". And therefore most covenants 
in ^scripture were general and public, solemnly entered into 
by a great body of people, as that of Asa, Josiah, and Ne- 
hemiab ; the forwardness of every man whetting the face of 
his -neighbour '. 

SecT. 7. IV. From the multitudes, strength, vigilancy, ma- 
lice, assiduous attempts of our spiritual enemies, which call 
upon us for the stronger and more united resolutions. For 
common adversaries usually gain more by our faintness and 
divisions, than by their own strength. Therefore soldiers 
use to take an oath of fidelity > towards their country and 
service. And HannibaPs father made him take a solemn 
oath', to maintain perpetual hostility with Konie. Such an 
oath have all Christ^s soldiers taken '^ ; and do, at the Lord'*s 
'supper and in solemn humiliations, virtually renew the same, 
never to hold intelligence or correspondence with any of his 

The first thing in a Christian nian'*s armour, mentioned by 
the apostle, Ephes. vi. 14, is "the girdle ^" that which 
binds on all the otlier armour (for so we read of girding on 
armour ^), and that there is " truth :*' which we may under- 
stand either doctrinally, for steadfastness and stability of 
Judgement in the doctrine of Christ, which we profess ; not 
being ** carried about with every wind of doctrine, but 
fast the form of sound words, knowing whom we 

• ftal. IzzxiT. 7, * Prov. xxvii. 17. y Mi^« tbroAft^ir rd ^nfuia, 

f^fniXKfwpd^ lafiiv iramlovr^ hift^. Dionys, Ilaluamas. 1. 10. no<if<r«tv ri 
■yf !■! irffigKaf Mg riw ipxinrrmw Kvrd 8«rafur. Polyl. 6. — Vid. Vfgtt, de Re 
Il3it.lil>.2^ — Tcrhd. de Corona Mil. c. 11. 1. 2. — ff. dc hig qui nountur infamia ; 
SttL* Males;' et notat Gothofndi in I. 2. ff. Je Vcteiunii. LipsU not. ad lib. 15. 
AuiaLTidt. — Pnemia nunc alia atque alia cmolumenu notcmus Sacnmiento- 
tmai Jntnal, Satir. 16. — Lips. -de MiliL Rom. lib. 1. Dialog. 6. > Ltv. 

Ub^Si^-^Jffian, in Ibcrico ct Ubjco.^Polyb, 1. 3 ^Terlul. Apolog. c. 8.~/>Yo- 
vyi^fib. 4. '^ Vtd. Terhil. de Coron. Milit. cap. 11. 1* ' Cingerc ' est * raili- 

,' apud Plautum : omnes qui militant, docti suor. Scrvius in 1. 8. iKneid. 
dasulnm Marti aacium, teste Homero, lUaU. 2» — Et 'atare discinctum* crat 
nilitmiis genos. Sutton, in Aug.^^YvL 1. 25. 3S. et 43. ^, de Testaroento mi- 
Bill Snitl Zti09v99ai est «ci9orAi^«<y^ai ct Imr bCrofus : undc dicjtur Dtut ' Bal- 
Wtmu fegnm diuolvere,' Job zii. 1 H,—-V\A,Stuck. Antiq. Con? iv.l. 2. c, 19. et Pintd. 
IB lob xlt. IS.^Tolet. Annoc. 62. in Luc. 12. c j^Jg. zviii. 1 i. 1 Kinp zz. 1). 

Q 2 


believe, and having certainty of the things wherein we have 
been instfucted^;" — or else morally and practically, for stead- 
fastness of heart, in the faithful discharge of those pro- 
mises which we have made unto God (for so faithfalness is 
compared to a girdle'), whereby we are preserved from 
shrinking and tergiversation,^ in times of trial, and io oar 
spiritual warfare. And this faithfulness, the more it is in 
solemn covenants renewed, the stronger it must needs he, 
and the better able to bind all our other arms upon. 
Christ^s enemies will enter into covenants and combinations 
against him and his church ^ And our own lusts* within 
us, will, many times, draw from us oaths and obligations to 
the fulfilling of them, and make them ' vincula iniquitatis/ 
contrary to the nature of an oath ^. How much more care- 
ful should we be to bind ourselves unto God, that our reso- 
lutions may be the stronger and more united, against so 
many and confederate enemies ! 

Sect. 8. This point serveth. First, For a just reproof of 
those, who are so far from entering into covenant with Grod, 
that indeed they make covenants with Satan, his greatert 
enemy ; and do in their conversations, as it were, abuse those 
promises, and blot out that subscription, and tear off that seal 
of solemn profession, which they had so often set unto the co- 
venant of obedience. Such as those, who, in the prophet^s time, 
were " at an agreement with hell and the grave *.'' Men are 
apt to think, that none but witches are in covenant with t&e 
devil ; because such are, in the scripture, said to " consult 
familiar spirits ^'' But as Samuel said to Saul, '^ Rebellion 
is as witchcraft*;^ every stubborn and presumptuous sinner 
hath so much of witchcraft in him, as to hold a kind of spi» 
ritual compact with the devil. We read of' the serpent and 

(1 Ephes. iv. 14. 2 Tim. i. 12, 13. Luke i. 4. e Isai. xi. 5. r 

ii. 2. Ixiv. 5, 6. Ixxziii. 5, 8. Acts xxiii. 12. Jer. xi.9. v KaI rwit 

traiSa y6p rtva Kara06ffaSf xal kw\ r£y airXAyxy*'^ adrov ret 5fMcta tronftrat , 
iffwXirfxy^wTw adrcl fierd r&v SxXmy. Dion, de Catilina 1. 37.— Ita se ad 
sedis obedientiam obligant Archiepiscopi, cum pallium accipiunt. Dccret. 
de election, c 1. et ad Consilii Tridentini doctrinam Jesuitae in Toto 
Hopinian. Hitt. Jesuit, fol. 57. — Et Hubaldus quidam apud Augustinom jimvll 
-se nee matri nee fratribus neccssaria tubminiftraturam ; c. 12. quaest. 4. c^— >lBtar 
caeteia vid. Eut, Hist. Ecclcs. I. 6. c. 8. ^\ Kings xix 2. Mark vi. SS« 

1 Isai. xxviii. 15. k Deut. xviii. 11. 1 1 Sam. xv. 53. 


his seed " ;^ of the dragon and his soldiers " ;' of somo sin- 
oers * being of the devil %^ animated by his principles, and 
actuated by his will and commands p. Satan tempting, and 
siDQers embracing and admitting the temptation upon the 
inducemeDts suggested, hath in it the resemblance of a co- 
tenant or compact. There are mutual agreements and pro- 
oiiseSy as between master and servant ; one requiring work 
io be done, — and the other expecting wages to be paid for 
the doing of it: — as in buying and selling, one bargains to 
liave a commodity, — and the other to have a price valuable 
for it. Thus we read in some places^ of the service of sin i ; 
and in others, of the wages belonging unto that service ** ; 
and elsewhere, of the covenant, bargain, and sale, for the 
matual securing of the service, and of the wages \ Wicked 
men sell themselves, chaffer and grant away their time, and 
strength, and wit, and abilities, to be at the will and dis- 
posal of Satan, for such profits, pleasures, honours, advan- 
tages, as are laid in their way to allure them ; and thus do, 
as it were ^ with cords/' bind themselves unto sin *. Ahab 
bought Naboth^s vineyard of the devil, and sold himself for 
the price in that purchase. Balaam, against the light of his 
own conscience, and the many discoveries of God's dislike, 
never gives over his endeavours of cursing God*s people, till 
be had drawn them into a snare by the Midianitish women ; 
and all to this end, — that he might at last ovcitake *' the 
wages of iniquity, which he ran so greedily after "."* Jezebel 
binds herself by an oath unto murder'; Judas makes a 
bargain for his Master'^s blood, and at once sells a soul and 
a Saviour for so base a price as thirty pieces of silver ^ ; pro- 
fima Esau makes merchandise of his birthright (where- 
■nto belonged the inheritance, or double portion, the 
princely power, and the oflBce of priesthood, the blessing, 

ill. 15. n Rev. xii. 7. « Alterius esM non possunt nisi dia- 

bofi, qBK Dei non sunt. Terl. dc Idol. c. IS. et dc Habit. Mulieb. c. viii. S. de 
Ciloi foBOiin. c 5.— Nemo in cmitia hottium transit, nisi projcctis armis, niai dc- 
ailBtii ngnu et lacramcntis principis sni, nisi pactus simul perire. Tert, de 
ac c 34^ — Maoe piger stcrtis :— surge, inquit avaritia ; eja Surge :— negaa :— in- 
wmtf HUSCy inquit ;— >* non quco :' — surge. Pers. Siiir. 5. 132. P I John iii. 8. 

STUB. iL 26. qJohn viii.34. 16. 2 Fci. ii. lil. r Heb. xi. 25. 

2Kt.u. 15. Judev. 11. • 1 Reg. »»i. 25. « Prov. v. 22. "Numb. 

Tan. 15,21. zxiii. 1, 14, 2^, zxxi. 16. Mic. vi. 5. Rev. ii. 14. 2 Fct. ii. 15. 
■ 1 Kinp six. 2. J Matth. xxri. 55. 


the excellency, and the goverHment", all which he parts 
with for one morsel of meat*; being therein a type of all 
those profane wretches, who deride the ways of godlineas, 
and promises of salvation, drowning themselves in seosual 
delights, and esteeming heaven and hell, salvation and per- 
dition, but as the vain notions of melancholy men, having do 
other Ood, but their belly or their gain ^. 

So much monstrous wickedness is there in the hearts of 
men, that they add spurs and whips unto a horse, which of 
himself rusheth into the battle. When the tide of their own 
lusts, the stream and current of their own headstrong and 
impetuous affections do carry them too swiftly before, yet 
they hoist up sail, and', as it were, spread open their hearts 
to the winds of temptation ; precipitating and urging on 
their natural lusts by their voluntary engagements; tyiag 
themselves yet faster to misery, than Adam by his fall had 
tied them ; — and making themselves, not by nature only, but 
by compact, the children of wrath. One makes beforehand 
a bargain for drunkenness ; another contrives a meeting for 
uncleanness ; a third enters into a combination for robbery 
and cozenage ; a fourth makes an oath of revenge and ma- 
lice ; like Ananias and Sapphira, they agree together to 
tempt the Spirit of the Lord ^ : like Samson's foxes, join 
together with firebrands to set the souls of one another on 
fire ; as if they had not title enough to hell, except they 
bargained anew, and bound themselves, as it were, 1^ 
solemn obligation not to part with it again. 

O ! that every presumptuous sinner, who thus sells himself 
to do wickedly, would seriously consider those sad encum- 
brances, that go along with this his purchase. Those who 
would have estates to continue in such or such a succession, 
as themselves had pre-intended, have sometimes charged 
curses and execrations upon those, who should alienate, or 
go about to alter the property and condition of th^m. 
These, many times, are causeless curses, and do not come : 
but if any man will needs make bargains with Satan, and be 
buying the pleasures of sin, he must needs know that there 

» Gen. xlix. 4. 2 Chron. xxix. 3. « Ut Lysimachus se, ob frigtdae aqii» 

potum, hostibus dedit. Pint, lib. de tuenda sanitate. — Heb. xii. 16. ^ FtiU. 

ill. 19. ITim. vt.5. « Acts v. 9. 


goes a cwse from HeaTen aloojjr with luch a purchase, 
which will make it at the last but a ykuxu wixpiv, * a sweet 
bitter/ — like John's roll, which was sweet in the mouth but 
bitter in the belly : like Claudius's mushroom, pleasant but 
poison ^ ; that will blast all the pleasures of sin in ' aurum 
tholosanum •/ into such gold, as ever brought destruction to 
the owners of it. It is said of Cn. Seius, that he had a 
goodly horse, which had all the perfections that could be 
named for stature, feature, colour, strength, limbs, comeli- 
ness, belonging to a horse; but withal, this misery ever 
vent along with him, that whosoever became owner of him, 
was sure to die an unhappy death. This is the misery that 
always accompanies the bargain of sin ; how pleasant, how 
piofilable, how advantageous soever it may seem to be unto 
flesh and blood, it hath always calamity in the end ; it ever 
expires in a miserable death. Honey is very sweet ; but it 
tarns into the bitterest choler. The valley of Sodom was 
one of the most delightful places in the world ; but it is 
now become a dead and a standing lake. Let the life of a 
wicked man run on never so fluently, it hath a ' mare mor- 
toiUD ^ at the dead end of it O then, when thou art making 
a covenant with sin, say to thy soul, as Boaz said to his kins- 
man \ ** At what time thou l/uyest it, thou must have Ruth 
the Uoabitess with it." If thou viilt have the pleasures, the 
rewards, the wages of iniquity, thou must also have the 
citfse and damnation that is entailed upon it ; and let thy 
soal answer which be there doth, " No, I may not do it ; I 
shall mar and spoil a better inheritance.'" 

Sect. 9. II. This may serve for an instruction unto us, 
touching the duties of solemn humiliation and repentance, 
whi<^ is the scope of the propheCs direction in this place. 
We must not think we have done enough, when we have 
made general acknowledgments and confessions of sin, and 
begged pardon and grace from God; but we must withal 
forther bind ourselves fast unto God by engagements of new 
obedience, as holy men in the Scripture have done in their 

^ Nemo Tcnenam tempent felle et hcUeboro ; sed conditis pulmentis, et bene sa- 
pogids,eC plarimum dulcibua, id mali Injicir. Tirt. de Spcct. c. 27.— lofusum dc. 
kcbbiU dbo hoc boletorum vencnam. Tacit * Anoal. 1. 12. 67. • Vid. Aul. 

GelL U 3. c. 9.— Omnia illic seu fortia, seu houesu, leu lononi, 8eu caoora, seu 
tnbdlia, prolnde habenda sunt stillictdia mcllii de libacunculo vencnato ; ncc 
tanti Solam &cias« quanti voluptatii pcriculum. Tnt, ib. 'Ruth iv. 4, 5. 


moce solemn addresses unto God ^ : for without amendment 
of life, prayers are but bowlings and abominations^. ^' Quan- 
tum k preeceptis, tantum ab auribus Dei longe sumus ^^ No 
obedience^ no audience. A beast will roar when be is 
beaten ; but men, when God punisheth, should not only cry, 
but covenant. 

Unto the performance whereof, that we may the better 
apply ourselves, let us a little consider the nature of a reli- 
gious covenant. A covenant is a mutual stipulation, or a 
giving and receiving of faith between two parties, whereby 
they do unanimously agree in one inviolable sentence or re- 
solution. Such a covenant there is between God and true 
believers: he giving himself as a reward unto them; and they 
giving themselves as servants unto him : he willing and re- 
quiring the service, and they willing and consenting to the 
reward : he promising to be their God, and they to be his 
peopled A notable expression of which joint and mutual 
stipulation we have, Deut. xxvi. 17, 18: "Thou hast avouch- 
ed the Lord this day to be thy God, and to walk in his 
ways, and to keep his statutes, and his commandments, and 
his judgements, and to hearken unto his voice: and the 
Lord hath avouched thee this day to be his peculiar people, 
as he hath promised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all 
his commandments ; and to make thee high above all nations 
which he hath made, in praise, and in name, and in honour; 
and that thou mayest be an holy people unto the Lord thy 
God, as he hath spoken ^" Where we have both the mutual 
expressions of intimate relations one to another, and the mu- 
tual engagements unto universal obedience on the one 
side, and unto high and precious benefits on the other, 
growing out of that relation. For because God is mine, I 
am bound to serve him ; and because I am his^ he hath 
bound himself to provide for me. We are not now to con- 
sider that part of the covenant, which standeth in God's pro- 
mise to be our God, which, in general, importeth thus much, 
God's giving himself in Christ unto us, and, together with 

f Nehem. ix. 38. Psalm li. 12, 13, 14, 15, h Hos. vii. U. Prov. xxTiii. 9, 

1 Tert. de Orat. c. 10. k Heb. viii. 10. 1 Duonim pluriumve in idem 

placiium consensus. Ulpian. 1. 1. ff. dc pactis ; unde mutua ex fide data et mc- 
cepu oritur obligatio.*- Voluntatis est suscipere, necessitatis consununarc. Poti/, 
)eg. 17. ff. Coinmodati. 


Christp all other good tilings : bcnefiU relative, in justifica- 
tion from sin, and adoption unto sons : benefits habitual, a 
new nature by regeneration, a new heart and life by sancti- 
fication, a quiet conscience by peace and comfort: benefits 
temporal, in the promises of this life: benefits eternal, in the 
glory of the next. Thus is Christ made of God unto us, 
' wisdom,' in our vocation, converting us unto faith in him ; 
' righteonsness,* in our justification, reconciling us unto his 
Father; ^ sanctification,' in our conformity to him in grace, 
and ' redemption' from all evils or enemies which might 
hate us here, and unto all glory, which may fill and ever- 
lastingly satisfy us hereafter ". — But we are now to consider 
of the other part of the covenant, which concerneth our en- 
gagement unto God, wherein we promise both ourselves and 
our abilities unto him, to be his people, and to do him 

Sect. 10. The material cause of this covenant is whatso- 
ever may be promised unto God : and that is, first, our per- 
sons; and secondly, our service. Our persons, " We are 
thine •.** Giving our ownselves to the Lord p ; not esteeming 
oiuvelves'i our own, but his that bought us ' ; and being will- 
ing, that he which bought us, should have the property in 
OS, and the possession of us, and the dominion over us, and 
the liberty to do what he pleaseth with us. Being content- 
ed to be lost to ourselvesi, that we may be " found in him \" 
If sin or Satan call for our tongue, or heart, or hand, or eye, 
to answer, ' These are not mine own, Christ hath bought 
them; the Lord hath set them apart for himself '; they are 
vessels for the Master's use ** : I am but the steward of my- 

» 1 Cor. i. 30. o Itai. Ixiii. 19. P 2 Cor. viii. 5. q Scrvi pro 

Mi&b habentar 1. 1. ff. de Jure deliberandi; ct 1. 32. de regulii juris. Sunt res 
Domini, et quicquid acquirunt, Domino acquirunL Instit. lib. 1. tit. 8. et leg. 
1. de hit qui lui aut alieni juris sunt, ff. lib. l.ct lib. 41 c. 10. sect. 1. Nihil 
satim habere possunt, Instit. lib. 2. T. 9. non dcbent saluti dominorum suam an> 
U 1. sect 28. ff. de Senatusconsulto Silaniano. — Xerxis servi, exortm 
;, in nuune desiliunt, ut domini sui saluti consulant. Herodot. lib. 8. 
ti cum multa multi pro suisquisque faculatibus overrent, .^schines, pau- 
per auditor, *' Nihil," inquit, *< dignum te, quod dare tibi possim, invenio ct 
hoc mo modo pauperem me esse sentio ; itaque dono tibi quod unum habco, 
Mciptam. Hoc rounos, rogo, qualecunque est, boni consulas; cogitesque alios, 
com multum tibi darent, plus sibi leliquisse." Smna de Benef. 1. I.e. 8. Ruh- 
Hpf, vol. iv. p. 23. r 1 Cor. ?i. 19. » Phil. iii. 9. • Psalm iv. 3. 

■ 3 Tim. ii. 21. 


self, and may not dispose of my Master^s goods without, 
much less against his own will and commands/ 

Our services, which are matters of necessity ', matters of 
expediency, and matters of praise : all which may be made 
the materials of a coyenant. 

1. Matter of duty and necessity. As David, by an oath, 
binds himself to keep God's righteous judgements ^ And 
the people, in Nehemiah's time^ enter into a curse Und an 
oath, to walk in God's law, and to observe and to do all his 
commandments '. 

2. Matter of circumstantial expediency, which, in Chris* 
tian wisdom, may be conducent unto the main end of a 
man's life, or may fit him for any special condition which 
God catleth him unto. So the Rechabites promised their 
father Jonadab, and held that promise obligatory in the 
sight of God, " Not to drink wine, nor to build houses* C* 
because, by that voluntary hardship of life, they should be 
the better fitted to bear that captivity, which was to come 
upon them ^ or because thereby tbey should the better ex- 
press the condition of strangers amongst God's people, upon 
whose outward comforts they would not seem too much to 
encroach, that it might appear, that they did not incorpo- 
rate with them for mere secular, but for spiritual benefit*. 
It was lawful for Paul to have received wages and rewards 
for his work in the gospel, as well of the churches of Achaia, 
as of Macedonia, and others, as he proveth, 1 Cor. ix. 4, 14; 
yet he seemeth upon the case of expediency, that he " might 
cut off occasion from them that desired occasion,^' and 
might the better promote the gospel, — to bind himself by an : 
oath (for so much those words, " The truth of Christ is in 1 
me," do import, as the learned have observed **) never to be. ^ 
burdensome in that kind unto those churches^. Lawful t 
things, when inexpedient and gravaminous, may be forborne i 
by the bonds of a covenant. ? 

* Sunt ^uaedam, qu« etiam non volentes debemus ; quaedam, etiam qua iiiii - 
noverkniis, non debemus ; sed postquam ea Deo promittimus, neceisario ea red- j^ 
dere constringimur. jlug, J Psalm exit. 106. * Nehem. x. 29. *J«r. jt| 
zxxT. 6, 7. *» Amhr, — Aqwin, — Erasm. — Cnh, — Beza, — Piscatvr, — Muscr^ j|, 

Biliuaf^Com, A, Lap, — TYriniiJ.— De hujusmodi votis, Vid. Greg* Thi>lo$4 de L 
Rep. 1.3. c. 5. ct Syntag Juris, 1. 24. e. 10. — Serarittm in 1. Judic. c. 11. qu. 19. \ 
PihetL in Job zxii. 27.— ^f/<<. of Tithes, c. 3.— JBmjon. de formul. 1. 1. c 2 OoRi L 
xi. 7, 12. \ , 



3. Matter of thanksgiving and praises unto God, in which 
case it was usual to make and pay vows. " What shall I 
render to the Lord for all his benefits towards me 7*^ saith 
DaTid: ''I will take the cup of salvation" (as the use of 
the Jews was in their feasts and sacrifices of thanksgiving '' ;) 
•' I will pay my vows unto the Lord." Whereby it appears, 
that godly men, when they prayed for mercies, did likewise, 
by vows and covenants, bind themselves to return tribute of 
praise in some particular kind or other, upon the hearing of 
their prayers ^ So Jacob did'^; and so Jephtha'; and so 
Hannah ^ ; and so Hezekiah ' ; and so Jonah '' ; so Zaccheus, 
to testify his thankfulness unto Christ for his conversion, 
and to testify his thorough mortification of covetousness, 
which had been his master-sin, did not only out of duty 
make restitution where he had done wrong, but out of 
boanty« did engage himself to give the half of his ^oods to 
the poor K 

The formal cause of a covenant is the plighting of our 
fidelity, and engaging of our truth unto God in that parti- 
colar. which is the matter of our covenant ; which is done 
two ways: either by a simple promise and stipulation, as 
that of Zaccheus ; or in a more solemn way, by the interven- 
tion of an oath, or curse, or subscription, as that of Nehe- 
Biiah, and the people there. 

Sect. 11. The efficient cause is the person entering into 
the covenant : in whom these things are to concur : — 

1. A clear knowledge, and deliberate weighing of fhc 
matter promised ; because error'", deception, or ignorance, 
are contrary to the formal notion of that consent, which in 
every covenant is intrinsecal, and necessary thereunto: "Non 
▼idetur consent! re qui errat.'' 

2- A free and willing concurrence ". ** In omni pacto 
iotercedit actio spontanea ;" and so in every promise. Not 
hot that authority may impose oaths, and those as well pro- 

d Luke zxiu 17. • PmIiii cxvi. 12, 13, 14. Psalm czxiii. 2, 3. f Gen. 

zxTiii. 22. S Judg. xi. 30, 31. ^ 1 Sam. i. 11, 27, 2d. i |sai. 

sxzviii. 20. ^ hai. i. !». ' Luke xxix. H. m L. b7, ff. de oblig. 

ct Action. Nulla voluntas crrantis est. I. 20. ff. dc aqua, et aciu. 1. 116. de Reg. 
jvhs. ^ Votuni voluntas est spontanea. Iholot, Syntag. Juris. 1. 24. 

c 10. Sect. X.'IVJ. dc vcrborum significat.^ — Hostiw ab animo libcnti expoicu- 
lantur- Tm. ad Scaj^. r. 2. 



missory as assertory "* ; as Josiah made a covenant, and 
caused the people to stand unto it^ But that the matter of 
it, though imposed, should be such in the nature of the 
thing, as that it may be taken in judgement and righteous- 
ness, that so the person may not be hampered in any such 
hesitancy of conscience, as will not consist with a pious^ 
spontaneous, and voluntary concurrence thereunto. 

3. A power to make the promise, and bind oneself by it. 
For a man may have power to make a promise, which is 
not finally obligatory, but upon supposition '^. As a woman 
might for her own part vow, and by that vow was bound up as 
to herself: but this bond was but conditional, as to efficacy 
and influence upon the effect, to wit, if her husband hear it, 
and held his peace '. 

4. A power^ having made the promise, to perform it : 
and this depends upon the nature of the thing, which must 
be first possible ; for ^' Impossibilium nulla est obligatio ^ :*' 
no man can bind himself to things impossible. And next, 
lawful ", in regard either of the necessity, or expediency, or 
some other allowableness in the thing. For, " Turpe est 
jure impossibile j"' we can do nothing but that which we can 
do rightfully. Sinful things are, in construction of law, im- 
possible, and so can induce no obligation. A servant can 
make no promise to the dishonour or disservice of his mas- 
ter ^, nor a child or pupil contrary to the will of his parent 
or guardian; nor a Christian, to the dishonour, or against 
the will of Christ, whom he serves. In every such sinful 

P Gen. xxiv. 3. 1 Kings ii. 42. Ezra x. 3, 5. q 2 Chron. xxxiv. 31, 32. 

r L. 5. de Cod. Legibus vide Tholos, Syntag. Juris 1. 21. c. 5. — Vide Peckium de 
Reg. Juris Reg. 69. Sect. 4. • Numb. xxx. 3, 14. t L. 18. ff. de 

Reg. Juris, et 1. 183. et de conditionibus institutionum, leg. G. et 20. de conditi- 
onibus et demonstrat. 1. 3. et 20. et de Obligat. et Action. I. 1. sect. 9. ^ Qaae 
facta Isedunt pietatem, existimationem, verecundiam nostram, et (ut generaliter 
dixerim) contra bonos mores fiunt, nee facere nos posse credendum est. Paptn. 
1. 14, 15. ff. de Condition. Institut. — Pacta quae contra bonos mores fiunt, nuUam 
vim habere, indubitati juris est. 1. 6. et 30. Cod. de pactis. — Generaliter novimut, 
tarpes stipulationes nuUius esse momenti. 1. 26. ff. de verbor. obligat. et de legmtis 
et fidei commiss. leg. 112. sect. 3, 4. — Impia proroissio est quae scelere adim- 
pletur. Juramentum non est vinculum iniquitatis. Vid. Caus, 22. qo. 4.*— 
Prsestare fateor posse me fidem si scelere careat ; interdum scelus est fides : Sen, 
Hs demum imposita opers intellignntur, quae sine turpitudine praestari ponunt : 
ff. de opens libertorum, 1. 38. * Filius familias, vel servus, sine patris do- 

minive auctoritate, voto non obligatur ; 1. 2. sect. 1. ff. de poUicitationibus. 


engagement, there is intrinsecally " dolus, error^ deceptio ;*** 
the heart is blinded by the deceitfulness of lust'. And 
these things are destructive to the nature of such an action, 
as most be deliberate and spontaneous. Promises of this 
kind bind to nothing but repentance. 

From these considerations we may learn, what to judge of 
the promises which many men make of doing service unto 

Sect. 12. 1. Some join in covenants, as tlie greatest part 
of that tumultuous concourse of people, who made an up* 
roar against the apostle, were joined together, "they knew 
not wherefore ' ;'^ and do not understand the things they 
promise: — as if a man should set his hand and seal to an 
obligation, and not know the contents or condition of it. 
Sach are all ignorant Christians, who have often renewed 
their covenant of new obedience and faith in Christy and yet 
know not what the faith of Christ is, or what is the purity 
aud spiritualness of that law which they have sworn unto. 
As the apostle saith of the Jews, " If they had known, they 
would not have crucified the Lord of glory ;*' we may say of 
many of these, * If they knew the purity and holiness of 
those things which they have vowed to keep, tliey either 
would not have entered into covenant with God at all, or 
would be more conscientious and vigilant in their observa- 
tion of it.^-^It is a sign of a man desperately careless, to run 
daily into debt, and never so much as remember or consider 
what he owes. If there were no other obligation to tie men 
onto the knowledge of God's will, this alone were sufficient, 
that they have undertaken to serve him ; and therefore, by 
their own covenants, are bound to know him. For surely 
many men, who have promised repentance from their dead 
works, if they did indeed consider what that repentance is, 
and unto what a strict and narrow way of walking it doth 
confine them, would go nigh, if they durst, to plead an error 
in the contract,— and to profess that they had not thought 
their obligation had engaged them unto so severe and rigid a 
service, and so would repent of their repentance. But in 
this case, ignorance of what a m^n ought to know, cannot 
avoid the covenant which he is bound to make, and, having 

y Ephet. if. 18, 22. Heb. iii. 13. 2 Pet. i. 9. 2 Cor. li. 3. > Actt lix. 32. 

238 3£V£N S£RMONS ON THE [Serm. IL 

made, to keep; but his covewot doth exceedingly aggravate 
Im ignorance *. 

Sect. 13. 3. Some make many fair promises of obedience^ 
bnt it is on the rack, and in the furnace, pr as children under 
the rod : — '* O if I might but recover t^iis sickness, or be eased 
of this affliction, I would then be a new man, and redeem my 
misspent time.^ — And yet many of these, like Pharaoh, 
when they have any respite, nnd out ways to shift and de- 
lude their own promises, and, like melted metal takqn out 
of the furnace, return again unto their former hardness. So a 
good divine ^ observes of the people of this land, in the 
time of the great sweat in king Edward's days, (I wish we 
could find even so much in these days of calamity which we 
are fallen into,) as long as the heat of the plague lasted, 
there was crying out " Peccavi," Mercy, good Lord, mercy, 
mercy. — Then, lords, and ladies, and people of the best sort, 
cried out to the ministers, " For God's sake tell us, what we 
shall do to avoid the wrath of God: — take these bags ; pay 
so much to su^h an one whom I deceived ; so much restore 
unto another, whom, in bargaining, I overreached ; give so 
Qmch to the poor, so much to pious uses, &c.*^ But after 
the sickness was over, they were just the same men as they 
were before. Thus, in time of trouble, men are apt to m^ke 
many prayers, and covenants, to cry unto God, " Arise, and 
save us % Deliver us this time**:" they enquire early after 
God, and flatter him with their lips, and own him as their 
God, and rock of salvation, and presently '^ start aside, like a 
deceitful bow." As Austin ' notes, that, in times of calamity, 
the very heathen would flock unto the Christian churches, to 
be safe amongst them. And when the Lord sent lions among 
the Samaritans, then they sent to enquire after the manner 
of his worship ^. Thus many men's covenants are founded 

* GLui per delictorum pcenitentiam instituerat Domino satisfacere, diabolo per 
aliam pcenitentise poenitentiam satisfaciet ; eritque tanto magis perosus Deo, 
quanto amulo ejus acceptus. Tertul, de poenitent. c. 5. b Dike^ of the de~ 

ceitfalness of the heart, c 20. c Jer. \\, 27. ^ Judges x. 15. • Quot 

vides petulanteret procacicer insultare servis Christi, sunt in his plurimi, qui 
ilium interitum clademque non evasisaent, nisi servos Christi se esse finxissent: 
De Civit. Dei, 1. 1. c. 1^ — Ejecta m naufragio dominorum adhuc sunt, quia uon 
eo animo ejiciuntur quod, ea habere nolunt, sed ut periculum effugiant ; AT. 1. 41. 
1. 9. sect. 8. et 1. 44.^-Semisaucium hac atque hac jacure voluntatem ; Au^ 
Confes. L 8. c. 8. f 2 Kings xvii. 25, 26. 


ooly in (errors of coDscience. They throw out their tinB^ as 
m merchaat at sea his rich commodities in a tempest, but in 
a calm wish for them again. Neither do they throw away 
the property over them, but only the dangerous possession of 
them. This is not a full, cheerful, and voluntary action, but 
only a languid and inconstant velleity, contrary to that large- 
ness of heart, and fixed disposition which Christ's own peo- 
ple bring unto his service ; as David and the nobles of 
Israel '^ offered willingly, and with joy unto the Lord'." 

Sect. 14. Since a covenant presupposeth a power in him 
that maketh it, both over bis own will, and over the matter, 
thing, or action which he promiseth, so far as to be enabled to 
make the promise : and since we of ourselves have neither will 
nor deed, no sufficiency either to think or to perform ^ ; we 
hence learn in all the covenants which we make, not to do 
it in any confidence of our own strength, or upon any self- 
dependence on our own hearts, which are false and deceitful, 
and may, after a confident undertaking, use us as Peter's 
used him ; but still to have our eyes on the aid and help of 
God^s grace, to use our covenants as means the better to stir 
up God's graces in us, and our prayer unto him for further 
supplies of it As David, " I will keep thy statutes;" but 
then, '^ do not thou forsake me '.'' Our promises of duty 
must ever be supported by God's promises of grace, when 
we have undertaken to serve him. We must remember to 
pray as Hezekiah did, '^ Lord, I am weak, do thou under- 
take for me ^." Our good works cannot come out of us, till 
God do fiirst of all " work them in us K" He must perform 
his promises of grace to us, before we can ours of service 
imto him. Nothing of ours can go to heaven, except we 
first receive it from heaven. We are able to ** do nothing, 
bat in and by Christ which strengtheneth us "'.'" So that 
every religious covenant which he makes, hath indeed a 
double obligation in it"; an obligation to the duty promised, 
that we may stir up ourselves to perform it ; and an obliga- 

C 1 Chron. xxix. 17. ^ Rom. vii. 18. 2 Cor. iii. 5. Phil. ii. 12. l Psalm 
ens. 8. k Isti. zxxYiii. U. I Isai. xzvi. 12. » John xt. 5. Phil, 

hr. 13. B Quid tam coogmum fidd humanae, quam ea quae inter eot pla- 

cnerant, tenrare ? Ulpian L. 1. ff. de pactis. — Obligatio est juris vinculum, quo 
neoesiiCite restriogimur alicujus tolYcndK rei : Instit. 1. 3. T. U.— Vid. Grt^ 
gvnum Thi6U$. Repab. 1. 8. c. 8. 



tion unto prayer, and recourse to God, that he would furnish 
us with grace to perform it :— as he that hath bound himself 
to pay a debt, and hath no money of his own to do it, is con- 
strained to betake himself unto supplications, that he may 
procure the money of some other friend. 

Lastly, The final cause of a covenant is to induce an 
obligation, where was none before ; or else to double 
and strengthen it, where was one before, to be 'vinculum 
conservandee fidei,^ a bond to preserve truth and fidelity. 
Being subject unto many temptations, and having back- 
sliding and revolting hearts, apt, if they be not kept up to 
service, to draw back from it ; therefore we use ourselves, as 
men do cowardly soldiers, set them there where they must 
fight, and shall not be able to run away, or fall ofi* from service. 

III. This should serve to humble us upon a twofold con- 
sideration : — 

Sect. 15. 1. For the falseness and unsteadfastness of our 
hearts, which want such covenants to bind them, and, as it 
were, fasten them to the altar with cords : — as men put locks 
and fetters upon wild horses, whom otherwise no inclosure 
would shut in. Our hearts(as Jacob said of Reuben^) are '^uu- 
stable waters.*" Moist bodies (as water is) ^'non continentur 
suis tlerminis P,*' do not set bounds to themselves, as solid and 
compacted bodies do, but shed all abroad, if left to them* 
selves : the way to keep them united and together, is to put 
them into a close vessel : — so the heart of man can set itself 
no bounds, but falls all asunder, and out of frame, els amxy' 
0-fy, as the apostle's expression is, (1 Pet. iv. 4) *' instar aquse 
difilueutis," (Heb. xii. 1.) if it be not fastened and bound to- 
gether by such strong resolutions. Sometimes men, either 
by the power of the Word, or by the sharpness of some 
afflictions, are quickened and inflamed unto pious purposes ; 
like green wood, which blazeth, while the bellows are blow- 

o G«n. xlix. 4. P *Typ6if r6 ti6piaroy oUti^ Sp^, Aristot. de Gencr. et 

Corrupt. I. c. 2. — Hinc qui vitam agunt moHem, remissam, volupcuariam, in 
banc et illam partem flcxilem, dicuntur Blov fjp t6v Cypov ical hia^4<nnm^ 
Chryi, Rom. xiii. 14. et Suidae iypos dicitur 6 fvKaerdtpopos tls ras i^Sop^. 
Ejus aniroum, qui nunc luxuria et lascivia difHuit, retundam: Tnent, Heauton^ — 
Messalina, facilitate adulterorum in fastidium versa, ad incognitas libidines pro- 
fluebat : T&cit. Annal. 1. 1 1 .— Eruptiones lascivitatum, Trr/. Apol. c. 31.— The 
Scripture calleth it, <* Weakness of heart," Ezek. xvi. 30. — and so the Philoso- 
pher, 'Axpcurfar rit niy vpor4rfta^ rd 8^ dff$4yfMy Ethic. 1. 7, 8. Zell. p. 31 S. 


ing: and now tbey think they have their hearts sure, and 
shall continue them in a good frame ; to-morrow ahall be as 
this day : — ^bnt presently, like an instrument in change of 
weather, they are out of tune again ; and, like the chameleon, 
presently change colour ; and, as Chrysostom '^ saith, the 
preacher, of all workmen, seldom finds his work as he lefl 
it. Nothing but the grace of God doth balance and esta- 
blish the heart: and holy covenants are an ordinance or 
means which he hath pleased to sanctify unto this purpose, 
that by them, as instruments, grace, as the principal cause, 
night keep the heart steadfast in duty. If then Isaiah be- 
wail the uncleanness of his lips, and Job suspected the un* 
cleanness and wandering of his eyes, what reason have we to 
be humbled for this unstead fastness of our hearts, from 
whence the diffluence and looseness of every other faculty 
proceeds ! 

2. If we must bewail the falseness of our hearts, that 
stand in need of covenants ; how much more should we be- 
wail their perfidiousness in the violation of covenants : 
that they take occasion, even by restraint, like a river ' that 
is stopped in its course, to grow more unruly : or as a man 
after an ague, which took away his stomach, to return with 
stronger appetite unto sin again. To crucify our sins, and 
in repentance to ' put them," as it were, ' to shame,' and then 
to take them down from the cross again, and fetch them to 
lifie, and repent of repentance ; — to vow, and ** after vows to 
make enquiry * ;*' this is very ill requital unto Christ. He 
came from glory to suffer for us ; and here met with many 
disconragements, not only from enemies, but from friends 
and disciples : Judas betrays him ; Peter denies him ; his 
disciples sleep; his kinsfolk stand afar off; yet he doth 
not look back from a cross to a crown : and though he be 
tempted to ^ come down ' from the cross, yet he stays it out, 
that he might ' love and save us to the uttermost.' But we, 
no sooner out of Egypt and Sodom, but we have hankering 
aflfections to return, — at the least, to look backwards again : 
engage ourselves to be ruled by the Word of the Lord, as 

•MMp t$ htu40f miXiM ciV<^<rcr hr\ M ifmp Wx <»9rM, Ac Homil. 13. ad Pbp. 
Aacioch. ' Spnmcai, ct fenreni, et ab obioe hmw\ot Ibtt. Ovui.— ^mcr. Nai, 

L S. c. 17. • Prov. zz. 25. 

▼OL. III. R 


the Jews did ' ; and with them ", when we know his Word, 
cavil against it, and shrink away from our own resolutions. 
O how should this humble us, and make us vile in our own 
eyes 1 God is exceeding angry with the breach of but hu- 
man covenants * ; how much more with the breach of holy 
covenants between himself and us ! — and threateneth se* 
verely to revenge the quarrel of his covenant ^ : and so 
doubtless he now doth, and will do stilly except we take a 
penitent revenge upoii ourselves for it. And therefore. 

Lastly, having entered into covenant, we should use dou** 
ble diligence in our performance of it ; quickening and 
stirring up ourselves thereunto, — 

1. By the consideration of the stability of his covenant 
with us, even " the sure mercies of David '.■" To break 
faith with a false person, were a fault ; but to deceive him 
that never fails nor forsakes us, increaseth both the guilt 
and the unkindness. 

2. By consideration of his continued and renewed mer- 
cies. If he were a wilderness unto us, there might be some 
colour to repent us of our bargain, and to look out for a 
better service. But it is not only unthankfulness, but folly, 
to make a forfeiture of mercies, and to put God, by our 
breach of covenant with him, to break his with us too K 

3. By consideration of our baptism, and the tenor thereof^ 
wherein we solemnly promise to keep a good conscience, 
and to observe all things whatsoever Christ commandeth us ^. 
From which engagement we cannot recede, without the note 
and infamy of greater perfidiousness *^. To take Christ's 
pay, and to do sin service ; to be a subject unto Michael^ 
and a pensioner unto the dragon ; to wear the livery of one 
master, and to do the work of another ; to be an Israelite m 
title, and a Samaritan in truth ; — this is either to for^r 
get or deride our baptism " : for therein we did, as it were^ 
subscribe our name, and list ourselves in the register of 

« Jcr. ilii. 5, 6. » Jer. xliii.2. » Jer. xxxiv. 18. Ezek. xrii. 18* 

y Lcvit. vi. 25. ■ Isai. liv. 8, 9. U. 3. • Vid. Ckrys, In p. 113. 

b Jer. ii. 5, 6, 7, 31. Numb. xiv. 34. Jon. ii. 8. c i Pet. iii. 31. Maak. 

xxviii. 19, 20. d In foederibus eosdera amicos atque inimicos habere toleaC 

foederaU ; qaod ex Cicerone et Livio obsenravit bAss. de formul. I* 4. — Qm miki 
ab infoederatts, ne dicam ab hostibus, regibut donativum et tttpendium cspM^ 
nlti plane desertor et tiansfoga? Tert, it Praescript. c. 12.— i^crn. Serm.Sbdl 
Evang. septem panum. • 2 Pet. i. 9. 


Sioo : and as it is a high honour to be enrolled in the ge- 
nealogies of the church, so it is a great dishonour to he ex- 
punged from thence, and to be written in the earth, and 
limTe oor names, with our bodies, putrefy in perpetual ob- 
liTion '. 

4. Consider the seal and witnesses, whereby this covenant 
hath been confirmed. Sealed in our own consciences by 
the seal of faith, believing the holiness of God's ways, and 
the excellency of his rewards ; for, ** he that believeth, hath 
set to his seal « ;" — mutually attested by our spirits, feeling 
the sweetness of duty, and by God's Spirit •*, revealing tht* 
certainty of reward ' : and this in the presence of angels and 
saints, into whose communion we are admitted *". So that 
we cannot depart from this covenant, without shaming our- 
■eWes to God, to angels, to men, and to our own con- 
sciences. Yea, the font where we were baptized, — and the 
table where we have sacramentally eaten and drank the 
body and blood of Christ, — and the very seats where we have 
sat attending unto his voice, like Joshua's stone ', will be 
witn es se s against us, if we deny our covenant : — though 
there be no need of witnesses against those, who have to deal 
with the Searcher of hearts, and the Judge of consciences; 
that consuming fire, whom no lead, no dross, no reprobate 
silver^ no false metal, can endure or deceive ; no Ananias or 
Bapphira lie unto, without their own undoing. 

Lastly, Let us consider the estate which these covenants 

4o refer unto, and our tenure whereunto these services are 

•anexed, which is ** eternal life.^ After we have had pa- 

fieoce to keep our short promises of doing God's will, he 

will perform his eternal promises of giving himself unto us. 

And who would forfeit an inheritance, for not payment of a 

•mall homage or quit-rent reserved upon it ? If we expect 

eternal life from him, there is great reason we should dedi- 

eite a mortal life unto him. Let us not pay our service in 

drois, when we expect our wages in gold. 

' Jei. xvii. 13. Nchem. vi. 64, 65. « John iii. .U. ^ Vid. Bern, 

SoiiLl.inAnnuDC. Miriae, ct Scr. 2. dc iribus iestimonii$,ctScr. 2. in die Pent.— 
^1 in fintiT. Omnium Sanct.— Ser- 5. in dedic Eccl^ — Set. de qsatuor modU 
wiBdi...8cf. S, 23. et 85. in Cant, de Natur. et Dignit. Divini Arooris, c. 11.— 
Vilctinn MickatUs Medina Apolog. pro Joanne Fero advenus Dom. Seto cri- 
■ttttboet, apud SizL Senensem, Biblioth. 1. 6. Annot. 210. ^ Rom. i. 16. 
^ 1 Cor. xi. 10. Heb. lii. 22. « Josh. iiii. 24, 27. 

R 2 



HOSEA XIV. 2, 3. 

So will we render the calves of our lips. Asshur shall not save 
us ; %oe will Hot ride upon horses ; neither mil we say to the 
works of our hands^ Ye are our gods, S^c» 

Sect. 1. Having handled the general doctrine of our en- 
tering into covenant with God, I shall now proceed unto the 
particulars, which they here engage themselves unto ; where* 
of the first, is a solemn thanksgiving, ** We mil render the 
calves of our lips," All the sacrifices of the Jews were of 
two sorts ^: some were ilastical, propitiatory, or expiatory^ 
for pardon of sin, or impetration of favour: others were 
eucharistical sacrifices of praise, (as the peace-ofieriugs '^y) 
for mercies obtained ^ With relation unto these, the church 
here, having prayed for forgiveness of sin, and for the ob- 
taining of blessings, doth hereupon, for the further enforce* 
ment of those petitions, promise to ofier the peace-offerioga of 
praise, not in the naked and empty ceremony, but with the 
spiritual life and substance, viz. ** the calves of their lips*" 
which are moved by the inward principles of hearty sincerity 
and thanksgiving. 

From hence we learn. That sound conversion and repentf 
ance enlargeth the heart in thankfulness towards God, anc 
disposeth it to offer up the sacrifice of praise. And th? 
duty, here promised, cometh in this place under several cor 
siderations ; for we may consider it, — 

Sect. 2.~I. 'Ut materiam pacti,' as the matter of 

• Folio edition, ptge .523. * Vid. Gul. Stuck. Antiq. ConYival. 1. 1. c 

— H\tm$. eicrcit. Ceremonial, exerdt. 19. quamvis alii aliter dittinguu 
CwnH. A Lapid. in Synop. c. 1. Levit — Torniei, An. 2545. sect. 21w— ffw 
Job i. .>.— -^/#r. Hnle*^ p. 3. qu. 56, ct memb. 4. art. 8. tect. 3. * 

\\i.\'2. ** rsJilincvii.22. 

Vers. 2, 3.] fOUKTEENTH CIIAPTLK OF H08EA. 245 

coveoant or compact, which we promise to render unto 
God, in acknowledgement of his ^reat n\ercy in answering 
the prayers, which we put unto him for pardon and grace. 
It is observable, that most of those psalms wherein David ^ 
imploretb help from God, are closed with thanksgiving unto 
him, as Psalm vii. 17. xiii. 6. Ivi. 12, 13. Ivii. 7, 10, &c. 
David thus, by a holy craft, insinuating into God'^s favour* 
and driving a trade between earth and heaven, receiving and 
returning, importing one commodity, and transporting an* 
other, letting God know that his mercies shall hot be lotst, — 
that as he bestows the ' comforts ' of tlu-m upon him, so he 
would return the 'praises* of them unto Heaven again. 
Those countries that have rich and staple commodities to 
exchange and return unto others', have usually the freest 
and fullest traffic and resort of trade made unto them. Now 
there is no such rich return from earth to Heaven as praise : 
this is indeed the only tribute we can pay unto God, — to 
value and to celebrate his goodness towards us. As, in the 
Box and reflux of the sea, the water that in the one comes 
from the sea unto the shore, doth, in the other, but run back 
into itself again ; so praises ^ are, as it were, the return of 
mercies into themselves, or into that bosom and fountain of 
God's love from whence they flowed. And therefore the 
richer any heart is in praises, the more speedy and copious 
are the returns of mercy unto it. God hath so ordered the 
creatures amongst themselves, that there is a kind of natural 
confederacy, and mutual negotiation amongst them, each 
one receiving and returning, deriving unto others, and draw- 
ing from others what serves most for the conservation of 
them all, — and every thing, by various interchanges and vicis- 
sitades, flowing back into the original from whence it came : 
thereby teaching the souls of men to maintain the like spi- 
ritual commerce and confederacy with Heaven, to have all 

' David omnes fere PmIihoc, in quibus Dei auxilium implorat, gratianim 
actione daudit Muu in Psaltn x. 16. • Cifes habcnt propinquam fructti- 

omiiqiie*proviiictain, qao facile excurrant, ubi libenter negotium ^erant: quot 
ilia niercibuf tappcditandis cum quantu compcndioque dimittit, &c. Cicer, ta 
Verr. Act. 2. lib. lec. G. — Hujusmodi nobile emporeum erat Tyros, Phoenicia urba, 
Ecek. xxvii. 12, 14. de qua regione Lucanus, ** Primi docuere carinis Ferre cavia 
orbia cumniercia." f Gratiarum ccssac decurtus, ubi recunus non foic. 

Bern. Ser. 1. in cap. Jciunii.-*Ad locum, unde exeunt snitise, revertantur. Idem 
Scr. 3. in Vigil. Nativit. &c. 


3 passages between them and it open and unobstructed, — 
at the mercies which they receive from thence, may not be 
ept under and imprisoned in unthankfulness, but may haY» 
free way in daily praises, to return to their fountain again. 
Thus Noahy after his deliverance from the flood, built an 
altar, on which to sacrifice the sacrifices of thanksgiving; 
that as his family by the ark was preserved from perishing, 
80 the memory of so great a mercy might, in like manner, by 
the altar be preserved too^. So Abraham, after a weary 
journey, being comforted with God's gracious appearing and 
manifestation of himself unto him, built an altar, and "called 
on the name of the Lord ^'," and after another journey out of 
Egypt, n'as not forgetful to return unto that place again'; — 
God's presence drawing forth his praises, as the return of 
the sun in a spring and summer, causeth the earth to thrust 
forth her fruits and flowers, that they may, as it were, meet 
and do homage to the fountain of their beauty. If Heze- 
kiah may be delivered from death ^; — if David from guilt '; — 
they promise to sing aloud of so great mercy, and to take 
others into the concert, '* I will teach transgressors thy way, 
and we will sing upon the stringed instruments." Guilt 
stops the mouth, and makes it speechless "° ; that it cannot 
answer for one of a thousand sins, nor acknowledge one of a 
thousand mercies. When Jacob begged God^s blessing on 
him in his journey, he vowed a vow of obedience and thank- 
fulness to the Lord, seconding God's promises of mercy, 
with his promises of praise, and answering all the parts 
thereof : " ' If God will be. with me, and keep me, I will be 
his, and he shall be mine :' — if he single out me and my 
seed, to set us up as marks for his angels to descend unto 
with protection and mercy, and will indeed ' give this land 
to us,' and return 'me unto my father's house;' then this 
stone which I have set up for a pillar and monument, shall 
be ' God's house,' for me and my seed to praise him in." And 
accordingly we find he built an altar there, and changed the 
name of that place, calling it the ^ House of God,'— and God, 
the • God of Bethel.' And lastly, ' If God indeed will not 
leave nor forsake me, but will give so rich a land as this unto 

I Geo. viii. 20. b Gcn.xii. 7. > Gen. xiii. 4. k i^i. uzviii. 90. 

1 PMilm li. 14. n« Matth. ixii. 12. 


me, I will surely return a homage back ; and of his own, I 
will give the tenth unto him again.' — So punctual is this holy 
man to restipulate for each distinct promise a distinct praise, 
and to take the quality of his vows, from the quality of 
God's mercies; [Gen. xxviii. verses 20, 22. compared with 
▼erses 13, 15. Gen. xxxv. 6, 7. 14, 15.] Lastly, Jonah, out 
of the belly of Hell, cries unto God, and voweth a vow unto 
him, that he would sacrifice with the voice of thanksgiving, 
and tell all ages, that salvation is of the Lord **. — Thus we 
may consider praises as the matter of the churches cove- 

SscT. 3. — II. • Ut fructum pcenitentiae,' as a fruit of true re- 
pentance and deliverance from sin. When sin is taken away, 
when grace is obtained, then indeed is a man in a right dis- 
position to give praises unto God. When we are brought out 
of a wilderness into Canaan ''; out of Babylon, unto Sion ^; — 
then saith the prophet, '*Out of them shall proceed thanksgiv* 
ing, and the voice of them that make merry," 8cc. When Is- 
rael bad passed through the Red Sea, and saw the Egyptians 
dead on the shore, the great type of our deliverance from sin, 
deaths and Satan, — then they sing that triumphant song; Mo- 
ses and the men singing the song, and Miriam, and the women 
answering them, and repeating over again the burden of the 
song, ** Sing to the Lord, for he -hath triumphed gloriously ; 
the bcN-se and his rider, hath he thrown into the sea*i.^ When 
a poor soul hath been with Jonah in the midst of the seas, 
compassed with the floods, closed in with the depths, brought 
down to the bottom of the mountains, wrapped about head 
and heart, and all over with the weeds, and locked up with 
the bars of sin and death ; when it hath felt the weight of a 
guilty conscience, and been terrified with the fearful ex* 
pectation of an approaching curse, lying as it were at the 
pit^s brink, within the smoke of Hell; within the smell of 
that brimstone, and scorchings of that unquenchable fire 
which is kindled for the Devil and his angels ;— and is then, 
by a more bottomless and unsearchable mercy, brought unto 
dry land, — snatched as a brand out of tlie fire, — translated 
unto a glorious condition, from a law to a gospel, from a 

■ Jonah ii.9. • Dcuu viti. 10. p Jcr. xxx. IB, 10. n Exod. 

XV. 1,20,21. 


curse to a crown, from damnation to an inheritance, from a 
slave to a son ; — then, then only, never till then, is that soul 
in a fit disposition to sing praises unto God, when God hath 
forgiven all a man's 'iniquities/ and healed all the ' diseases' 
of his soul, and redeemed his 'life from destruction,' — or 
from ' Hell,' as the Chaldee rendereth it ; — and crowned him 
with loving kindness and tender mercies ; turning away his 
anger, and revealing those mercies which are " from ever- 
lasting in election unto everlasting ^'''' in salvation; remov- 
ing his sins from him as far as the east is from the west ; — 
then a man will call upon his soul over and over again, and 
summon every faculty within him, and invite every creature 
without him to " bless the Lord," and to ingeminate praises 
unto his holy name. Psalm ciii. 1, 4, 20, 22. And as David 
there begins the Psalm, with '' Bless the Lord, O my soul,'' 
and ends it with "Bless the Lord, O my soul;" — so the 
apostle, — making mention of the like mercy of God unto him, 
and of the exceeding abundant grace of Christ, in setting 
forth him who was a blasphemer, a persecutor, and injurious, 
as a pattern unto all that should believe on him unto eternal 
life, begins this meditation with praises, ** I thank Christ 
Jesus our Lord ; " and ends it with praises, " Unto the king 
eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour 
and glory for ever and ever. Amen *y It is impossible that 
soul should be truly thankful unto God, which hath no ap- 
prehensions of him, but as an enemy, ready to call in, or at 
the least to curse, all those outward benefits which, in that 
little interim and respite of time between the curse pro- 
nounced in the law, and executed in death, he vouchsafeth 
to bestow. And impenitent sinners can have no true notion 
of God but such ^ And therefore all the verbal thanks 
which such men seem to render unto God for blessings, are 
but like the music at a funeral, or the trumpet before a 
judge, — which gives no comfortable sound to the mourning 
wife, or to the guilty prisoner. 

Sect. 4. — III. ' Ut medium impetrandi,' as an argument 
and motive to prevail with God in prayer. For the church 

r Ab aetemo per pnedestinatiooem in aetemum per glorificationem. Ber, Ser. 2. 
in Asoens. Dom. • 1 Tun. i. 12, 27. * Qualem te putivchs Deo, tsUt 

opoitet apparcat tibi Dcus. Btm, in Cant. serm. 69. 


here prays for pardon, for grace, for healing, not only with 
an eye to its own benefit, but unto God*8 honour : *' Lord, 
when thou hast heard and answered us, then we shall glo- 
rify thee".** " I shall praise thee," saith David, "for thou 
hast heard me, and art become my salvation '.'*^ It is true, if 
God condemn us, he will therein show forth his own glory ^, 
ms he did upon Pharaoh '. In which sense the ' strong and 
terrible ones^ are said to * glorify ' him % because his power 
in their destruction is made the more conspicuous : but we 
•boald not therein concur unto the glorifying of him. "The 
grare cannot praise him ; they that go down into the pit^ 
cannot celebrate his name^;"" "the living, the living, they 
shall praise thee ^" This is a frequent argument with David 
whereby to prevail for mercy, because else God would lose 
the praise which, by this means, he should render to his 
name**. Sec. God indeed is all-sufficient to himself, and no 
goodness of ours can extend unto him * : — yet as parents de- 
light to use the labour of their children in things which are 
no way beneficial unto themselves ' ; so God is pleased to 
use us, as instruments for setting forth his glory, though his 
glory stand in no need of us, though we cannot add one 
cubit thereunto. He hath made all men *' in usus profun- 
damm cogitationum suarum*,'" unto the uses of his un- 
searchable counsels. — ** He hath made all things for him- 
self, yea, even the wicked for the day. of evil ^.'' Yet he is 
pleased to esteem some men ' meet for uses,' which others 
are not*; and to ' set apart ^ some for himself, and for those 
uses^. God, by his wisdom, ordereth ^ and draweth the 
blind and brute motions of the worst creatures unto his own 
honour, as the huntsman doth the rage of the dog to his 

« PnlD 1. 15. « Psalm cxriii. 21. J 2 Thess. i. 9. • Rum. ix. 17. 

• Ini. XZT. 3. ^ Psalm XXX. 9. Ixxxfiii. 10, 11. c isai. xxxTiii. 19. 

' Pulm vi. 4, 5. cxTiii. 17. • Job xxii. 2. xxx? . 7. f Deus suain 

gloriam quaerit, non propter se, scd propter nos. Aquin. 22. qu. 3. art. 8. ad. 1. m. 
S Am^. de Nuptiis et Concapis. 1. 2. c. 16. — Omnia propter sc ipturo fecit Deua, 
efBnia piopcer soos : Bern, Scr. 3. in die Pentecost. ^ Pror. xvi. 4. 

i J Tun. iu 21. k p^m iv. 3. Isai. xliii. 21. 1 Est in malorum po- 

tcatBSe peocare : ut autem pcccando, hoc vcl hoc ilU malitiA faciant, non est in 
iUonun poccstate, sed Dei, dividentis tenebras et ordinantis eas ; ut hinc etiam 
quod fadunt contra volunutem Dei, non impleatur nisi roluntas Dei. Aug. de 
pnedeat. Sanct. c. 16^— Vid. etiam ep. 69. q. 6. ep. 120. c. 2. ep« 141. 1. 2. q. 1. sup. 
Exod. qo. 18. 1. 83. quant. 27. de Civit. Dei, 1. 11. c. 17. 




. Bl. 

pleasure, or the mariner the blowing of the wind unto his 
voyage, or the artiat the heat of the fire unto hia work, or 
the physician the blood-thirstiness of the leech unto a cure. 
But godly men are fitted to bring actually glory unto him, 
to glorify him doingly'". And this is that, which God 
chiefly takes pleasure in. 

Our Saviour bids his disciples cast their net into the 
sea; and when they had drawn their net, he bids them bring 
of the &sh which they had then caught: and yet we find, 
that there was a fire of coals, and fish laid thereon, aud 
bread provided on ihe land before": — thereby teaching ua 
that he did not use their industry for any need that he had 
of it, but because he would honour them so far as to let 
them honour him with their obedience. And therefore even 
then when God tells his people that he needed not their 
services, yet he calls upon them for thankBgiving". 

This then ia a strong argument to be used in prayer for 
pardon, for grace, for any spiritual mercy : — " Lord, if I pe- 
rish, I shall not praise thee, I shall not be meet for my mas- 
ter's uses. Thy glory will only be forced out of me with 
blows ; like fire out of a flint, or water out of a rock. But 
thou delightest to eee thy poor servants operate towards thy 
glory, to see them not forced by power, but by love, to show 
forth thy praises ; and this we shall never do, till sin be pv- 
doned.^ — God can bring light out of light, as the light of 
tlie stars out of the light of the sun ; and he can bring light 
ont of darkness, as he did at first : but in the one case, there 
is a meetnesa for such a use, — in the other, not. Now we 
are not meet subjects for God to reap honour from, till sin 
be pardoned, till grace be conferred : — then we shall give 
him the praise of his mercy in pitying such grievous sinners, 
—and the praise of bis power and wisdom in healing such 
mortal diseases. — and the praise of hia glorious and free 
grace, in sending aulvation to those that did not enquire 
after it,— and the praise of his patience in forbearing us sB 
long, and waiting that lie might be gracious,— and the praise 
of his wonderful providence in causing all things to work to- 
gether for our good,— and the praise of his justice b 

II, 12. 

Ven. f^3.} FOURT££NTIl CHAPTER OF HOS£A. 251 

part with him against our own ains, and joining with hia 
grace to revenge the blood of Christ upon them. A pot- 
aherd is good enough to hold fire ; but nothing but a sound 
and pure vessel ia meet to put wine or any rich " depositum^ 

Sect. 5. — IV. ' Ut principium operandi/ as a principle of 
emendation of life, and of new obedience. — " Lord, take 
away iniquity, and receive us into favour, and then will we 
be thankful unto thee, and that shall produce amendment of 
life; ' Aaahur shall not save us, neither will we ride upon 
horses/ " &c. A thankful apprehension of the goodness of 
God in forgiving, giving, saving, honouring us, is one of the 
principal foundations of sincere obedience. Then the soul 
will think nothing too good for God, that hath shown him- 
self ao good unto it. " What shall I render unto the Lord 
Jot all his benefits ?" saith the prophet David '^ ; and a little 
after it follows, '^ O Lord, truly I am thy servant; I am thy 
servant, and the son of thine handmaid ;** that is, * a home- 
borD servant, thine from my mother^s womb ** — It is an allu* 
aion to those who were born of servants in the house of their 
masters, and ao were in a condition of servants. " Partus 
sequitor ventrem.^ If the mother be a handmaid^, the child 
ia a servant too ; and so the Scripture calleth them ' filios 
domna/ children of the house ^ His heart, being enlarged 
in thankfulness, presently minded him of the deep engage- 
menta, that did bind him unto service even from the womb. 
True filial and evangelical obedience ariseth from faith and 
lore. Faith shows us God^s love to us ; and thereby 
worketh in us a reciprocal love unto him. " We love him» 
because he firat loved us V^ This is the only thing, wherein 
a aenrant of God may answer him, and may, '* de simili mu- 
toam rependere vicem,^ as Bernard speaks, return back unto 
God what he gives him. " If he be angry with me *, I must 

p Jofc gmtiam, lervi iiustri sunt, qui ex ancillit nostris nascuntur. Leg. 5. D. 
de itmtn Hominis. ec Le^. 28. de usuris et fructibus. //•. ^ Psalm cxvi. 13. 

r Gen. xW. 14, 15. iii. 17, 12. Lev. xxii. 11. Eccles. ii. 6. ■ 1 John it. 19. 

ft Si mihi iraicatar Deus, num illi ego similiter redirascar ? non utique ; scd pa^ 
vebo ; ted contremUcam ; sed veniam deprccabor. lu li me arguat, non redar« 
gnemrkme; icd ez me potius justificabitur: nee si me judicabit, judicabo ego 
com, aed adorabo. Si dominatur, me oportet scrvire : ti imperat, me oportct pa- 
fere : nunc jam videai de umore quam aliter sit ; nam cum amat Deus, non aliad 
Tnlt quam amari. Bern. Serm. 83. in Cantic. 



not be angry again with him ; but fear and trercble, and beg 
for pardon ; if he reprove rae, I must not reprove but ju»- 
tify him : if he Judge me, I must not judge but adore him. 
But if he tove me, I must take the boldness to love him 
again, for therefore he loves that he may be loved." — And 
this love of ours unto Christ makes us ready to du every 
thing, which he requires of us ; because we know, that he 
hath done much more for us than he requireth of us. " The 
love of Christ," saith the apostle, " constrainelh us,— be- 
cause we thus judge, that if one died for all, then were all 
dead ;" that is, ' either dead in and with him,' in regard of 
the guilt and punishment of sin, so as to be freed from the 
damnation of it, — or dead by way of conformity unto bit 
death, in dying unto sin, and crucifying the old man, so as 
to shake off the power and streuglh of it. And the fruit of 
all, both in dying and in loving, is this, " That we should not 
live unto ourselves, but unto him that died for us, and rose 
again." Thus love argues from the greater to the lesser; 
from the greatness of his work for us, to the smallnesa of 
ours unto him. If he died to give us life, then we must 
live to do him service. 

Fear " produceth servile and unwilling performances : n 
those fruits which grow in winter, or in cold countries, are 
sour, unsavoury, and unconcocted ; but those which grow in 
summer, or in hotter countries, by the warmth and inOuence 
of the sun, are sweet and wholesome : such is the difference 
between those fruits of obedience, which fear and which 
love produceth. The most formal principle of obedience is 
love; and liie fual beginnings of love In us unto God, arise 
from his mercies unto us being thankfully remembered. And 
this teacketh the soul thus to argue ; " ' God hath given de- 
liverances unto me ; and should I break his command- 

» Quis coram Deo innotent invcnilur, qui vull Titri iiuod veou 
quod time tur ? Qui gehennam inciuli, noti pccoic mctuil, led ardcre ; (llipih 
tern pccore metull, qui pcccatum ipsuni ticut geticniuu odil. ^ug, ep. 144.— 
Bern. Kr. de Trip. Cchir. — Vcic ChcUliuius eil, qui plua anut dominum quMtt 
timei gchenntm : ut eiianui dicit illi Dcui, ' Uiere deliciis omalibut icnipller- 
n[i, et quantum pom, pccct ; nee moriEtii, ncc in gehennam mitleiii, led n^ 
cam (onlummodo non ciii j' — cxhorrEscat, et omnino non pcccci, non jam ut ik 
Ulud qund limebii, ncin incidil, aed ne lltum quem tic Krnai, oRcndai. Idtm da 
Caueh. Rudibui, n. 17. de Kit\ Ciai. c.S7.cont.2. EiPtUa. I. 
1, 3. », 6. 


ments T Christ gave himself to redeem me from all iniquity, 
and to make me in a special manner his own ; therefore I 
most be * zealous of good works ^ :' therefore I must 'show 
forth the virtues of him, that called me out of darkness into 
his marvellous light '.' " No more frequent, more copious 
common place in all the Scriptures than this, — to call for 
obedience, and to aggravate disobedience, by the considera- 
tioD of the great things, that God hath done for us \ In the 
law ^, a ransomed man became the servant of him that bought 
and delivered him : and upon this argument, the apostle calls 
for obedience : " Ye are not your own, but ye are bought 
with a price: therefore glorify God in your body, and in your 
spirits, uhich are God'^s ^'* We have but the use of our- 
selves ; the property is his "^ ; and we may do nothing to 
violate that. 

Sect.6. — V. Ut instrumcntum divinoe glorisp, as a means and 
iostniment of publishing God's praises. There is an emphasis 
in the word lips. Sometimes it is a diminutive word, taking 
away from the duty performed ; as Mat. xv. 8, ^* This people 
honour me with their lips, but their heart is far from me.'* 
But here is an augmentative word that enlargeth the duty, 
and makes it wider. " I will sacrifice unto thee," saith 
Jonah, ''with the voice of thanksgiving*.^ God regard- 
eth not the sacrifice, if this be not the use that is made 
of it, to publish and celebrate the glory of his name. The 
oatward ceremony is nothing without the thankfulness of 
the heart ; and the thankfulness of the heart is too little, ex- 
cept it have a voice to proclaim it abroad, that others may 
learn to glorify and admire the works of the Lord too. It 
is not enough to sacrifice ; not enough to sacrifice the sacri- 
fices of thanksgiving, — except withal we *' declare his works 
with rejoicing ^" There is a private thankfulness of the soul 
within itself, when, meditating on the goodness of God^ it 
doth in secret return the tribute of an humble and obedient 

xiii. 14. y Tit. ii. 14. • 1 Pet. ii. 9. • Deut. xiiL 20, 31. 

sL 7,8. uiz. 32. tL 7. Josh. xiW. 2, 14. 1 Sam. xii. 24. Itai. i. 2. Jer. ii. 5, 6. 
Hos. ii. 8. Mich. r\. 3, 5. ^ Ptr modum pignorit, licet non per modam 

OMadpii. Leg, 2. Cod. de postliminio revereis, &c.— Nempc scrvi sunt quoad 
■dvatar pietium redemptori. Si quit tcrvum capcum ab hoatibus redemerit, 
proCiBiu cat Rdifloentia. 1. 12. aecc. 7. F. de captivit. < 1 Cor. fi. 19, 23. 

# . Fffactmiaa nihil fwnn debet in peroidem prophetatit. 1. 13. sect. 4. F. de 
Ofu fructo. • Jonah ii. 9. ' Ptalm cvii. 22. 


heart back again unto him, which is to praise God on the 
bed : and there is public thanksgiving, when men ** tell of 
the wondrous works of God in the cougregatio|i of his 
saints ^^' Now here the church promiseth this public thanks- 
giving ; it shall not be the thankfulness of the heart only, 
but of the lips too. As it is noted of the thankful leper, 
that *• with a loud voice he glorified God »." — **The living, 
the living shall praise thee," saith Hezekiah : but how should 
they do it ? " The fathers to the children shall make known 
thy truth ^." There are some affections and motions of the 
heart that do stop the mouth, are of cold, stupefactive, and 
constringent nature ; as the sap stays and hides itself in the 
rooty while it is winter*. Such is fear and extremity of 
grief. *' Come,*" saith the prophet, *' let us enter into our de- 
fenced cities, and let us be silent there ; for the Lord our God 
hath put us to silence ''." Other affections open the mouth, 
are of an expansive and dilating nature, know not how to be 
straitened or suppressed ; and of all these, joy and sense 
of God^s mercy can least contain itself in the compass of 
our narrow breast, but will spread and communicate itself to 
others. A godly heart is, in this, like unto those flowers, 
which shut when the sun sets, when the night comes, — and 
open again, when the sun returns and shines upon them. If 
God withdraw his favour, and send a night of affliction, 
they shut up themselves, and their thoughts in silence : but 
if he shine again, and shed abroad the light and sense of his 
love upon them, then their heart and mouth is wide open to* 
wards Heaven, in lifting up praises unto him. Hannah prayed 
silently, so long as she was in bitterness of soul, and of a 
sorrowful spirit ' : but as soon as God answered her prayers^ 
and filled her heart with joy in him, presently 'Mier mouth 
was enlarged^' into a song of thanksgiving '". 

There is no phrase more usual in the Psalms, than to ' sing 
forth praises' unto God ; and it is not used without a special 
emphasis. For it is one thing to praise, and another to sing 
praises ". — ^This is, to publish, to declare, to speak of, abun- 
dantly to utter the memory of God^s great goodness, that 

f Psalm cxlix. 15. xxvi. 7, 12. t Luke xvii. 15. k Igii. xxxviii* 19. 

1 Plutarch, de capiend. ex hostibus utilttate. — ^risL Problem, sect. 27. k Jer.- 
viii. 14. Isa{. xx. 14. > 1 Sam. i. 12, 15. " 1 Sam. ii. 1. > Pudni 

cxWi. 2. 


' one geoeraitioo may derive praises unto another/ as the ex- 
pressions are. Psalm cxlv. 4, 7. And therefore we find in 
the mostfolemn thanksgivings^, that the people of God were 
wont, in great companies, and with musical instruments, to 
sound forth the praises of God, and to cause their joy to be 
beard afar off p. This then is the force of the expression ; — 
'* Lord, when thou hast taken away iniquity, and extended 
thy grace and favour to us, we will not only have thankful 
bc«rts, every man to praise thee by himself; but wc \\ ill have 
thankful lips to show forth thy praise; we will st:i up and 
encoarage one another; we will tell our children, that the ge- 
nerations to come may know the mercy of our God.'* 

This is a great part of the communion of saints, to join 
together in God^s praises. There is a communion of sinners, 
wherein they combine together to dishonour God, and en- 
courage one another in evil '^. Eve was no sooner caught 
herself; but she became a kind of serpent, to deceive and to 
catch her hosband. A tempter had no sooner made a sinner, 
hot that sinner became a tempter. As therefore God'^s 
enemies hold communion to dishonour him ; so great reason 
there is that his servants should hold communion to praise 
him, and to animate and hearten one another unto duty, as 
men that draw at an anchor, and soldiers that set upon a ser- 
Tice, use to do with mutual encouragements ^ The holy oil 
for the sanctuary was made of many spices, compounded by 
the art of the perfumer", to note unto us, that those duties 
are sweetest which are made up in a communion of saints, 
each one contributing his influence and furtherance unto 
; as in winds and rivers, where many meet in one, they 
•tiongest,~and in chains and jewels where many links and 
•tones are joined in one, they are richest AH good is diffusive, 
fike learen in a lump, like sap in a root : it will find the way 
firom the heart to every faculty of soul and body, and from 
thence to the ears and hearts of others. Every living crea- 
ture was made with the seed of life in it, to preserve itself 

• A^ttd poetas dirisimot Uudes heroam ac Deomm inter regtlia conviTia ad 
ddnmn canebantur. Quint, 1. 1. c. 10. Spalding, i. 215. — Nee iliter veri Dei 
laodes in oonviviis Chnttianorum. TerL Apol. c. 19. — Cypr. 1. 2. ep. 2. P Jer. 
sil. 27,31» 43. Isai. xii. 4, 5, 6. Jer. zzxi. 7. ^ Pulm Uiv. 5. luiiii. 5, 8. 

Tww. i. 10, 11. ' Ini. ii. 3. Zach. viii. 21. Mil. iii. 16. • Exod. 

zsiit. 34,25. 



by multiplying ^ And of all seeds, that of the Spirit, and 
the Word ", is most vigorous ; and in nothing so much as in 
glorifymg God, when the joy of the Lord, which is our 
strength, doth put itself forth to derive the praises of his 
name, and to call in others to the celebration of them. 

Sect. 7. From all which we learn, 1. By what means 
(amongst many others) to try the truth of our conversions; 
namely, By the life and workings of true thankfulness unto 
God for pardon of sin, and accepting into favour. Certainly 
when a man is converted himself, his heart will be enlarged, 
and his mouth will be filled with the praises of the Lord ; he 
will acquaint others, what a good God he is turned unto. 
If he have found Christ himself, as Andrew, and Philip, and 
the woman of Samaria did, he will presently report it to 
others, and invite them to ^ come and see *.* If Zaccheus be 
converted, he receiveth Christ joyfully '. If Mattl^w be 
converted, he entertains him with a feast '. If Cornelius be 
instructed in the knowledge of him, he will call bis kinsfolk 
and friends to partake of such a banquet*. If David be 
converted himself, he will endeavour that other sinners may 
be converted too ^, and will show them what the Lord bath 
done for his soul. The turning of a sinner from evil to good« 
is like the turning of a bell from one side to another, you 
cannot turn it, but it will make a sound, and report its owd 
motion. He that hath not a mouth open to report the ^ory 
of God's mercy to his soul, and to strengthen and edify luili 
brethren, may justly question the truth of his own conver- 
sion In Aaron's garments (which were types of holiness) 
there were to be golden bells and pomegranates; which (if we 
may make any allegorical application of it) intimateth unto 11% 
that as a holy life is fruitful and active in the duties of 
spiritual obedience, so it is loud and vocal in sounding forth 
the praises of God, and thereby endeavouring to edify the 
church. Gideon's lamps and pitchers were accompanied with 
trumpets : when God is pleased to put any light of grace 
into these earthen vessels of ours, we should have mouths 
full of thankfulness, to return unto him the glory of his 

t Gen. i. 1, 1 1, 12. » 1 John tii. 29. 1 Pet. i. 23. « John i. 41» 4$. 

IT. 29. y Luke zii. 6. ' Luke ?. 29. • Acti zriit. 84. 

b Psalm li. 13. 



And as that repentance is unsound, which is not accom- 
panied with tbankfulnesK, so that tliankfuiness is but empty 
and hypocritical, which doth not Rprin<^ out of sound re- 
pentance. We use to say, that the words of fools are ' in 
labris nata/ bom*^ in their lips: but the words of wise men 
are ' ^ sulco pectoris/ drawn up out of an inward judge- 
ment. Tlie calves of the lips are no better than the calres of 
Che stall, in God's account, if they have not a heart in tliem. 
Without this, the promise here made to God would be no 
other than that, with which nurses deceive their little chil- 
dren, when they promise them a gay-golden-new-nothing. 
Praise in the mouth without repentance in the heart, is like a 
sea-weed that grows without a root: — like the pouring of 
balm and spices upon a dead body, which can never thoroughly 
secure it from putrefaction : — like a perfume about one sick of 
the plague, whose sweet smell carries infection along with it. 
It IS not the mentioning of mercies, but the improving of 
thein unto piety, which expresseth our thankfulness unto 
God. God sets every blessing upon our score, and expects 
an answer and return suitable. He compares Chorazin and 
Bethsaida with Tyre and Sidon ; and if their lives be as bad 
as these, their punishment shall be much heavier, because 
the mercies they enjoyed, were much greater. The not using 
of mercies is the being unthankful for them : and it is a 
heavy account which men must give for abused mercies '. 
Sins against mercy, and under mercy, are 'the first lipc fruit ;^ 
when the sun shines hottest, the fruits ripen fastest. God 
doth not bear so long with the provocations of a church, as 
of those that are not u people; the sins of tiic Amoiites 
were longer in ripenin«^, than the sins of Israel'. When 
judgement is abroad, it will bcu;in at the house of God. 

Sect. 8. II. We should be so much the more earnestly 
pressed unto this, by how much it is the greater evi- 

« Omni, InstiL 1. 10. c. 3.— /f. OHL I. I.e. 15.— Bo^froy ofAoKa M p^v6t 
mmfmv^^jttfiii , '£| ^f tiI kcSk^ /SXamCrci /Soi/Af^/xara. /Esch. cd. Blomficld, 
5S0^ — ^Dtca, factit dcficientibus, crubekcunt. Tnt, de ratria,r. 1. *^ Mia 

4^— €i| ta/fttnirJif raSru Spar oir«p ifurrm r^ B«^. Clem. Ale^, Stiotn. 1. 7.^ 
Dcom oolit, qutsquit imitatus e»t. Senec. cpi&t. 95. — Vid. Chrysost. Horn. 25. in 
Matth. • Dcut. xxxiu 6. Amos ii. \>, 13. Luke iii. 7. Heb. vi. 7. 

i Anot viiL 1, 2. Jer. i. 11, 12. 

VOL. 111. S 

268 3EVEN SEllMONS ON THB [Serm. 111. 

dence of our conversion unto God, and by how much 
more apt we are to call for mercies when we want 
thern^ than, with the leper, to return praises when we do 
enjoy them. Ten cried to be healed; but there was but one 
that returned glory to God. Vessels will sound when they 
are empty : fill them, and they are presently dumb. When 
we want mercies, then with Pharaoh we cry out for pardon, 
for peace, for supplies, for deliverance : but when prayers are 
answered, and our turn served, how few remember the me- 
thod which God prescribes, "Call upon me in the day of 
trouble; I will hear thee, and thou shalt glorify me '?" Yea, 
how many, like swine, trample on the meat that feeds them, 
and tread under foot the mercies that preserve them ! How 
many are so greedily intent upon the things they desire ^, 
that they cannot see nor value the things they enjoy ! 
*' Omnis festinatio caeca est." It is noted even of good king 
Hezekiah, that he " did not render according to the' benefits " 
which he had received *. Therefore we should be exhorted 
in our prayers for pardon and grace, to do as the church 
here doth, to promise the sacrifices of thankfulness and obe- 
dience, not as a price to purchase mercy (for our good ex- 
tends not unto God '^), but as a tie and obligation upon our- 
selves, to acknowledge and return the praise of mercy to him 
that gives it. And this the apostle exhorteth us unto, that 
*' our requests should be made known unto God," not only 
with prayer and supplication, but "with thanksgiving';'' 
which we find to have been his own practice ". We should 
keep a catalogue " of God's mercies to quicken us unto daly, 
as well as a catalogue of our own sins, to make us cry 
for fnercy. And unto this duty of thanksgiving we may b« 
excited, — 

First, By the consideration of God's greatness. •* Great 
is the Lord ; and (therefore) greatly to be praised ®." The 

i Psalm 1. 15. b Seneca dc Benefic. 1. 3. c. 3. — Liv. 1. 22. i 2 Chnm. 

xxxii. 25. k Psalm xvi. 2. > Phil. iv. 6. 1 Thcw. v. 17, 18. 1 Tim. iS. I. 
« Ephcs. Hi. 14,20,21. « Vid. fV^/d of the Church, 1. I.e. 1. Qui cnrxtcMe 
nist propter te, pro nihilo est, ct nihil est. Qui vult esse sibi et noo dbi, nftB 
esse incipit inter omnia. Bern. serm. 20. in Cant. — £o quisque peasimui, quo 
timus, si hoc ipsum quod est optinius, adscribat sibi. Serm. 84. in 
o Psalm cxlv. 3. 


praises of God should be according to his iiaxue <'. All 
things were made for no other end, but to return glory to 
him that made them. Because all things are of him, there- 
fore all must be to \\\m\ And this the very fifrure of the 
world teacheth us: for a circular line ends where it began, 
and returns back into its original point,— by that means 
strengthening and preserving itself. For things are usually 
strongest, when nearest their original; and the more remote 
from that, the weaker they rrrow. Ah a tree is strongest at 
tlie root, and a branch or bouuh next the trunk or stock, and 
the further out it goes from thence, the smaller and weaker 
it grows too; and the further it is from the original of its 
bein^, the nearer it is unto not being; — so all creatures are 
hereby taught, both for preservation of tliat being they have, 
and for supply of wliat perfections they want, and in both, 
for the setting forth of the greatness of their Maker (out of 
whose infinite Being all finite beings are sustained and per- 
lificted), — to run back unto^ God, for whose sake they are 
and have been created. Rivers come from the sea, and 
therefore ran back into the sea again. The trees receive sap 
firom the earth ; and, within a while, pay it back in those 
leares that fall down to the earth again. Now as God hath 
made all creatures thus to show forth the glory of his great- 
nea«, so he will have them do it by these principles, and in 
that manner of working which he hath planted in them. In- 
animate and mere natural creatures are bid to praise the 
Lord*^; hut this they do blindly and ignorantly, like the 
arrow which flies toward the mark, but uuderstandeth not its 
own motion, being directed thither by an understanding 
without and above itself. And thus when every thing, by 
the natural weight and inclination of its own form, moveth 
to the place where M may be pre>erved, or drawcth to it 
those further degrees of perfection, wherw^l»y it may be im- 
proved, and have more of being communicated to it, — it may 
truly be said to praise the Lord, in that it obeyeth th^ law 
which he planted in it ; and it is, by his wise providence, 
carried back towards him, to derive its conservation and 
perfection from the same fountain, from whence its being 
did proceed. But now rea8onal)le c'.reatures being by God 

p Pwlm xlviii. 10. xcvi. 8. 1 Rom. x\,'M'k r V^Im cxlviii. S|9«, 

8 2 



»-«"'' .^*i>;^s:^ 




^e^^:s >^5^.s^^^_ 










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H>"s "i«/""i S>S ■''*'I°°»" 

;»°° Ve'*" »W»'' 






, ^cw"" 






spot iQ silk is a greater blemish than in sackcloth •; — so is 
he most honoured by the confession and {iraises of holy 
men, because they know more of his glory and goodness 
than others, and can report greater things of him. Wicked 
men speak of God by hearsay, and by notion only; but 
holy men, by intimate experience^: as the queen of Sheba 
knew more of Solomon^s wisdom from his mouth, than from 
his fame. He that sees but the outward court and building 
of a palace, can say it is a glorious place : but he that, like 
the ambassadors of the king of Babylon in Ilezekialfs time, 
shall be admitted to see the house of precious things, and all 
the treasures of the palace, — can speak much more honour- 
ably of it. Every one might see and admire the stones of 
the temple without, who were not admitted to view the gold 
and curious workmanship within. The more intimate com- 
munion a man hath with God as a redeemer, the more glori- 
ooft and abundant praises can he render unto him. Besides, 
praise is the language of Heaven*"; the whole happiness of 
the saints there is to enjoy God, and their whole business is 
to praise him. And they who are to live in another country, 
will be more solicitous to learn the language, and fore« 
acquaint themselves with the manners and usages of that 
country, than they who have no hopes nor assurance of 
coming thither. As they who have hope to be like Christ 
in glory, will purify themselves, that they may in the mean 
tiuae be like him in grace ** ; so they that have hope to praise 
him for ever in Heaven, will study the song of Moses, and 
of the Lamb, before they come thither. And indeed none 
can praise God but they that can abase and deny themselves. 
Wicked men, in all duties, serve and seek theniselves; but the 
▼ery formality of praise is to seek God, and to make him the 
end of our so doing. The apostle exhorts us " to otfer our* 

vestem exi|;ua quaevts macula turpi us dccolorat i nobis ad iramun* 
diaem minima qusvis inobedientia sufficit, &c. Brrnnrd. scr. de triplici custodia. 
2 Sam. xU. 14. ^ Est locus ubi rcrt quiescens ct quietus cernitur Ueui ; 

omnino non judicis, non magistn, scd sponsi ; sed heu rara hora, et panra 
,! Bern, Scr. 23. in Cant. — Menu, incffabili verbi illecta dulcedine, quodam- 
sibi furatur, im6 rapitur atque clabitur a seipsa, ut verbo fiuatur : dulce 
commerciom ? sed breve momentum et expcrimentum rarum. fHd. Serm. 85. 
vid. etiam Serm. 83. et Serm. 1, 3, 31. c nia domus Isetitix est ; ista, mi- 

litis: — nia domus laudis ; — ista, orationis. Btm. scr. 2. in Dcdicat. Cede, 
d 1 John tii. 2, 3 . 




seWes a living sacrifice*;" that is to say, to separate our- 
selves for God, and for bis uses. The saciifice, we know, 
was God's ; for his sake it was burnt, and broken, and de- 
stroyed. We must, by such sacrifices, deny ourselves, be 
lost to ourselves ; not serve, nor seek, nor aim at ourselves ; 
but resolve to esteem nothing dear ia comparison of God's 
honour, and to be willing any way. whether by life or by 
death, that he may be magnified in us '. Love of communion 
in natural creatures, is stroneer than self-love. Stones will 
move upward, fire downward, to preserve the universe from 
a vacuity, and to keep 'the cocnpages' of nature together. 
How much more is, and ought the love of God himself in 
the new creature to be stronger than self-love, whereby it 
seeks and serves itself! And without this, all other services 
are but Auanias's lie, lies to the Holy Ghost, kaepinglo our- 
selves what we would seem to bestow upon him. Lifting up 
the eyes, heating the breast, spreading the bands, bending 
the knee, hanging down the head, levelling the countenance, 
sighing, sobbing, fasting, howling, all nothing else but 
mocking of God. And we may say of such men, as the 
emperor of bira that sold the glasses for pearl, (though in a 
sadder sense.) "Imposturam faciunt, et patientur;" — they 
deceive God, and fail in his precepts, and they shall be them- 
selves deceived, and fail in their own expectation : for " the 
hope of the wicked shall perish," 

III. By a double consideration of ourselves. 

Sect. 10. I. Of our natural torpor and sluggishness 
unto this duty. As the Dead Sea drinks in the river Jordan, 
and is never the sweeter ; and the ocean all other riven, 
and is never the fresher; — so we are apt to receive daily mer^ 
cies from God, and still remain insensible of them, unthank- 
ful for them. God's mercies to us are hke the dew on the 
ground ; our thauks to him, like the dew on the fleece. We 
are like fishermen's weels, wide at that end which lets in the 
fish, but narrow at the other end, so that they cannot get 
out again: greedy to get mercy, tenacious to hold it; but 
unthankful in acknowledging or right using of it. The rain 
comes down from heaven in showers ; it goes up but in mists. 
We sow in our land one measure, and receive ten : — yea. 


Isaac received a hundred fold *; but God sows ten, it may 
be, a hundred mercies amongst us, when we scarce return 
the praise and the fruit of one. Our hearts in this case are 
like the windows of the temple \ ' wide inward/ to let in 
mercies, — but ' narrow outward/ to let forth praises. Now 
SB Solomon says, " If the iron be blunt, we must put to the 
more str^igth :" and as husbandmen use where the nature 
of land is more defective, to supply it with the more impor- 
tunate labour ; so having hearts so earthly for the perform* 
ance of so heavenly a duty, we should use the more holy 
violence upon them: and as the widow did extort justice 
from an unjust judge by her continual coming ', we should 
press and urge, and with ingeminated importunity charge 
this duty upon ourselves, as the psalmist doth ; — '* O that 
men would praise the Lord for his goodness, and for his 
wonderful works to the children of men ^," 

II. Of our own benefit. For indeed all the benefit which 
ariaeth out of this duty, redounds to us, and none to God. 
His glory is infinite, and eternally the same ; there is, nor 
cBXk be, no accession unto that by all our praises K When 
a glass reflecteth the brightness of the sun, there is but an 
acknowledgment of what was, not any addition of what was 
not. When an excellent orator makes a panegyrical oration 
in praise of some honourable person, he doth not infuse any 
dram of worth into the person, but only setteth forth and 
declaieth that which is, unto others. A curious picture 
praiaeth a beautiful face, not by adding beauty to it, but by 
representing that which was in it before. The window which 
lets in light into a house, doth not benefit the light, but 
tbe house into which the light shineth : so our praising of 
God doth serve to quicken, comfort, and refresh ourselves, 
who have interest in so good a God ; or to edify and encou- 
rage our brethren, that they may be ambitious to serve so 
honourable a Master ; — but they add no lustre or glory to 
God at all. 

Skct. 11. Now lastly, for the right performance of this 
doty. It is founded on the due apprehensions of God's being 
good, and of his doing good •";- or on his excellency in him- 

S Gen. xxvt. 12. ^ 1 Kings vi. 4. * Luke xviii. 5. k PMlm 

evil. 8, 15, 21, 31. I Ipse sibt omnid. Tntul. contra Praxcam, c. 5. 

M PMlcn cxix. 68. 

self, and his goodnens unto ua. In the former respect, it 
standetli in adoring anJ extolling the great name of God, 
ascribing in our hearts and mouths blessedness unto him, 
acknowledging his infinite majesty in himself, and his swre- 
reignty over his poor creatures "; — and so covering our facea, 
and abhorring ourselves in his sight ", not daring to question 
any of his deep, absolute, and most unsearchable counsels ; 
— but because all things are of' him, to acknowledge that all 
things ought to be^iir and to him, and are to be reduced to 
the ends of hia glory, by the counsel of his own will ^. In 
the latter respect, as he is the God in whom we live, and 
move, and have our being, and hope for our blessedness; so 
it iniporteth, First, A glorying and rejoicing in him as our 
alone felicity. — Secondly, A choosing and preferring hint 
above all othei' good things, making him our end and aim, 
in life, in death, in doing, in suffenng". — Thirdly, A ihanlu 
ful acknowledgment of all his mercies, as most beneficial 
unto us, and most gratuitous and free in regard of hira'. — 
Lastly, A constant endeavour of a holy life, bo to bring forth 
fruit, to do the will of God, and to finish bis work which 
he bath set us; so to order our converaatiou aright before 
hiiD, as thai he may have ascribed unto him the glory of bis 
authority over the conscieucea of men, and of the power of 
his love shed abroad in their hearts ; and that all ' that see 
our conversation, may say, " Doubtless, the God whom these 
men serve after so holy a manner, for whom they despise alt 
outward and sinful pleasures, is a holy and blessed God ; 
infinitely able to comfort, satisfy, and reward all those, that so 
conscionably and constantly give themselves up unto him"." 

D Eiod. XV. 11. MIc. vii. IB. •> isai. vi. Jub xlii. S, G. P Difficul- 

»tcm qOBsfionii, * Cur alius sic, alius vcio sic moiluus i.'st,' vclut non colvenilo 
solvit Apostolus — Et liujui pnifanilitatis hoccoicm uicjur ad hoc pccduiit, ui di- 
ccrcE, ' Eliani nijus volt miscretur, el qucia vult nbdaral.' Aug. contt. 3. c^ 1*^ 
Ug. 1. 4. c. 7, ct 1. 4. c. S. — Cur in divcna causa idem judiciinn nisi ■ Hoc *olo i' 
— dc Donci PcrMV, c. Z.—De peccat. meritii ct remiss. I. 2.c. 5.— Rom. ix. 20, 31, 
xl. 33,36. Mmh.ti.ib,2fi. Psalm cxxxv.b,6. Joli ii. 12. Ephes. i. II. 
q Psilm xiiiii. 1. Hsb. lii. 18. Phil. iv. 4. ' Rom. iv, T, B. • 2 Sam. 

*ii. 18. Lam. iii. 22, 23. ' Juatinua Mailyr de sc fatetut sc, Cotupocte 

Chrisliaaaium in ninrtc constnnliA, collcgi&sc venm esse qiue apud ipHM vigcrel. 
pielatcm, Apol. 1. tlla ipsa obsiinalU quam eiprobraiii, magittia est i quitcnim 
non conlcmpUtiunc ejus cunculitut ad cequiretidura quid intui in ic til .' Qui* 
nun ubi requiaivil, aceedit ? ubi acceuit, pali eiii|]t3t.' Terl. Apol. c ult. 
B John av. B. xtii. 4. Psalm 1, 23. Dcut. ivC, 7. Maith. lii. 16. 2 Coi. ii. 13. 
1 1^1. xil. 


Sect. 12. The second particular in their covenant is. 
Amendment of life, and a more special care against those 
sins of carnal confidence, and spiritual adultery, whereby 
tbey have formerly dishonoured and provoked God. From 
whence there are two observations which offer themselves : — 

1. That true repentance and sound conversion, as it 
makes a man thankful for the pardon of sin past, so it makes 
him careful ' against the practice of sin for the time to come ; 
especially those particular sins, whereby he had formerly 
most dishonoured God, and defiled his own conscience. 
Tliis doctrine consisteth of two parts, which we will consider 

And first, Of this care and purpose of amendment in ge- 
neral. When the poor converts, who had been guilty of the 
most precious and innocent blood that ever was shed, began 
to be convinced of that horrible sin, and found those nails 
wherewith they had fastened the Lord of Glory to a cross, 
pricking and piercing of their own hearts, — with what bleed- 
ing and relenting affections did they mourn over him ! with 
iprbat earnest importunities did they require after the way of 
salvation^ wherein they might serve and enjoy him ! Never 
urere their hands more cruel in shedding that blood, than 
their hearts were now solicitous to be bathed in it, to be 
cleansed by it^. The poor prodigal, who is the emblem of 
a penitent sinner, when he ' came to himself again,' or ' be* 
iboaght himself,^ as the phrase is \ (for we do never depart 
firom God, but we do withal forsake and lose ourselves, 
and are transported with a spiritual madness from our right 
minda), immediately grew to a resolution of arising out of 
that bane and brutish condition, and of going home to his 
lather, — and, by that means, to his wit and senses again. 
So when by John^s preaching of repentance, men were turned 
to the ' wfsdom of the just' (for all unrighteousness is folly 
and madness), and were prepared for the Lord, we immedi- 
ately find what a special care they had to be informed in the 
ways of duty, earnestly enquiring afYer that new course of 
obedience, which they were now to walk in *. All true peni- 

* Oportcbftt quidem, si fieri posset, revivcre me (ut ita loquir) denuo, quod 
male ▼izs t sed faciam recogitando, quod reoperando non posaum. Brm. Ser. de 
Cmc. Ezck. 7 Acts ii. 37. ' I Kinp viii. 47. » Luke iii. 10, 12. 14. 

tents aie of the mind of these in tlie text, "We will not say 
any more. And what have I to do any more with idols?" or 
as Ezra in his penitent prayer, "Should we now again 
break thy commandments''?" When Christ rose from the 
dead, he ' died ao more :' and when we repent of sin, it 
must be with a repentance, that must never any more be re- 
pented of*^. The time past of our life must suffice u& to 
have wrought the will of the Gentiles'". 

This care ariseth from the nature of true repentance, 
which hath two names usually given it, litravota, ' a change 
of the mind:' the heart ia friimed to have other and truer 
notions of sin, of grace, of heaven, of hell, of conscience, 
of salvation, than it had before : for the mind of wicked 
men being defiled, they can frame to themselves none but 
impure apprehensions of spiritual things, as a yellow eye 
sees every thing yellow, and a bitter palate tastes every thing 
bitter. 2. Mtro^E^na, * a change of the cares and endea- 
vours of life :, — That whereas, before, a man made provision 
for the flesh, and his study and care was how to satisfy the 
lusts of his own heart', what he should eai, what he should 
drink, wherewith he should be clothed ; — now his care is 
how he way be saved, how he may honour and enjoy God ', 
The first question in repentance is, " What have I done«?" 
and the next question is, "What shall I do''?" And this 
care repentance worketh ' ; — 

Sect. 13. First, By a godly sorrow for sin past. It brings 
into a man's remembrance the history of his former life; 
makes bim, with heaviness of spirit, recount the guilt of so 
many innumerable sins, wherewith he hath bound himself 
as with chains of darkuess; the loss of so much precious 
time, mispent in the service of such a master, as had no 
other wages to give but shame and death ; — the horrible in. 
dignities thereby offered to the majesty and justice of God ; 
— the odious contempt of his holy will, and sovereign au- 
thority ; — the during neglect of his threatenings, and ttoder- 
valuing of his rewards ;— the high provocation of his jealousy 
and displeasure ; — the base corrivalry and contesting of 

' Consilrum ruluii a> 


filthy lasts with the grace of the gospel, and the precious 
blood of the Son of God ; — the gainsaying, and wreitliog, 
and stubborn antipathy of a carnal heart to the pure motions 
of the Spirit and Word of Christ; — the presumptuous re* 
pulses of him that standeth at the door and knocks, waiting 
that he may be gracious ; — the long turning of his back, and 
tbmstiog away from him the word of reconciliation, wherein 
Christ, by his ambassadors, had so often beseeched him to 
be reconciled unto God : — ^The remembrance of these things 
makes a man look with self-abhorrency upon himself, and 
full detestation upon his former courses. — And he now no 
longer considers the silver or the gold, the profit or the plea- 
sure of his wonted lusts '.—though they be never so delectable 
or desirable in the eye of flesh ', he looks upon them as ac« 
corsed things to be thrown away, as the converts did upon 
their costly and curious books ^. Sin is like a painted pic- 
ture: on the one side of it, to the impenitent, appeareth 
nothing but the beauty of pleasure, whereby it bewitchetb 
and allureth them ;— on the other side, to the penitent ap* 
peareth nothing but the horrid and u^ly face of guilt and 
shame, whereby it amazeth and confoundeth them. Thus 
the remembrance of sin past (which they are very careful to 
keep always in their sight '), doth, by godly sorrow, work 
especial care of amendment of life for the time to come '". 

Secondly, By a present sense of the weight and burden of 
remaining corruptions, which work, and move, and put forth 
what strength they can, to resist the grace of God in us. As 
the time past wherein sin reigned, so the present burden of 
sin besetting us, is esteemed sufficient, and makes a man 
careftil not to load himself wilfully with more, being ready to 
sink, and forced to cry out under the pain of those which he 
anwilKngly lieth under already. A very glutton ^ when he is 
in a fit of the gout or stone, will forbear those meats which 
feed so painful diseases : — a penitent sinner is continually in 
pain under the body of sin ; and therefore dares not feed so 
dangerous and tormenting a disease. The more spiritual 

i Ufomrri yiip iv^ M^> rifiurripa XpvaoO re Ki\i^arros, Achsus EretH- 
ens. apud AUiensum, 6. c. 20. ^ Acts xix. 19. Isai. xxx. 22. xxxi. 7. 
1 Fnlm ii. 3. - 2 Chron. ri. 37. 38. Psalm cxix. 59. Kxek. xvi. 61, 63. 

XZ.43. B £1 Tois ti^vaicBfUwois iKdffnis i/^pas^ *\Kytiif aw4tauf9 n)r 

sf^s\]^ wp^ ToO wmIt T^ uKpccror, i^¥ ot)8« (ft Ivircr jtv. Clearchui apud 
AtbcMeum, 1. 14. c. 1. 

268 S£V£N 8£HMON$ ON THE [Serm. III. 

any man is^ the more painful and burdensome is corruption 
to him P. For sin to the new man is as sickness to the na- 
tural man. The more exquisite and delicate the natural 
senses are, the more are they sensible and affected with that 
which offends nature "i. Contraries cannot be together with- 
out combat. The spirit will lust against the flesh, and not 
suffer a man to fulfil the lusts of it^ The seed of God will 
keep down the strength of sin '. 

Thirdly, By a holy jealousy, and godly fear of the false-^ 
ness and backsliding of our corrupt heart ', lest, like Lot^s 
wife, it should look back towards Sodom ; and, like Israel, 
have a mind hankering after the flesh-pots of Egypt, the 
wonted profits and pleasures of forsaken lusts. A godly 
heart prizeth the love of God, and the feelings of spiritual 
comfort, from thence arising, above all other things ; and is 
afraid to lose them. It hath felt the burnings of sin ; the 
stinging of these fiery serpents ; and hath often been forced 
to befool itself, and to beshrew its own ignorance, and, with 
Ephraim, to smite upon the thigh. And tlie burnt child 
dreads the fire, and dares not meddle any more with it; 
considers the heaviness of God's frown, — the rigour of his 
law, — the weakness and fickleness of the heart of man, — the 
difficulty of finding Christ out when he hath withdrawn him- 
self, — and of recovering light and peace again, when the soul 
hath wilfully brought itself under a cloud : and therefore 
will not venture to harden itself against God. Thus godly 
fear keeps men from sin ". 

Fourthly, By a love to Christ, and a sweet recounting of 
the mercies of God in him. The less a man loves sin, the 
more he shall love Christ. Now repentance works a hatred 
of sin, and thereupon a love of Christ; which love is ever- 
more operative, and putting forth itself towards holiness of 

^ Confiictus miserabilis. Aug, dc nup. et concup. 1. 2. c. 1. P Roni. 

vii. 22. 4 Quo quis pejus se hahct, minus sentit. Sen, ep. 52. ' Gal. 

Hi. 16, 17. * 1 John iii. 9. ^ ^<^6ot fiovXtiniKods "woiu. Arist, Rhet* 

1. 2. c. 5. — Solicitus incipit ambulare cum Deo suo, et ex omni parte scrutatur, 
ne vel in Icvissimi re tremendae illius Majestatis offendatur aspectus. Sic ardens 
et lucens nondum in domo so esse cjnfidat, ubi, sine omni timore ventoram, lo- 
censum lumen soleat deportari, sed meminerit se esse sub die, et utrftque manu 
studeat operire quod portat, &c. Bernard. Serm. 3. in vi^I. nativ. <* Job 

zxxi. 23. Psalm cxix. 120. Prov. xxviii. 14. Ecclcs. ix. 2. Jcr. x\xii. 40. Phil. 
ii.l2. Psalm iv. 4. 


life. As the love of God in Christ towards us worketh for* 
giTeness of sin ; so our reciprocal love, wrouglit by the feel* 
ing and comfort of that forgiveness, worketh in us a hatred 
of sin. A direct love begets a reflect love, as the heat, 
wrought in the earth, strikes back a heat into the air again. 
The woman in the gospel, ** having much forgiven her, loved 
much V •' We love him because he loved us first:*' and 
love will not suffer a man to wrong the things which he 
loves. What man ever threw away jewels or monev. when 
he might have kept them, except when the predominant love 
of something better, made these things comparatively hate* 
ful ^? What woman would be persuaded to throw away her 
socking child from her breast unto 8wine or dogs to devour 
it ? Our love to Christ and his law will not suffer us to cast 
him off, or to throw his law behind our backs. New obedi- 
ence is ever joined unto pardon of sin and repentance for it, 
by the method of God^s decrees, by the order and chain of 
salvation ; and ariseth out of the internal character and dis* 
position of a child of God. We are not sons only by adop- 
tion, appointed to a new inheritance ; but we are sons by 
regeneration also, partakers of a new nature, designed unto a 
new life, joined unto a new head, descended from a new 
Adam; unto whom, Uierefore, we are, in the power of his 
resorrection, and in the fellowship of his suflerings, to be 
made conformable '. And the apostle hath many excellent 
and weighty arguments to enforce this upon us *. "If then 
ye be risen with Christ, seek those things that are above, 
where Christ is sitting on the right hand of God. Set your 
affections on things abovr, not on things on the earth. For 
ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God : when 
Christ, who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also ap« 
pear with him in glory." 

1st. Our fellowship with Christ : ''We are risen with him :" 
what he did corporally for us, he doth the same spiritually 
in IIS. As a Saviour and mediator, he died and rose alone ; 
bat as a head and second Adam, he never did any thing, but 
his mystical body and seed were so taken into the fellowship 
of it, as to be made conformable unto it. Therefore if he 

s Lake rii. 47. 1 Luke xiv. 26. « PhU. iii. 10. » Col. iii. 



rose as a Saviour to justiFy us, — we must, as members, be 
therein fashioned unto hira, and rise spiritually by heavenly- 
minded ness, and a new life to glorify him. 

2nd. We must have our affections in Heaven, because 
Christ is there. The heart ever turns toward its treasure : 
where the body is, thither will the eagles resort. 

3rd. He is there in glory at God^s right hand ; and grace 
should move to glory, as a piece of earth to the whole. And 
he is there in our business, making intercession in our be- 
half, providing a place for us, sending down gifts unto us. 
And the client cannot but have his heart on his business, 
when the advocate is actually stirring about it. 

4th. We are dead with Christ, as to the life of sin; and a 
dead man takes no thought nor care for the things of that 
life from whence he is departed. A man, naturally dead, 
looks not after food, or raiment, or land, or money, or la- 
bour, &c. And a man, dead to sin, takes no more care how 
to provide for it. 

5th. In Christ we have a new life : therefore, we should 
have new inclinations suitable unto it, and new provisions 
laid in for it. A child in the womb is nourished by the na* 
vel ; being bom, it is nourished by the mouth. A natural 
man feeds on worldly things by sense ; a spiritual man feeds 
on heavenly things by faith and conscience. We can have 
nothing from the first Adam, which is not mortal and mor« 
tiferous ; nothing from the second, which is not vital and 
eternal. Whatever the one gives us, shrinks and withers 
unto death : whatever the other, springs and proceeds unto 
immortal life. Our life, therefore, being new, the affections 
that serve it a,nd wait upon it, must be new likewise. 

6th. This life is our own ; not so any thing in the worid 
besides. I can purchase in the world only to me and mine 
heirs for ever : but spiritual purchases are to myself for ever; 
and every man^s affections are naturally most fixed upod 
that, which is most his own. 

7th. It is a hidden life ; the best of it is yet unseen ^; and 
though the cabinet which is seen, be rich, — yet the jewel 
which is hidden in it, is much richer. As there is a sinful 
curiosity in lust, to look after the hidden things of iniquity, 

t> 1 John iii. 2. 


aod to banker after forbidden pleasures ; so there is a spi- 
ritnal cariosity or ambition in grace, to aspire toward hidden 
treasures, to press forward towards things that are before ua, 
'' to be clothed upon with our house that is from Heaven.'' 
As Absalom, being brought from banishment, longed to see 
the face of his father; so the soul % being delivered out of 
darkness, never thinks it sees enough of light. When God 
did most intimately reveal himself unto Moses, Moses did 
most earnestly beseech him to " show him his glory 'V' The 
more sweetness we find in the first-fruits, insomuch of Christ 
as is revealed to us, the more strong are our affections to 
the whole harvest, to that abundance of him which is hidden 
firom US. A few clusters of grapes, and bunches of figs, will 
inflame the desire of enjoying that Canaan, which abounds 
with them. 

8th. It is hidden with Christ ; so hidden as that we know 
where it is: hidden, so that the enemy cannot reach it; but 
not hidden from the faith of the child. 

9th. It is hidden in God. It is life in the fountain '. And 
every thing is perfectest in its original and fountain. And 
this is such a fountain of life, as hath in it fulness without 
satiety, and purity without defilement, and perpetuity with- 
OQt decay, and all-sufficiency without defect 

Lastly, It is but hidden, it is not lost ; hidden like seed 
in the ground. When Christ the Sun of Righteousness shall 
appear, this life of ours in him will spring up and appear 

Sect. 14. Now next let us consider this care of repent- 
ance against a man's own more particular and special sins. 
" Asshur shall not save us, we will not ride upon horses,'^ &c. 
Israel had been guilty of very many provocations ; but 
when they come to covenant with God, and to renew their 
repentance, their thoughts and cares are most set against 

< Non quicsco, nt&i cKCuletur me osculo oris sui. Gratias de osculo pedum, 
SntiM ct de inanus ; sed si cunt est illi ulla de me, osculetur me otculo oris tui : 
aon turn insrau, sed amo : accepi, fateor, mentis potiora, ted prorsus infierion 
voib; desideiio feror, non ratione, dec, Bern. Ser. V. in Cant. — Testimonium 
credJbUe nimis gustats sapicntia est csuries ipsa (am vehcmens. Serm, 2. de doa- 
bas amiiis.. — Non cxcudit desiderium sanctum felix inventio, sed extendi!, &c. 
sef. S4. in Canu— Videsis Clandi. Rtpencei libcllum de Languorc Spirit, c. 3. et 4. 
' Eaod. zzxiti. 11,18. • Psalm zixvi. \^. 



their carnal confidence, and spiritual adultery : their most 
unfeigned detestations, their most serious resolutions^ were 
against these their most proper sins. True repentance 
worketh indeed a general " hatred of every false way ^," and 
sufTereth not a man to allow himself in the smallest sin. 
Yet as the dog in hunting of the deer, though he drive the 
whole herd before him, yet fixeth his eye and scent upon 
some one particular, which is singled out by the dart of the 
huntsman ; so though sound conversion do work a univer- 
sal hatred of all sin, because it is sin, — for hatred is evei* 
against the whole kind ^ of a thing, — though every member of 
the old man be mortified, and every grace of the new man 
shaped and fashioned in us; — yet the severest exercise of 
tl^at hatred is against the sins whereunto the conscience 
hath been more enslaved, and by which the name of God 
bath been most dishonoured. A man that hath many 
wounds, if there be any of them more deep, dangerous, or 
nearer any vital part than the other, — though he will tend 
the cure of them all, vet his chiefest care shall be towards 
that. As the king of Syria gave command to his army to 
single out the king of Israel in the battle ^ ; so doth repent- 
ance lay its batteries most against the highest and strongest 
and most reigning sin of the heart ; and by how much the 
more a man prized it before, by so much the more doth he 
detest it now. They counted no silver nor gold too good 
to frame their idols of before ; their ear-rings shall go to 
make them a calf* : but when they repent, nothing can be 
too base to compare them, or to cast them unto-*. 

The human nature is the same in all men ; vet some fa- 
culties are more vigorous in some, and other in others : 
some witty, others strong ; some beautiful, others proper ; 
some a quick eye, others a ready tongue ; some for learned, 
others for mechanical professions. As some grounds take 
better to some kind of grain than to others ; so in the new 
man, though all the graces of Christ are, in some degree and 
proportion, shaped in every regenerate person, yet one ex- 
cels in one grace, another in another. Abraham in faith, 

f Psalm cxiz. 128. S'Ofo^ wcpl r^ Koff Uwrrv t6 U fjuaos^ ^pis r^ 

7^nj. j4risL Rhet. I. 2. c 4. h i Kings xxii. 31. « Exod. xxii. 3. J 
ii. 20. ZXX.22. 


Job in patience, Moses in meekness, David in meditation, 
Solomon in wisdom^ Phinehas in zeal, Mary Magdalen in 
loTe» Panl in labour, &c. And so it is in the old man too. 
Though, by nature, we have all the members of original cor- 
niption, yet these put themselves forth in actual vigour '^dif- 
ferently. One man is more possessed by a proud devil, — 
another, by an unclean one ; Ahaz, superstitious ; Balaam, 
ambitions ; Cain, envious ; Korah, stubborn ; Esau, profane ; 
Ishmael, a mocker ; the young man, a worldling. According 
to different complexions and tempers of body (by which 
habitual lust is excited and called forth into act), or accord- 
ing to the differences of education, countries *, callings, con- 
verse, and interests in the world, — so men are differently 
assaulted with distinct kinds of sin ; and most men have 
dieir ' peccatum in deliciis,' which they may more properly 
call ** their own ^.*' And as this sin is usually the special 
bar and obstacle that keeps men from Christ, as we see in 
the example of the young man % and of the Jews * ; so when 
Christ hath broken this obstacle, and gotten the throne in a 
man^s heart, then the chief work of repentance is to keep 
this sin fiom gathering strength again : for, as they say of 
some kind of serpents, that, being cut in pieces, the parts 
will wriggle towards one another, and close and get life 
again; so, of all sins, a man is in most danger of the reviving 
of his own proper corruption : as being like the nettle, whose 
roots are so crooked, so catching to the ground, that it is a 
work of much care to keep the ground clean of them, after 
they are weeded out. 

And therefore repentance sets itself particularly against 
that sin, as a special argument of sincerity. ** I was up* 

* la eo^m prmto, bos hcrbam quaerit, canit lepoicm, ciconta Uceitum. Sentc* 
qp. 128. 1 Multte gentei ob spccialia qiuedam peccaca infamcs ; undc illud 

Tffe whnm itdiotra Suid. in juhnra inrhovw. — Bceoti, Phanali, lliessali, ob vo- 
ladtatem, Vid. Atben. 1. 40. Isauri et Arabcs ob latrt^inia. Dion, 1. 55. — Am' 
WMx. MarceL I. \4.^Theodo$. Cod de feriU, 1. 10. &c.— P/tn. 1. 6. a. 26,-^trabo 
lib. 16. — DiodoT, SiaU, \,3. — Qui mancipia vendunt, nationem oijusque in ven- 
ditioiie prooanciare debeot : pnesumpram etenim est quotdam senrot malot 
▼idcri, qoia et natione sunt, qus magis infamtt est. Leg. 31. sect. 21. D. de ^£di- 
litio Edicto. — Atbenaniin linguata dvitat Tert. 1. de Anima c. 3. — Hinc adagia, 
** Cfetensi mendador, Poeno perfidior, Scytha uperior, Sybarita futuocior, Mi- 
Icnis dSsminatior,'* ftc. Vid. Erasm, in initio Chiliad.— ^t Alex, ah Alex. Genial. 
4. cap. 13. — Aritt. Rhet. L 6. c 7.— Ltr. I. 45. « Psalm xviii. 23. 

• Mark x. 22. • John y. 44. zti. 42, 43. 

▼ OL. 111. T 


right,^ saith David, ''before him, and kept myself from 
mine iniquity p.^ And, ** he that is begotten of God,^ saidi 
the apostle, '^keepeth himself "i;^ which he doth certainly 
with most yigilancy there, where he is in most danger of being 
assaulted. So in David : he had, in that great and scandalous 
fall of his, stained his conscience with impure last, with the 
guilt of blood ; and that not out of ignorance or common 
infirmity, or stidden passion and surprisal of some hasty 
temptaiio'b (which might happily have consisted with up« 
rightness),. but seriously, and deliberately, using many cun- 
ning arts, and carnal shifts of sinful wisdom to colour and 
daub it over : and lasdy, by this means, had given a great 
blow to the holy name of God, and ** caused his enemies to 
blaspheme/' as Nathan tells him ^ Therefore in his peni* 
tential Psalm> these foar things he principally insists upon : 
*' A clean heart, pardon of blood-guiltiness, truth in the in» 
ward parts, and occasion to teach transgressors the way of 
God, that they may be converted ^" See it in Zaccbeus : — 
worldliness and defrauding had been his sin; restitution* 
and liberality are the evidences of his repentance in special 
for that sin ". So Mary Magdalen ; her sin had been un- 
cleanness, her eyes vessels and factors for adultery, her hair 
a met plaited and spread to catch sinners : she remembered 
her wanton kisses, her provoking perfumes : and now, in her 
conversion, where her sin had been most prevalent, there her 
sorrow was most penitent, and her repentance most vigilant : 
her eyes vessels of tears ; her kisses humbled, or rather ad- 
vanced unto the feet of Christ ; her hair a towel to wipe off 
those tears, which she judged too unclean for so holy feet to 
be washed withal ; her ointment poured out upon a new. 
lover, who had anointed her with his grace '^. The sin of 
the gaoler against Paul and Silas, was cruelty^, and tke 
first fruit of his repentance was courtesy to them : b^ 
brought them out of a dungeon into his own house) 

P P^Im xviii. 23. q 1 John v. 18. r 2 Sam. zii. 14. 

11. 6, 7, 10, 13, 14. < Onod qulidraplum reddat Zac(^ieus, -videtitr 

potius ex abundantia pietatis qnam ex vi legh feciste. Lex exrim qntdmpU 
nam in una tantum furti specie statuit. Exod. xxfi. 1, 4. Vide Maldonift. ct 
cam. Brugens. Sane quod ad edictum Pratoris attinet, videtur tantom in <la» 
plum teneri. 1. 1. D. de Publicanis. •> loke xiz. 8. « Lolce Tii. 37, SB. 

7 Acts x?i. 24. 


from the BtockSy to bis table ; became a host instead of a 
gaoler, a surgeon instead of a tormentor, and washed 
their stripes '. This was Daniel's method of working repent- 
ance io Nebuchadnezzar, persuading a proud oppressing 
^nut unto justice and mercy*; and Paul unto Felix, 
preaching before a corrupt and lasciTious judge ^ '' of righ- 
teovaness, temperance, and judgement to come^ :*' and to the 
learned and superstitious philosophers, in a learned disco- 
very^ and making known unto them their * unknown God^/ 
So John, the preacher of repentance, laid his axe to the 
'loot of erery tree,' to the radical and prevailing lust in 
every order of men ; to extortion in the publican, to co- 
Tetooaneas in the people, to violence in the soldiers, to car- 
nal confidence in the Pharisees'. And so Christ to the 
youBg man ; — *' One thing thou wantest V' — ^^ ^o ^he wo- 
of Samaria, ** Go, call thy husband </ when indeed he 
an adnlterer, and not a husband. 
The reason of this care of repentance is, 1st. Because, in 
godly aorrow, this sin hath lain most heavy upon the con- 
science. Hereby God hath been most of all despised and 
fiahooonied ; our consciences most wasted and defiled ; our 
most hardened ; our affections most bewitched and 
It hath been a master-sin, that hath been able 
to command, and to draw in many other servile lusts to wait 
^Km it. Many wounds, even after they have been healed, 
wiB, against change of weather, affect the part wherein they 
were, widi pain and aching : and therefore men usually are 
tender of that part, keep it wanner, fence it with furs 
ceracloths : as the apostle saith, that *^ on our dis- 
honommble parts, we bestow the more abundant honour : ^ so 
on soch an tofirm and tender part, we bestow the more 
■hnndaut care : and the like do we in those wounds of the 
aool, which are aptest to bleed afresh. 

■ Acn sri. 30, 23, 34. • Din. iv. 27. ^ At non fnier ejus, cognomeBio 
ffkfis, pui no^antione «gcb«t, jtmprideni Judmm impositaf , et cuncu maldacta 
Ailoqpme nta, taati potentia subaixo. Tacit. Annil. 1. 2. Antooiut Felix, per 
wmmtm Mw'Hiim ac liHidinem, jus reginm tervili ingenioexercuit, Dnisilla, Cleo- 
pnm ct AmooU aepce, in nutrifnooium acoeptm. Tacit, Hist. 1. 5, 9. Vide Joseph. 
MmA^ L 20. c S. liberti gus, pouttatem uMnaum adepd, ttapria, ex(»tA canlt* 
pwtil p lS omlwia, omi^a fcedabant :.-cx qnibua Felioem legionibut JuAmm pr«- 
ledt. Strf. Jhrr. Fietar in Qaudio. ^ Acts xxiv. 25. * Acts xtH. 23. 

• Mattli.ffi. 7. Lake Hi. 9, U. f Mark x. 21. g John It. 16. 

T 2 


2nd. Hereby, as was said before, we testify our upright- 
ness ; when we will not spare our beloved sin, nor roll it 
under our tongue, nor hide it in our tent ; when we will not 
muffle nor disguise ourselves, like Tamar ; nor hide amongst 
the bushes and trees, like Adam ; or in the belly of the ship, 
with Jonah ; nor spare any wedge of gold, with Achan ; or 
any delicate Agag, any fatling sins, with Saul ; but, with 
David, will show that we *' hate every false way," by throw- 
ing the first stone at our first sin, that which lay nearest and 
closest in our bosoms, which the Scripture calls '' Cutting 
off the right hand, and plucking out the right eye : " — as 
Cranmer put that hand first into the fire, which had before 
subscribed to save his life. The story of the Turkish em- 
peror is commonly known, who, being reported so to dote 
on one of his concubines, as, for love of lier, to neglect the 
affairs of his kingdom, caused her to be brought forth in 
great pomp, and cut off her head before his Bashaws, to as- 
sure them that nothing was so dear unto him, but that he 
could willingly part from it, to attend the public welfare. 
This was an act of cruelty in him ; but the like is an act of 
penitency in us, when we can sacrifice the dearest affections, 
wherewith we served sin. Let Christ kill our Agag, though 
delicately apparelled, and divide the richest of all our spoils. 
If we be learned, we shall direct all our studies unto the fear 
of God >. If rich, we shall lay up a foundation of good works 
against the time to come, and consecrate our merchandise as 
holy to the Lord ^. If wise, if honourable, if powerful, if 
adorned with any endowment,-«^ur business will be, with 
Bezaleel and Aholiab, to adorn the gospel with them aU, 
from our gold to our goat's hair, to lay out all upon the 
sanctuary ; to make those members and abilities, which had 
been Satan's armour and weapons of unholiness, to be now 
weapons of holiness, and dedicated unto Christ ^ This is 
the holy revenge, which godly sorrow taketh upon sin ^ 

If any men who profess repentance, and think they lure 
already long ago converted unto God, would examine the 
truth of their conversion by this touchstone, it would mi- 

I Eoc]et.xii. 12, 13. k i Tim. vi. 18. Isai.uiii. 16. < Rom. vi. 19. 

k2Cor.vii. 11. 

Yen.2^ «.] rOURTEENTH CHAPTER OF H08EA. 277 

Dister matter of much humiliation and fear unto them, when 
thw own heart would reply against them as Samuel against 
Saul, '' Hast thou indeed, as thou professest, done the work 
of the Lord in destroying Amaiek? 'What then meanetb 
the bleating of the sheep, and the lowing of the oxen in mine 
eais?** What mean these worldly and covetous practices? 
these lasciyious or revengeful speeches ? these earthly, sen- 
sual, or ambitious lusts ? are these Agags spared and kept 
delicately ? and canst thou please thyself in die thoughts of 
a sound repentance ? Did Paul fear, that God would hum- 
ble him for those that had not repented amongst the Co- 
rinthians, by this argument; because he should find '* enry- 
ings, strifes, and debates amongst them ^P"* And wilt thou 
presume of thy repentance, and not be humbled, when thou 
findest the same things in thyself? Hast thou never yet 
proclaimed defiance to thy beloved sin, made it the mark of 
thy greatest sorrows, of thy strongest prayers and com- 
plaints unto God ? Hast thou never stirred up a holy in- 
dignation and revenge against it? and, above all things, 
taken off thy thoughts from the meditation and love of it, 
and found pleasure in the holy severity of God^s book, 
and the ministry thereof against it? made no covenant 
with thine eye, — put no knife to thy throat, — set no door 
before thy lips, — made no friends of unrighteous Mam- 
mon? Dost thou still retain hankering afiections afler 
thy wonted delights, as Lot's wife after Sodom ? and are the 
floh-pots of Egypt desirable in thy thoughts still ? " Be 
not high-minded, but fear." There is no greater argument 
of an unsound repentance than indulgent thoughts, and re- 
served delight and complacency in a master-sin. The devil 
will diligently observe, and hastily catch one kind glance of 
this nature (as Benhadad's servants did *), and make use of it 
to do us mischief. David had been free from some of his 
greatest troubles, if he had not relented towards Absalom, 
and called him home from banishment. He no sooner kissed 
Absalom, but Absalom courted and kissed the people to 
steal their^earts away from him. As there are, in points of 
fiuth,'fundamental articles, — so there are, in points of prac- 
tice, fundamental duties; and, amongst them, none more 

^ 2 Cor. lii. 20, 21. > 1 Kings zz. .13. 

278 S£V£N SERMONS. [Senn. III. 

primary, and essential unto true Christians than self- 
denial '°. And this is one special part and branch of self- 
denial, to keep ourselves from our own iniquity ; and to say 
to our most costly and darling lusts, '' Get ye hence: As- 
shur, away ; idols, away ; I will rather be fatherless, than 
rely upon such helpers.^ 

m Matth. z?i. 24. 



HOSEA XIV. 3, 4. 

Asshur $hall not save us ; we will not ride upon horses ; neither 
will we say any more to the work of our hands. Ye are our 
gods; for in thee the fatherless Jindeth mercy, I will heal 
their backsliding, I will love them freely ; for mine anger 
is turned away from him. 

Sect. 1. There remainetb the second point formerly 
mentioned, from the promise or covenant, which Israel here 
makes, which I will briefly touch, and so proceed unto the 
fourth verse ; and that is diis : — 

lliat true repentance and conversion taketh off the heart 
from all carnal confidence, either in domestical preparations 
of our own, " IVe will not ride upon horses ;'* or in foreign aid 
from any confederates, especially enemies of God and his 
church, though otherwise never so potent ; Asshur shall not 
save us. Or lastly, in any superstitious and corrupt worship 
which sends us to God the wrong way, *' We will not say any 
more to the ux>rk of our hands. Ye are our gods ^ and causeth 
the soul, in all conditions, be they never so desperate, so 
desolate, so incurable, to rely only upon God. It is very 
much in the nature of man fallen, to affect an absoluteness, 
and a self-sufficiency, to seek the good that he desireth 
within himself, and to derive from himself the strength, 
whereby he would repel any evil which he feareth. This 
staying within itself % reflecting upon its own power and 

* Fdio-cdition, p. 539. • Sua potestate dclecuti, Tclut bonum fuum 

•bi ipsi CHent, i. nipenore commani oronturo bcattfico bono, ad propria dcilox- 
cnuit, Ac Au^, de Civ. Dei, 1. 2. c. 1. — Cum causa miieri« malorom Angclo- 
raia quamtur, ca merito occurrit, quod ab illo, qui tummc est, averti, ad seipsot 
coc\ersi sunt ; qui non summ^ sunt, et lb, c. 6. 1. de vera Rclig. c. 13. de Gen. 
•dlh. 1, 11. c* 14. et 23. Afuin. part. 1. qu. 63. art. 3. It seems there was no 


wisdom, and, by consequence, affecting an independency 
upon any superior virtue in being and working, making 
itself the first cause and the last end of its own motions, 
— is, by divines, conceived to have been the first sin by 
which the creature fell from God; and it was the first temp- 
tation by which Satan prevailed to draw man from Qod too. 
For since, next unto God, every reasonable created being 
is nearest unto itself, we cannot conceive how it should turn 
from God, and not, in the next step, turn unto itself; and, 
by consequence, whatsoever it was, in a regular dependence 
to have derived from God, being fallen from him, it doth, 
by an irregular dependence, seek for from itself. Hence it 
is, that men of power are apt to deify their own strength, 
and to frame opinions of absoluteness to themselves, and to 
deride the thoughts of any power above them, as Pharaoh ^p 
and Goliath % and Nebuchadnezzar ^, and Sennacherib ^ And 
men of wisdom to deify their own reason, and to deride any 
thing that is above or against their own conceptions; as 
Tyrus^ and the Pharisees', and the philosophers^. And 
men of morality and virtue, to deify their own righteousness, 
to rely on their own merits and performances, and to deride 
righteousness imputed and precarious, as the Jews^, and 
Paul before his conversion *". So natural is it for a sinful 
creature, who seeketh only himself, and maketh himself the 
last end, to seek only unto himself, and to make himself 
the first cause and mover towards that end. 

But because God will not give his glory to another, nor 
suffer any creature to encroach upon his prerogative, or to 
sit down in his throne; he hath therefore always blasted the 
policies and attempts of such, as aspired unto such an abso- 
luteness and independency, making them know in the end» 
" that they are but men^ and that the Most High ruleth over 
all :^ and that it is an enterprise more full of folly than it is 

other way for angels to sin, but by reflex of their understanding upon them- 
selves ; which being held with admiration of their own sublimity and honcHir, 
the memory of their subordination to God, and their dependency on him, was 
drowned in this conceit ; whereupon their adoration, love, and imitation of God, 
could not choose but be also interrupted. Hook, 1. 1. sect. 4. ^ Exod. v. 2. 

c 1 Sam. XTii. 8, 10, 44. d Dan. iii. 15. • 2 Kings zviii. 33, 34, 35. 

Isai. X. 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14. f Ezek. xxxviti. 2, 6. K LukexTi. 14. 

John vii. 48, 49, 52. Acts iv. 11. Isat. xlix. 7. liii. 3. ^ Acts XTii. 18, 32. 

1 Cor. t. 22, 23. i Rom. x. 5. k Rom. vii. 9. PhU. iii. 6, 9. 

I Psalm ix. 19, 20. 


of pride, for any creature to work its own safety and felicity 
out of itself. And as men usually are most vigilant upon 
tbeir immediate interests, and most jealous and active 
against all encroachments thereupon ; so we shall ever find, 
that God doth single out no men to be so notable monuments 
of his justice, and their own ruin and folly, as those who 
have vied with him in the points of power, wisdom, and 
other divine prerogatives, aspiring unto that absoluteness, 
self-sufficiency, self-interest, and independency which be- 
loogeth only unto him. And as he hath, by the destruction 
of Pharaoh, Sennacherib, Herod, and divers others, taught us 
the madness of this ambition ; so doth he, by our own daily 
preaenration, teach us the same. For if God have appointed 
that we should go out of ourselves unto a thing below for a 
vital subsistence, to bread for food, to house for harbour, 
to clothes for warmth, 8cc., much more hath he appointed, 
that we should go out of ourselves for a blessed and happy 
subsistence; by how much the more is required unto blessed- 
ness than unto life, and by how much the greater is our im- 
polency unto the greatest and highest end. 

Sect 2. Yet so desperate is the aversion of sinful man 
from God, that when he is convinced of his impotency, and 
driven off from self-dependence, and reduced unto such ex- 
tremities, as should in reason lead him back unto God ; yet 
when he hath ''no horses of his own"* to ride upon, no means 
of his own to escape eril, — yet still he will betake himself 
unto creatures like himself, though they be enemies unto 
God, and enemies unto him too for God's sake (for so was 
the Assyrian unto Israel) ; yet if Ephraim see his sickness, 
and Judah his wound, Ephraim will go to the Assyrian and 
King Jareb for help "".' If he must beg, he would rather do 
it of an enemy than a God ; yea, though he dissuade him 
from it, and threaten him for it Ahaz would not believe, 
though a sign were offered him ; nor be persuaded to trust 
in God to deliver him from Rezin and Pekah, though he pro- 
mise him to do it ; but under pretence of not tempting God 
in the use of means, will weary God with his provocation, 
and rob God to pay the Assyrian, '^ who was not a help, 
but a distress unto him °. 

- Hot. ▼. 13. » 2 Kings zvt. 5, 8, 17, 18. 2 Chroo. utui. 20, 21. Isai. 

vii. 8, 13. zzz. 5. 


Sect. 3. Well ; Ood is many times pleased to waylay hu- 
man counsels ^, even in this case too, and so to strip them 
not only of their own provisions, but of their foreign suc- 
cours and supplies, as that they have no refuge left but unto 
him. Their horses fail them, their Assyrians fail them p. 
Their hope hath nothing either * sub ratione boni/ as really 
good to comfort them at home ; or ' sub ratione auxilii/ as 
matter of help and aid to support them from abroad. They 
are brought, as Israel, into a wilderness, where they are con- 
strained to go to God, because they have no second causes 
to help them. And yet even here, wicked men will make a 
shift to keep off from Ood, when they have nothing in the 
world to trust unto. This is the formal and intimate malig- 
nity of sin, to decline God, and to be impatient of him in 
bis own way. If wicked men be necessitated to implore help 
from God, they will invent ways of their own to do it % If 
horses fail, and Asshur fail, and Israel must go to God whe- 
ther he will or no,-^it shall not be to the God that made him, 
but to a god of his own making ; and when they have most 
need of their glory, they will ^' change it into that which can- 
not profit ^" So foolish was Jeroboam, as, by two calves at 
Dan and Bethel, to think his kingdom should be established, 
and by that means rooted out his own family, and at last 
mined the kingdom *. So foolish was Abaz, as to Qeek help 
of those gods, which were the ruin of him and all Israel ^ 
Such a strong antipathy and averseness there is in the soul 
of natural men unto God, as that when they are in distreas^ 
they go to him last of all ; they never think of him, so long 
as their own strength, and their foreign confederacies hold 
out. And when at last they are driven to him, they know 
not bow to hold communion with him in his own way, but 
frame carnal and superstitious ways of worship to them- 
selves ; and so, in their very seeking unto him, do provoke 
him to forsake them; and the very things whereon they lean, 
go up into their band to pierce it ". 

Sect. 4. Now then, the proper work of true repentance be- 

• Fideotiam psriunt, r6 ovnii^iOM iyy^f i^«^ MBtia, Vid. j4rui, Rbet. 
1. 2. c. 5. P Ho8. Tii. 11, 12. viii. 9, 10. i Ex arbitrio, non cz imperio* 

Tert, contr. Ptychich. c. 13. vide dc Prsscript. c. 6. r Jer. ii. 11. ■ 1 Kinp 
xii. 28, 29. xiv. 10, 15, 29. 2 Kings xvii. 21, 23. Hos. viii. 4, 5. x. 5, 8, 16. 
* 2 Chron.zzvUi. 23. « Isai. xv. 2. xvi. 12. 1 Kings xviii. 26. 


iDg to toni m man the right way unto God, it taketh a man off 
from all this carnal and superstitious confidence, and directeth 
the soul, in the greatest difficulties, to cast itself with com* 
fort and confidence upon God alone. So it is prophesied of 
the remnant of God's people, that is, the penitent part of 
them (for the remnant are those that came up '* with weep* 
IDg and supplication, seeking the Lord their God, and 
asking the way to Sion, with their faces thitherward ','*) that 
they should " no more again stay themselves upon him that 
smote them, but should stay upon the Lord, the Holy One 
of Israel in truth, and should return unto the mighty God '• 
They reaoWe the Lord shall sare them, and not the As- 
Syrian. So say the godly in the Psalmist, " A horse is a 
fain thing for safety, neither shall he deliver any by his 
great strength," &c. " Our soul waiteth for the Lord ; he 
is our help and shield '.^ They will not say any more, ** We 
will fly upon horses, we will ride upon the swift \^ Lastly, 
^ At that day,'' saith the prophet, speaking of the penitent 
remnant and gleanings of Jacob, '' shall a man look to his 
Maker, and his eyes shall have respect to the Holy One of 
Israel ; and he shall not look to the altars, the work of his 
hands, neither shall respect that which his fingers have 
made, the. groves or the images \** And again, '' Truly, in 
▼ain, is salvation hoped for from the hills, and from the muU 
titnde of mountains ;" that is, from the idols, whom they 
lisd set up and worshipped in high places ; '' Truly in the 
Lord our God is the salvation of Israel^." They will not 
say any more to the work of their hands. Ye are our 

Sect. 6. So then, the plain duties of the text are these : 
L To trust in God, who is all-sufficient to help, who is Je* 
bovah, the fountain of being, and can give being to any 
promise, to any mercy which he intends for his people ; 
cannot only work, but command ; not only command, but 
create deliverance, and fetch it out of darkness and desola* 
tion. He hath ' everlasting strength ;' there is no time, no 
case, no condition, wherein his help is not at hand, when* 
ever he shall command it ^. 

> Jcf.xzxi. 7, 9. 1. 4. 5. y Isti. z. 20, 21. ' PMlm xuiti. 17, 20. 

* Ini. xzz. 16. ^ Isii. xvii. 7, 8. « Jcr. iii. 23* ' bal xsvi, 4. 



2. We must not trust in any creature. 1. Not in Asshur, 
in any confederacy or combination with God^s enemies, be 
they otherwise never so potent. Jehoshaphat did so, and 
his ** ships were broken *.'* Ahaz did so, and his " people 
were distressed '.'^ It is impossible for Ood^s enemies to be 
cordial to God^s people, so long as they continue cordial 
to their God. There is such an irreconcileable enmity be- 
tween the seed of the woman, and the seed of the serpent, 
that it is incredible to suppose, that the enemies of the church 
will do any thing which may, ' per se/ tend to the good of 
it ; or that any end and design, by them pursued, can be se- 
vered from their own malignant interest Let white be min- 
gled with any colour which is not itself, and it loseth of its 
own beauty. It is not possible for God^s people to join 
with any that are his enemies, and not to lose of their own 
purity thereby. He must be as wise, and as potent as God, 
that can use the rage of God^s enemies, and convert it, when 
he hath done, to the good of God^s church, and the glory of 
God's name, and be able at pleasure to restrain and call it in 
again. We must ever take heed of this dangerous competi- 
tion between our own interests and God's, to be so tender 
and intent upon that, as to hazard and shake this. Jero- 
boam did so, but it was fatal to him, and to all Israel* The 
end of Judah's combining with the Assyrian, was, that they 
might *' rejoice against Rezin and Remaliah's son ;" but the 
consequent of it, which they never intended, was, that the 
''Assyrian came over all the channels, and over all the 
banks," and overflowed, and went over, and reached to the 
very neck ; and, if it had not been Emmanuel's land, would 
have endangered the drowning of it K If Israel, for his own 
ends, join with Asshur, it will hardly be possible for him in 
so doing, though against his own will, not to promote the 
ends of Asshur against God's church, and against himself 
too. And yet the prophet would not have, in that case, 
God's people to be dismayed, or to say, '' A confederacy, m 
confederacy ;" but to " sanctify the Lord himself, and make 
him their fear and their dread," who will certainly be a 
sanctuary unto them, and will ''bind up his testimony^ 
and seal the law amongst his disciples ; " when others shall 

• 2 Chron. zx. 35,37. ^ 2 Chron. zzviii. 21. c Isai. Tiii. 6, 7, S. 


" stamble, and fall, and be broken, and be snared, and be 
taken." If we preserve Emmanuel's right in us, and ours in 
him, all confederacies against us shall be broken, all coun- 
sels shall come to nought. 

2. Not in horses, or in any other human preparations and 
proTisions of our own. ** Some trust in chariots, and some 
in horses; but we,''saith David, "will remember the name 
of the Lord our God ^.'* That name can do more with a 
sling and a stone, than Goliath with all his armour K It is a 
strong tower for protection and safety to all that fly unto 
it^; whereas horses, though they be " prepared against the 
day of battle, yet safety cometh only from the Lord '.^ 
^ Horses are flesh, and not spirit ; and their riders are men, 
and not God.^ And, ''Cursed are they that make flesh 
their arm, and depart from the Lord ""/' No, not in variety 
of means and ways of help, which seemeth to be intimated 
in the word 'riding,^ from one confederate unto another: if 
Asshnr fail, I will post to Egypt ; if one friend or counsel 
fail, I will make haste to another; a sin very frequently 
charged upon Israel °. These are not to be trusted in, I. 
Because of the intrinsecal weakness and defect of ability in 
the creature to help. Every man is a liar, either by impos- 
tnre, and so in purpose; or by impotency, and so in the 
event, deceiving those that rely upon him **, 

2. Because of ignorance and defect of wisdom in us, to 
apply that strength which is in the creature, unto the best 
advantage. None but an artificer can turn and govern the 
natural efficacy of fire, wind, water, unto the works of art. 
The wisdom whereby we should direct created virtues unto 
haman ends, is not in, or of ourselves, but it comes from 
God P. 

Sect. 6. — 3. Nor in idols, nor in corrupting the worship of 
God. Idols are lies ^, and teachers of lies, and promisers of 
lies to all that trust in them ^ An idol is just nothing in 

k Fnlm xz. 7. ' 1 Sam. z?ii. 45. ^ Prov. zviii. 10. 1 Prov. 

zzi. 31. B liai. xzzi. 1, 2, 3. Jer. ztU. 5. » Hos. vii. U. Itai. zz. 5. 

hrii. 10. Jer. ii. 36, 37. « Psalm Izii. 9. P Junes i. 5. Isai. zzviii. 26, 29. 
zzzri. 1, 2. Eccles. Tit. 24. iz. 1. 11. q In IdololatriA mendacium, 

locm substantia e}iu roendaz sit. Ttrt, de Idololat. Unde Idolatne dicuntur 
rw r^p dx4$€tmp, CUm. Ales, in Protrrpcic. r Jer. z. S, 14, 15, 16. 

Hab. ii. IS. Rev. zzii. 15. 


the world ' ; and that which is nothing, can do nothing for 
those that rely upon it Whatever thing a man trusteUi 
in, in time of trouble, must needs have these things in it to 
ground that confidence upon : — 

First, A knowledge of him and his wants : therefore we 
are bid to trust in God's providence over us for all outward 
good things, because he knoweth that we have need of 

Secondly, A loving and merciful disposition to help him. 
A man may sometimes receive help from such as love him 
not, out of policy, and in pursuance of other ends and in* 
tents ; but he cannot confidently rely upon any aid, which 
is not first founded in love. I ever suspect and fear the 
gifts and succours, which proceed from an enemy : they will 
have their own ends only, even then when they seem to ten- 
der and serve me : therefore David singleth out God's mercy 
as the object of his trust ^ 

Thirdly, A manifestation of that love in some promise or 
other, engaging unto assistance. For how can I, with asm- 
rance» and wiUiout hesitancy, expect help there« where I 
never received any promise of it P Here was the grottcd of 
Davids, Jehosbaphat's, DaniePs trust in God, the word and 
promise which he had passed unto them *. 

Fourthly, Truth and fidelity in the care to make these pro- 
mises good. This is that which makes us so confidently 
trust in God's promises, because we know they are all '* Yea 
and Amen i^ that it is " impossible for God to lie,'' or de- 
ceive, or for any to seek his face in vain ^ 

Fifthly, Power to give being, and put into act whatsoever 
is thus promised. That which a man leans upon, must have 
strength to bear the weight which is laid upon it. This is 
the great ground of our trusting in God at all times, even 
then when all other helps fail ; because he is ' I am,' that 
can create and give a being to every thing which he hatk 
promised, because * power belongeth unto him,^ and in ' the 
Lord Jehovah is everlasting strength ;' and nodiing is too 
hard, no help too great for kim who made heaven and esnrth, 

* O^V^Vm Nihilitates, nomen genenliter < nihil' Mnftt, quod «pte idolk<iibiii- 
tar. Merctr. 1 Cor. iriU. 4. ^ Matth. v. 32. » Pnlm lii. 8. > 1 Chma. 
xvti. 25, 27. Psalm cxiz. 42. 2 Chron. xx. 7, 8. Dan. ix. 2, 3. 9 2 Cor. 

i. 20. Josh. xxi. 45. Heb. vi. 18. Isai. xlv. 19. 



and can command all the creatures which he made, to senre 
thofle whom he is pleased to help \ Now whosoerer seeks 
for any of these grounds of trust in idols, shall be sure to 
fiul of them. Knowledge they have none % and therefore 
lore they have none : for how can that love any thing which 
knows nothing ? Truth they have none, neither of being in 
themi^elves, nor of promise to those that trust in them : the 
very formality of an idol is to be a lie, to stand for that 
which it is not, and to represent that which it is most 
anlike ^ : and power they have none : either to hear or save ^. 
And therefore that repentance which shaketh off confidence 
in idols, doth not only convert a man unto God, but unto 
hknself ; it is not only an impious, but a sottish thing, and 
bdow the reason of a man, first, to make a thing, and then 
to worabtp it, to expect safety from that, which did receive 
being from himself "*. These are the great props of carnal 
confidence, — foreign interests, domestical treasures, supersti- 
tions devotions ; — when men please themselves in the ^ chiK 
dien of strangers,'' and have their ' land foil of silver, and 
gold, and treasures,' full of horses and chariots^ and full of 
idols-; fcoard up provisions and preparations of their own ; 
comply with the enemies of Crod abroad, and corrupt the 
worihip of Ood at home *• These are the things for which 
God threateneth terribly to shake the earth, and to bring 
down, and to make low the loftiness of man,— if he do not 
(as Ephraim here, by long and sad experience, doth) peni- 
tently renonnce and abjure them all. 

Sect 7. And now this is matter^ for which all of us may 
be humbled. There is no sin more usual amongst men than 
esmal confidence, to lean on our own wisdom, or wealth, or 
power, or supplies from others ; to deify counsels and armies, 
or horses and treasures; and to let our hearts rise or fall, 
link or bear up within us, according as the creature is help^ 
fid or useless, nearer or farther from us : as if Ood were not 
a God afior off, as well as near at hand. This we may jostiy 
fesr, God has, and still will visit us for, because we do not 
" sanctify the Lord of hosts himself in our hearts, to make 

• PlMam Uii. 8, ]|. Ezod. iit. 14. Isai. xxti. 4. Gen. xviii. 14. Jer. zzzii. 17. 
fmtak CEU. 2. Rom. ▼. 19, 21. Matth. Tin. 2. » Isai. sliv. 9. ^ ImL 

iKT.2i. zL 18. Jer. x. 14, 15, 16. <* Isai. zlv. 20, zlvi. 7. xli. 23, 24, 28, 29; 
* Itti. zhi. 7, 8. • Isai. ii. G, 7, 8. 


him our fear and our defence :" and that he will blow upon 
all such counsels and preparations, as carnal confidence 
doth deify. 

Therefore we must be exhorted to take off our hopes and 
fears from second causes, not to glory in an arm of flesh, or 
to droop when that fails us ; not to say in our prosperity, 
'^ Our mountain is so strong, that we shall not be shaken ;" 
nor in our sufferings, that '' Our wound is incurable, or our 
grave so deep, that we shall never be raised again f ' but to 
make the ' name of the Lord our stronger tower ;^ for ' they 
who know thy name, will trust in thee :' and for direction 
herein, we must learn to trust in Qod. 

First, Absolutely, and for himself, because he only is ab- 
solute, and of himself. Other things, as they have their 
being, so have they their working, and power of doing good 
or evil only from him K And therefore' till he take himself 
away, though he take all other things away from us, we have 
matter of encouragement and rejoicing in the Lord still ; as 
David and Habakkuk resolve, 1 Sam. xxx. 6. HKb. iii. 17, 18. 
All tbe world cannot take away any promise from any ser- 
vant of God ; and there is more reality in the least promise 
of God, than in the greatest performance of the creature. 

Secondly, To trust him in the way of his commandments'^, 
not in any precipices or presumptions of our own ; *' Trust 
in him, and do good \'* First, fear him, and then trust in 
him ; he is a help and shield only unto such ^ It is high 
insolence for any man to lean upon God without his leave; 
and he alloweth none to do it, but such as * fear him, and 
obey the voice of his servants *.^ 

Thirdly, To trust him in the way of his providence*", and 
the use of such means as he hath sanctified and appointed. 
Though man liveth not by bread alone, but by the Word of 
blessing which proceedeth out of the mouth of God ; yet 

' Mfttth. iv. 4. John zix. II. 8 Nihil Rex majus minari male parentibos 

potest, quam ut abeat e regno. Senec, Epist. 80. — ^Tua roc non satiant, nisi te- 
cum. Bern. Soliloq.— Ubi bene erit sine illo ? aut ubi male esse potent cum illo ? 
Bern, Set. 1. de Adven. Dei. — Ditior Christi paupercas cunctts. Id, Ser. 4. in 
Vigil. Natal. — Bonum mihi, Domine, in camino habere te mecum, quam esse sine 
te, Tel in coelo. Idem. ^ Nolite sperare in iniquitate, nolite peccare in spe. 

Bern. Ser. 2. de Advent. In viis custodiet ; nunquid In praecipitiis > Bern. Scrm. 
14. Pial. <Qui habitat/ ^ Psalm jxxvii. 3. ^ Ptalm cxt. 11. 

* Isai. 1. 10. « Vid. Aug. de Opcre Mona. et Qu. in Gen. 1. 1. qu. 26. 

Vers. 3, 4.] FOURTEENTH CHAPTER OF H08EA. 289 

that Word is by God annexed to bread, and not to stones : 
mnd that man should not trust God, but mock and tempt 
him, who should expect to have stones turned into bread, if 
God hath provided stairs, it is not faith, but fury, — not con- 
fidence, but madness, to go down by a precipice: where 
God prescribes means, and affords secondary helps, we must 
obey his order, and implore his blessing in the use of them. 
This was Nehemiah's way ; he prayed to God, and he peti- 
tioned the king °. This was Esther's way ; a fast to call upon 
God, and a feast to obtain favour with the king ®. This was 
Jacob's way ; a supplication to God, and a present to his 
brother P. This was David's way against Goliath ; the ' name 
of the Lord * his trust, and yet a sling and a stone his wea- 
pon^. This was Gideon's way against the Midianites; his 
•word must go along with the sword of the Lord, not as an 
addition of strength, but as a testimony of obedience'. 
Prayer is called sometimes a lifting up of the * voice,'' — some- 
times, a lifting up of the ' hands ;' to teach us, that when we 
pray to God, we must as well have a hand to work *, as a 
toogoe to beg. In a word, we must use second causes in 
obedience to God's order, not in confidence of their help ; 
the creature must be the object of our diligence, but God 
only the object of our trust. 

Sbct. 8. Now lastly, from the ground of the church's 
prayer and promise, we learn, that the way unto mercy' is to 
be in ourselves fatherless. " The poor,^ saith David, " com- 
mitteth himself unto thee ; thou art the helper of the father- 
leas*.*' When Jehoshaphat knew not what to do, then was 
a fit time to direct his eye unto God ''. When the stones of 
Sion are in the dust, then is the fittest time for God to favour 
her^. When Israel was under heavy bondage, and had not 
Joseph, as a tender father (as he is called *), to provide for 
them, then God remembered that he was their father, and 
Israel his first-born *. Nothing will make us seek for help 
above ourselves, but the apprehension of weakness within 

■ Neh. ti. 4. • Etther it. 16. v. 4. P Gen. zxxii. 9, \X 1 1 Sam. 

t?it 45, 49. ^ Judg. Tii. 18. • Dii prohtbebunt hsc ; sed non propter me 
de ccelo deicendeot : Tobit dent meotem oportet, ut probibeatis. Liv, 1. 9. 
* Pitiem mitericordiarum patrem etie necesse est etiam miscrorum. Bern, Serm. 1 . 
io Fctt. Omnium Sanct. • Pialm x. 14. cxlvi. 9. > 2 Chron. xx. 19. 

' Ptelm cH. 13. * Gen. zli. 43. » Exod. iv. 22. 




iMirselves. Those creatures that are weakest, nature hatli 
put an aptitude and incliuation in them to depend upon those 
that are stronger. The vine ^ the ivy, the hop, the wood- 
bind, are taught by nnture to clasp, and clini;, and wind 
about stronger trees. The greater sense we have of our own 
vilenesa, the filter disposition are we in to rely on God. 
" I will leave in the midst of thee an afflicted and poor peo- 
ple, and they shall trust in the name of the Lord*"." When a 
man is proud within, and hath any thing of his own to lean 
upon, he will hardly tell how to trust in God ''. Urael never 
thought of returning to her first husband, til! her way was 
hedged up with thorns, and no means left to enjoy her for- 
mer lovers*. When the enemy should have shut up, and 
intercepted all her passages to Dan and Bethel, to Bgypt 
and Assyria, that she hath neither friends nor idols to Ay 
to ; then she would think of returning to her first husband, 
namely, to God a^ain, 

Now from hence we learn. First, The condition of the church 
in this world, which is, to be as an orphan, destitute of all 
succour and favour; as an outcast, whom no man looketfa 
after ^ Paul ibought low thoughts of the world, and the 
world thought as basely of him: " The world," saiih he, 
" is crucified unto me, and I unto the world*." Before con- 
version, the world is an Hgypt unto us, a place of bondage : — 
after conversion, it is a wildernesa unto us, a place of enipti- 
ness and temptations. 

Secondly, The backwardness of man towards grace; we gc 
not to God til! we are brought to extremities, and all otiiw 
help fails UB. The poor prodigal never thoujj;ht of looking 
after a father, till he found himself in a fatherless condition, 
and utterly destitute of all relief'. 

Thirdly, The right disposition and preparation unto mercvi 
which is to be an orphan, destitute of all self-confidence, aad 
broken off from all other comforts. " When the poor and 
needy seeketh water, and there is none, I the Lord will help 
him '." God will " repent for his people, when he neelh that 

If Viles,>tbotihu9«pplic>tBi, infeilgrespnui appnhendEndci ramoi, in 
eviilunl. tbanlil. lib. 1. 2. 26. Spilding, i. 48,— Hcden dicu, quod 
Fntui. ' Zepli. iii. 12. Ini. liv. 32. d Piov. iii. 5. KztJii. 25. 
ii. G, 7. fiei.xxt. 17. (Gil.n. U. >> Luke tv. 17, IB. 


their power is gone ^ ;" when there is ' dignus vindice no- 
dot/ aD extremity fit for divine power to interpose. Christ 
is set forth as a physician, which supposeth sickness ; as a 
fountain, which supposeth uncleanness ; as meat, which su|)> 
poseth emptiness ; as clothing, which supposeth nakediies»s. 
He never finds us, till we are lost sheep : when we have lost 
all, then we are fit to follow hioi, and not before. 

Fourthly, The roots of true repentance. ' Nos pupilli, Tu 
misericors.* The sense of want and emptiness in ourselves, 
the apprehensioD of fiivour and mercy in God. Conviction 
of sin in us^ and of righteousness in him* ;— of crookedness 
in OS, and of glory in him ". 

Hereby room is made for the entertainment of mercy: 
^' Where sin abounds, grace will more abound ;** and the 
more the soul finds itself exceeding miserable, the more will 
the mercy of God appear exceeding merciful ". And hereby 
God showeth his wisdom in the seasonable dispensing of 
osercy then, when we are in greatest extremity ; as fire is 
hottest in the coldest weather. God delights to be seen in 
the mount, at the grave, to have his way in the sea, and his 
paths in the deep waters. Mercies are never so sweet, as 
when they are seasonable ; and never so seasonable as in the 
very turning and critical point, when misery weighs down, 
and nothing but mercy turns the scale. 

This teacheth us how to fit ourselves for the mercy of 
God, namely, to find ourselves destitute of all inward or out- 
ward comforts, and to seek for it only there. Beggars do 
not put on scarlet, but rags^ to prevail with men for relief: 
as Benhadad's servants put on ropes» when they would beg 
mercy of the King of Israel. In a shipwreck, a roan will not 
load him with money, chains, treasure, rich apparel ; but 
commit himself to the sea naked, and esteem it mercy enough 
to have * tabulam post naufragium,' one poor plank to carry 
him to the shore. It is not exaltation enough unto Joseph, 
except he be taken out of a prison unto honour. 

Secondly, We should not be broken with diffidence or dis- 
trust in times of trouble ; but remember, it is the condition 

^ Deot. xxxii. 36. l John ivi. 9, 10. m ]«ai. zl. 4, 5. » Rom. v. 20. 

* Mcndid cum elccmotyiiam pctoat, non pretio&ai vcstes osiendunt, scd scminu- 
da membra, aut alccra, ti habucrint ; ut ciuu% ad misrricordiam videntis animus 
iadifietaf : Bern. Scrm. 4. dc Advent. 

u 2 


of the church to be an orphan. It is the way, whereby 
Moses became to be the son of Pharaoh's daughter : when 
his own parents durst not own him, the mercy of a prince 
found him out to advance him ; and when he was nearest 
unto perishing, he was nearest unto honour. In the civil 
law P, we find provision made for such as were cast out, and 
exposed to the wide world, some hospitals to entertain 
them, some liberties to comfort and compensate their trou- 
ble. And alike care we find in Christ: the Jews had no 
sooner cast out the man, that was born blind, whose pa- 
rents durst not be seen in his cause, for fear of the like usage, 
— but the mercy of Christ presently found him, and bestow- 
ed comfort upon him^. This is the true David % unta whom 
all helpless persons, that are in distress, in debt, in bitter- 
ness of sonl, may resort, and find (entertainment •. 

Lastly, We should learn to behave ourselves as pupils 
under such a guardian, to be sensible of our infancy, mino- 
rity *, disability to order or direct our own ways, and so deny 
ourselves, and not lean on our own wisdom ; to be sen- 
sible how this condition exposeth us to the injuries of stran- 
gers, — for " because we are called out of the world, there- 
fore the world hateth us" — and so to be vigilant over our 
ways, and not trust ourselves alone in the hands of tempta- 
tion, nor wander from our guardian, but always to yield unto 
his wisdom and guidance. Lastly, to comfort ourselves in 
this. That while we are in our minority, we are under the 
mercy of a Father, a mercy of conservation by his provi- 
dence, giving us all good things richly to enjoy, even all 
things necessary unto life and godliness : — a mercy of pro- 
tection, defending us by his power from all evil : — a mercy 
of education and instruction, teaching us by his Word and 
Spirit: — a mercy of communion many ways, familiarly con- 
versing with us, and manifesting himself unto us: — a mercy 
of guidance and government, by the laws of his family : — 

p Leg. 19. Cod. de Sacros. Ecclesiis ct leg. 46. Cod. de EpiscopisetCler. Sect. 
1, 3. — Vid. Tholos. Syntag. Juris. 1. 15. c. 28. ^ John ix. 35. ' David ho- 

mines, in Hngustia constitutos et oppresses apre alieno, in suam tutelam sosci- 
piens, typus Christi est, publicanos et peccatores recipicntis : GUus, Philolog. Sacr. 
lib* 2. page 424. — Parentum amor magis in ea quorum miseretur, inclinatur. Sen, 
Epist. 6*1 Ruhkopf, toI. 2. p. 303. • 1 Sam. xzii. 2. t Tutela vis est 

et potestas in capite libera ad tuendum eum, qui, propter statem suam, sponte te 
defendere nequit : D. deTutelis, L« 1. 


a mercy of discipline, fitting us, by fatherly chastisements, 
for those further honours and employments he will advance 
us unto. And when our minority is over, and we once are 
come to a perfect man ; we shall then be actually admitted 
unto that inheritance immortal, invisible, and that fadeth not 
away, which the same mercy at first purchased, and now 
prepareth and reserveth for us. Now it followeth, 

Verse IV. " / will heal their backsliding^ I will love them 
frtdy: for mine at^er is turned awaif from him.*' 

Sect. 9. In the former words, we have considered both 
IsraeFs petition in time of trouble, and the promise and co* 
veoant, which thereupon they bind themselves in. In these 
and the consequent words, unto the end of the eighth verse, 
we have the gracious answer of God to both ; promising 
in his free love both to grant their petition, and, by his free 
grace, to enable them unto the performance of the covenant 
which they had made. 

The petition consisted of two parts: 1. That God would 
take away all iniquity. 2. That he would do them good, or 
receive them graciously. To both these, God giveth them 
a fill] and a gracious answer : 1. That he will take away all 
iniquity, by healing their backsliding, 2. That he would do 
them good, and heap all manner of blessings upon them, 
which are expressed by the various metaphors of fruitfulness, 
opposite to the contrary expressions of judgement, in the 
former part of the prophecy. 

'^ / will heal their backsliding,'*] This is one of the names 
by which God is pleased to make himself known unto his 
people, '* I am the Lord that healeth thee ** ;" and, ** Return. 
O backsliding children, and I will heal your backslidings'.^* 
Now God healeth sin four manner of ways : — 
First, By a gracious pardon, burying, covering, not im- 
puting them unto us. So it seems to be expounded, Psalm 
ciii« 3 ; and that which is called healing in one place, is 
called forgiveness in another, if we compare Matthew xiii. 
15. with Mark iv. 12. 

Secondly, By a spiritual and effectual reformation, purg- 
ing the conscience from dead works, making it strong and 
able to serve God in new obedience ; for that which health 

" Exod. XV. 26. * Jcr. iii. 22. 


is to the body^ holiness is to the soul. Therefore the* Sun of 
righteousness is said to ••* arise with healing in his wings *:'' — 
whereby we are to understand the gracifons influence of the 
Holy Spirit, conveying the virtue of the blood of Christ tinto 
the conscience ; even as the beams of the sun do the heat 
and influence thereof unto the earth, thereby calling out the 
herbs and flowers, and healing those deformities which win- 
ter had brought upon it. 

Thirdly, By removing and withdrawing of judgements, 
which the sins of a people had brought, like wounds or sick- 
nesses, upon tbem. So healing is opposite to smiting and 
wounding *. 

Fourthly, By comforting against the anguish and distressy 
which sin is apt to bring upon the conscience. For as, in 
physic, there are purgatives to cleanse away corrupt hu- 
tnours, so there are cordials likewise, to strengthen and re- 
fresh weak and dejected patients : and this is one of Christ's 
principal works, ^* To bind and heal the broken in heart* to 
restore comforts unto mourners, to set at liberty them tbat 
are bruised, and to have ntercy upon those whose bones are 
vexed ^" I am not willing to shut any of these out df the 
meaning of the text. 

First, Because it is an answer to that prayer, ** Take 
avmy all iniquity ;^' the all that is in it, the guilt, the staiii^ 
the power, the put)ishment, the anguish, whatever evil it 
is apt to bring upon the conscience ; let it not do us anjr 
hurt at all. 

Secondly, Because God's works are perfect : where he for- 
gives sin, he removes it ; where he convinceth of rigbteons- 
ness, unto pardon of sin, — he convinceth also of judgement, 
unto the casting out of the Prince of this world, and bring- 
eth forth that judgement unto victory '. 

" Their backsliding,*'} Their prayer was against " all 
iniquity ;^' and God, in his answer thereunto, singleth out 
one kind of iniquity, but one of the greatest by name : and 
that. First, To teach them and us, when we pray against sin, 
not to content ourselves with generalities, but to bewail our 
great and special sins by name ; those especially that have 

* Mai. i?. 2. • Deut. xxxii. 39. Job v. 18. Hos. vi. 1, 2. Jer. xxziit. 5, 6. 

» Psalm cxlvii. 3. kai. Ivii. 18, 19. Luke iv. 18. Pialm ri. 2, 3. « MaiUi. 

zii. 20, 


been most comprebeoaive, and the seminaries of many 

Secondly, To comfort them ; for if God pardon by name 
the greatest sin, then surely none of the rest will stand in 
tbe way of bis mercy : if he pardon the talents^ we need not 
doubt but he will pardon the pence too. Paul was guilty 
of many other sins; but when he will magnify the grace of 
Christ, he makes mention of his great sins : a blasphemer, 
a persecMitor, injurious ; and comforts himself in the mercy 
which he bad obtained against them ''. 

Thirdly, To intimate the great guilt of apostasy and re- 
bellion against God. After we have known him% and tasted 
of bis mercy, and given up ourselves unto his service, and 
eome out of Egypt and Sodom, — ^then to look back again, 
and to be false in his covenant ; this God looks on, not as 
a single sin* but as a compound of all sins. When a man 
tarns from God« he doth, as it were, resume and. take home 
mpon his conscience all the sins of his life again. 

Fourthly, To proportion his answer to their repentance. 
They coofess their apostasy: they had been in covenant 
with God; they confess he was their " first husband 'i*^ and 
they foraook him, and sought to horses, to men, to idols, 
to Tanity and lies : this is the sin they chiefly bewail ; and 
therefore this is the sin, which God chiefly singles out to 
pardon, and to heal them of. This is the great goodness of 
God towarda those, that pray in sincerity, that he fits his 
meicy ^ ad cardinem desiderii <," answers them in the main 
of tiusir desires ; lets it be unto them, even as they will. 

Skct. 10. ^ I will lave them^/reelj/.*'] This is set down as the 
fonntain of that remission, sanctification, and comfort, which 
it bare promised. It comes not from our conversion unto 

< 1 TUn. i. 13. • Uc aqua, prius calefacu, dein in putcum dcmisM, fit fri- 

pdiKtiiia: CiUfLub. in Athensum, 1. 3. c. 35. — Et Plutarch. Symposiac. 1. 6.q. 4. 
' Hot. ii. 7. S /4ug. Confcfl. lib. 5. cap. 8. ^ Si vera fit gratia, id est, gratuita, 
nftfl invenit in bomlne, cui mcrito dcbeatur, &c. Avg. lib. de patient, c. 20.— 
VM. eoot. Julimn. lib. 6. cap. 19.^1>t peccato orig. cap. 24.— de grat et lib. ar- 
hicnp. S/— Qe nator. et gnit. cap. 4. — De correpL et gr. c. 10. — Epist. 105 et 
106, et alibi passim. — ^Tenier^ in Uli negotio» vcl prius aliqoid tribuis tibi, vel 
plna et magis ; amat, et ante : Bernard, Serm. 69. in Can. — Ex se sumit materi- 
aa, ct velut quoddam seminarium miserandi : miserendi causam et origioem 
flUBit ez pfopiio ; judicandi vel alcitcsndi magis ex oostro. Idem. Serm. 5. in 
natali Donu 


Uody but from God's free love and grace unto us. And this 
is added. First, To humble them, that they should not as- 
cribe any thing to themselves, their repentance, their prayers, 
their covenants and promises, as if these had been the means 
to procure mercy for them; or as if there were any objective 
grounds of loveliness in them, to stir up the love of God 
towards them. It is not for their sake that he doth it, bnt 
for his own : " The Lord sets his love upon them, because 
he loved them V " Not for your sakes do I this," saith the 
Lord God, " be it known unto you*' :" " He will have mercy, 
because he will have mercy ^/^ 

Secondly, To support them, above the guilt of their 
greatest sins. Men think nothing more easy, while they live 
in sin, and are not affected with the weight and heinousness 
of it, than to believe mercy and pardon. But when the 
soul, in conversion unto God, feels the heavy burden of 
some great sins, — when it considers its rebellion, and apos* 
tasy, and backsliding from God, — it will then be very apt to 
think, God will not forgive nor heal so great wickedness as 
this. There is a natural Novatianism in the timorous con- 
science of convinced sinners, to doubt and question pardon 
for sins of apostasy and falling, after repentance. Therefore, 
in this case, God takes a penitent off from the consideration 
of himself by his own thoughts, unto the height and ex- 
cellency of his thoughts, who knows how to pardon abun* 
dautly "*. Nothing is too hard for love ; especially free love, 
that hath no foundation or inducement from without itself. 

And because we read it before, Hos. viii. 5, that *' God's 
anger was kindled against them;" therefore he here adds, 
that this also should be ''turned away^ from them. Anger* 
will consist with love. We find God angry with Moses, and 
Aaron, and Miriam, ai^d Asa ; and he doth sometimes '' visit 
with rods and scourges, where he doth not utterly take away 
his loving kindness from a people °." A man may be angrj 
with his wife, or child, or friend, whom yet he dearly loveth. 
And God is said to be thus angry with his people, when the 
effects of displeasure are discovered towards them. Now 

< Deuc. vii. 7, 8. k Ezek. xxxvi. 22, 23. i Rom. ix. 15. « Ini. 

Iv. 7, 8, 9. Jer. xxix. U. Ezek. xxxvii. 3. ^ Arist, Rbet I. 2, c 8. 

t Psalm Ixxxix. 32, 33. 


upon their repentance and conversion, God promiseth not 
only to love them freely, but to clear up his countenance to- 
wards them; to make them, by the removal of judgements. 
Id see and know the fruits of his free love and bounty unto 
them. When David called Absalom home from banishment, 
this was an effect of love ; but when he said, " Let him not 
tee my face," this was the continuation of anger : but at last, 
when he admitted him into his presence, and kissed him, 
liere that anger was turned away from him too p. 

Sect. 11. These words then contain God's merciful answer 
to the 6rst part of Israers prayer, for the " taking away of all 
iniqaity,* which had been the fountain of those sad judge- 
meats, under which they languished and pined away : where- 
in there are two parts. 1. The ground of God's love. 2. A 
doable fruit of that love. 1. In ' healing their backsliding/ 
in ' removing his anger* and heavy judgements from them. 
We will briefly handle them in the order of the text 

" I will heal their backsliding.* ''\ When God's people do 
return unto him, and pray against sin, — then God, out of his 
free love, doth heal them of it. First, he teacheth them what 
to ask; and then he tells them what he will give. Thus we 
find 'conversion' and ' healing' joined together *>. "They 
aball return even to the Lord, and he shall be entreated of 
them, and shall heal them^:" '^Return, backsliding chil- 
dren ; I will heal your backslidings *." Men ', if they be 
injured and provoked by those whom they have in their 
power to undo, though they return and cry ' peccavi/ and 
are ready to ask forgiveness, — yet many times, out of pride 
and revenge, will take their time and opportunity to repay 
the wrong. But God doth not so ; his pardons, as all his 
other gifts, are without his exprobration : as soon as ever his 
servants come back unto him with tears and confession, he 
looks not upon them with scorn, but with joy : his mercy 
■nkes more haste to embrace them, than their repentance to 

9 2 Sua. liw. 21, 24^33. s Psalm vi. 10. Miai.xii.22. •Jcr.iii.23. 
*£frif 7«(p r« x^^'"^ '^^ aJrfifMp «iraWi|^ *kwd yi icai fur^ur^tw Jix^ 
»ifrWfifpmr9\ia^,*E)^0r^9weaflo!ffi. Horn. II. i. 81. — Oua in pnescns Ti- 
beriitt civiliter habuit, sed in animo revolvcnte iras, etiamsi impetuf ofieiuionifl 
Uogoerat, memoria Talebac Tac, Annal. 1. 4. Non enim Tiberium, quamvis 
triennio pott caedem Sqani, quae c«terot mollire lolent, tcmput, praoes, lacb 
niiisalMnt, qain incerta et abolica pro gnvisaimis et rccentibus puniret. Anaal. 

1. 6.-.Vid.i#mlo/. Ethic. 1. 4. c. 11. 


return unto him ". Then out comes the wine, the oil, the 
balm, the cordials ; then the wounds of a Saviour do, as it 
were, bleed afresh, to drop in mercy into the sores of such a 
penitent. O though he be ' not a dutiful, a pleasant child,' 
yet he is a ' child :"* " though I spake against him, yet I re- 
member him still, my bowels are troubled for him ; I will 
surely have mercy upon him'/' The Lord greatly com- 
plains of the inclination of his people to backsliding, and 
yet' he cannot find in his heart to destroy them, but ex- 
presseth a kind of conflict ^ between justice and mercy ; and 
at last resolves, " ' I am God, and not mdn ;' I can as well 
heal their backsliding by my love, as revenge it by my jus- 
tice ; therefore ' I will not execute the fierceness of mine 
dnger, but I will cause them to walk after the Lord '.' " Yea, 
so merciful he is, that, even upon a hypocritical conver- 
sion, when his people did but flatter and lie unto him, and 
their heart was not right towards him, nor they steadfast in 
his covenant, >-yet the textsaith, he, ''being full of compas- 
sion, forgave their iniquity," (not as to the justification of 
their persons, for that is never without faith unfeigned, but 
so far as to the mitigation of their punishment, that ' he de- 
stroyed them not, nor stirred up all his wrath against 
them^f) — for so that place is to be expounded, as appeareth 
by the like parallel place, Ezek. xxiii. 17: *' Nevertheless 
mine eye spared them from destroying them ; neither did I 
make an end of them in the wilderness." 

Now the ffietaphorical word, both here, and so often else- 
where used iH this argument, leadeth us to look upon sin- 
ners as patients, and upon God as a physician. By which 
two considerations we shall find the exceeding mercy of 
God in the pardon and purging away of sin, set forth 
unto us. 

Sect. 12. ' Healing ' then is a relative word ; and leads 
us first to the consideration of a patient, who is to be 
healed ; and that is here a grievous sinner fallen into a re- 
lapse. Healing is of two sorts : the healing of a sickness 
by a physician ; the healing of a wound by a surgeon : 

* Luke zv. 20. * Jer. zxxii. 20. 7 GraTis quadam inter virtutes vidctur 
om ooQtentio : ttqaidem verioi et justida mifcrum affligebant ; pax et mitefi- 
eordUi judicabtnt magia esse paroendum, &c. vid. Bern, Scr. 1 . in An. a Hof. 

xi. 7, 10. a Psalm Ixxviii. 34, 39. 


and sin is both a sickness and a wound. ** The whole head 
is sick, the whole heart faint : from the sole of the foot, eren 
unto the head, there is no soundness in it, but wounds, and 
Imiitesy and putrefying sores <":*" — a sickness that wants 
healing, a wound that wants binding^;— a sick sinner that 
wants a physician to call to repentance * ; — a wounded sin- 
oer that wants a Samaritan (so the Jews called Christ' ) to 
bind up and pour in wine and oil '. 

Diseases are of several sorts ; but those of all other most 
dangerous, that are in the rital parts ; as all the diseases of 
sin are, and from thence spread themseWes over the whole 
man. ignorance, pride, carnal principles, corrupt judgement, 
— diseases of the head: — hardness, stubbornness, atheism, 
rebellion, — diseases of the heart : — lust, a dart in the liver : 
*-comipt communication, the effect of putrefied lungs: — 
gluttony and drunkenness, the swellings and dropsies of the 
belly : — despair and horror, the grief of the bowels : — apos- 
tasy, a recidivation or relapse into all :— an ear that cannot 
hear God speak ^ : — an eye quite daubed up, that cannot see 
him strike ' : — a palate out of taste, that cannot savour nor 
relish heavenly things^: — lips poisoned ^^ :— a tongue set on 
fire ^ : — flesh consumed, bones sticking out, sore vexed and 
broken to pieces "*. Some diseases are dull, others acute ; 
some stupifying, others tormenting : — sin is all ; a stupify- 
iog palsy, that takes away feeling ° ; a plague in the heart, 
which sets all on fire *. 

Let us consider, a little, the proper passions atfd effects of 
most diseases, and see how they suit to sin. 

First, Pain and distemper. This, first or last, is in all sin ; 
for it begets in wicked and impenitent men the pain of 
guilt >*; horror, trembling of heart, anguish of conscience, 

• Ini. i. 3, 6. ^ Ezek. xxxiv. 4. • Matth. ix. 12, 13. ' John viii. 4S. 
I Loke z. 34. h Jer. vi. 10. < Jer. Ixiv. 18. Itai. xxvi. 11. J Rom. 

WW. 5. ^ Rom. iii. 13. ^ James iii. 6. » Job xxxiii. 21. Psalm vi. 2. 

li. B. B Ephcs. IT. 19. • 1 Kings Yiii. 38. Hos. vii. 4. P IVccatum 

qaod Innltum videtur, habet pediiscquam pcenam f uam, si nemo de admUsi niai 
amifitodine doleac; Au^, dfi Continent, c. 6.-^Memorta Testis, Rado Index, 
TdDor Caraifex : Btm, Ser. de villico iniq. — Omne malum ant timore aut pudorc 
ouarm snSudic. TtrU Apol. c. 1. — Pterturbatio aoimi, respicientis pcocata sua; r*- 
tpecCkme perbonrescentis ( horrore enibescentis i erabesctntia corrigentii. Au%, 
in P^ 30. Con. 1.— Morbus est ipurrla t§ ih'Mif 9tdB%^tt, i^* (t ^WpyiMV A ^ ysp ur 
BMmrm^Qif Go/m.— Habitus corporis conua naturam, usum ejus ad id fecit 


fear of wrath, expectation of judgement and fiery indigna- 
tion, as in Cain, Pharaoh, Ahab, Felix^ and divers others *». 
And in penitent men it begets the pain of shame and sorrow, 
and inquietude of spirit, a wound in the spirit, a prick in the 
very hearts * Penitency * and * pain * are words of one deri- 
vation, and are very near of kin unto one another : — never 
was any wound cured without pain ; never any sin healed 
without sorrow. 

Secondly, Weakness and indisposedness to the actions of 
life. Sin is like an unruly spleen, or a greedy wen in the 
body, that sucks all nourishment, and converts all supplies 
into its own growth, and so exhausts the strength and vi- 
gour of the soul, making it unfit and unable to do any good. 
Whenever it sets about any duty, till sin be cured, it goes 
about it like an arm out of joint*; which, when you would 
move it one way, doth fall back another. It faints, and 
fiags, and is not able to put forth any skill, or any delight 
unto any good duty. Naturally men are reprobate, or void 
of judgement unto any good work K Godliness is a mys- 
tery, a spiritual skill and trade ; there is learning, and use» 
and experience, and much exercise required to be handsome 
and dexterous about it ". To be sinners, and to be without 
strength, in the apostle's phrase, is all one''. And look how 
much flesh there is in any man, so much disability is there 
to perform any thing that is good \ Therefore the hands of 
sinners are said to hang down, and their knees to be feeble, 
and their feet to be lame, that cannot make straight paths 
till they be healed*. If they, at any time, upon natural dic- 
tates, or some sudden strong conviction, or pang of fear, or 
stirrings of conscience, do offer at any good work, to pray» 
to repent, to believe, to obey, they bungle at it, and are out 
of their element : they are wise to do evil, but to do good 
they have no knowledge. They presently grow weary of 

fleterioretn, cujus causA nature nobis ejus corporis sanitatem dedit. Leg. 1. Sect. 1, 
D. de i£dilitio Edict. q Gen. iv. 13, 14. Ezod. ix. 27, 28. 1 Kings zzi. 27. 

Acts xxiv. 25. Isai. xxxiii. 14. Heb. ii. 15. Rom. riii. 15. Heb. x. 27. 
rRom. vi. 21. £zek. xvi. 61. 2 Cor. vii. 10. Proy. xyiii. 14. Acts ii. 37. 
* Ka$4ir9p rd trapaXcXvfUKa rou trd/un-os yuipia §U rd 8€(<d upoaifiowfiiwwm 
«ciir^ai, rodvairrlov fls rd dpurrtpd trapo^prreu. ^rist, Elh. 1. i. cult. « Tit. 
ii. 16. « I Tim. iii. 16. Phil. iv. 11. Hcb.iv. 13, 14. » Rom. v. 6, t. 

J Rom. vii. 18. « Heb. xii. 12, 13. 

Vert, d, 4.] FOURTEENTH CIIArTEK OF liOSEA. 301 

any essays and oflTers at well-doing* and cannot hold out or 
perseyere in them. 

Thirdly, Decay and consumption. Sin wastes * and wears 
oot the vigour of soul and body ; feeds upon all our time 
and strength, and exhausts it in the services of lust. Sick- 
ness is a chargeable thing ; a consumption at once to the 
povoD and to the estate. The poor woman in the gospel, 
which had an issue of blood, " spent all that she had, on 
^ysicians, and was never the better^:" — so poor sinners 
enpty all the powers of soul, of body, of time, of estate, 
every thing within their reach, upon their lusts; and are as 
VDsatisfied' at last as at the first**. Like a silk-worm, 
which works out his own bowels into such a mass, wherein 
himself is buried ; it weareth them out, and sucketh away 
the radical strength in the service of it ; and yet never giveth 
them over, but, as Pharaoh's task-masters exacted the brick 
when ihey had taken away the straw, so lust doth consume 
aad weaken natural strength, in the obedience of it ; and 
yet when nature is exhausted, the strength of lust is as great, 
and the commands as tyrannous as ever before '• We are to 
distinguish between the vital force of the faculties, and the 
activity of lust which sets them on work : that decays and 
hastens to death, but sin retains its strength and vigour 
still: nothing kills that but the blood of Christ, and the 
decay of nature ariseth out of the strength of sin. The more 
any man, in any lust whatsoever, makes himself a servant of 
sin, and the more busy and active he is in that service,— the 
iBore will it eat into him, and consume him : as the hotter 
the fever is, the sooner is the body wasted and dried up 
by it. 

Foarthly, Deformity. Sickness withereth the beauty of 
the body, maketh it, of a glorious, a ghastly and loathsome 
spectacle. Come to the comeliest person living, after a long 
ttid pining sickness, and you shall not 6nd the man in his 
own shape: a wan countenance, a shrivelled flesh, a lean 
visage, a hollow and standing eye, a trembling hand, a stam- 

^TibificK mendi penurbationes. Cic. 4. Tusc. 36. ^ Luke viii. 43. «'A«Ai|r- 
vtt i^m 4>^«f ^pi^if. ArisL Eth. 1. 3. c. uU. Tloyripla rmv dySptivmf (hrXrior^p 
w liiy t i 4 ^^ hnBvfdas ^<^t, Polit. I. 2. Naturalii desideria finitm sunr ; 
tsiiba opinkme natcentta, ubi desinant, non habent, Sec* Sen, p. 16. Ex libiditic 
0*^ nne tcnniao sunt. Ep. 39. <^ Ecclct. i. 8. « Ini. U\\. 10. Jer. ii. 35. 


mering tongue, a bowed back, a feeble knee, a swelled belly; 
nothing left but the stakes of the heds^e, aud a few sinews to 
hold them together. Behold here the picture of a sinner, 
swelled ^ with pride*, pined with envy, bowed** with eartbli- 
ness, wasted and eaten up with lust, made as stinking and 
unsavoury as a dead carcase K When thou seest an unmer- 
ciful man, that hath no compassion left in him, — think thou 
sawest Judas or king Jehoram, whose sore disease made his 
bowels fall out ^. When thou seest a worldly man, whose 
heart is glued to earthly things, — think upon the poor wo- 
man, who was bowed together, and could not lift up. her- 
self ^ When thou seest a hypocrite walking crooked and 
unevenly in the ways of God, think upon Mephibosheth or 
Asa, lame, halting, diseased in their feet. When thou seest 
a proud ambitious man, think upon Herod, eaten up with 
vermin. O ! if the diseases of the soul could come forth 
and show themselves in the body, and work such deformity 
there (where it would not do the thousandth part so much 
hurt) as they do within ; — if a man could, in the glass of the 
Word, see the ugliness of the one, as plainly as, in a material 
glass, the foulness of the other ; how would this make him 
cry out, '' My head, my head ; my bowels, my bowels ; my 
leanness, my leanness; unclean, unclean!"^ No man thinks 
any shape ugly enough to represent a devil by : yet take 
him in his naturals, and he was a most glorious creature; it 
is sin that turns him into a serpent or dragon. There is 
something of the monster in every sin ; the belly or the feet, 
set in the place of the head or heart ; sensual and worldly 
lusts, set up above reason,— and corrupt reason, above 

Sect. 13. Now because the sickness, here spoken of^ is a 
felling sickness, and that the worst kind of fall, not forward 
in our way or race, as every good man sometimes falls, 
where a man hath the help of his knees and hands to break 
the blow, to prevent or lessen the hurt, and to make him lo 

' Inflatus et tumcns animus in vitio est. Sapientis animus nunquam cur- 
gescit, nunquam tumet. Cic. Tusc. Quaest. 1. 3. f Invidos aliArias rebut 

macreacit opimis. Hor, Ep. t. 2. 57. ^ O curvse in terras aniinae ei coelestraoi 
inanes. Pert. Ut corpora yerbenbus, ita ssevitia, libidine, malis conaultis animat 
dilaoeimtar. TacU. Annal. 1. 6. i Psalm xiv. 3. Ezck. xvi. 4. k 2 Chum. 

ixi. 19. iLukcxiii. 11. 


rise again; but old Eli'a falls, a ' falling backward/ where a 
man can put forth no part to sare the whole, and so doth 
more dangerously break and bruise himself thereby ; — there- 
fore as it is a sickness which requires curing, so it is a wound 
which requires healing and binding. The ancients compare 
it to foiling into a pit full of dirt and stones'", where a man 
doth not only defile, but miserably break and bruise himself. 
There is 'contritio, solutio continui, suppuratio, sanies/ &c. 
all the evils of a dangerous and mortal wound. 

Add to all this, that, in this diseased and wounded condi* 
lion, 1st. A man hath no power to heal or to help himself, 
bot in that respect he must cry out with them in the pro> 
phety ** My wound is incurable, and refuseth to be healed "." 
2d. He hath no desire, no will, no thought to enquire or 
•end afler a physician, who may heal him ; but is well con- 
tented rather to continue as he is, than to be put to the pain 
and trouble of a cure, and pleaseth himself in the goodness 
of his condition ^ 

3rd. He is in the hands of his cruel enemy, who takes no 
pity on him ; but by Battery and tyranny, and new tempta- 
tions, continually cherisheth the disease ^ 

4th. Wlien the true Physician comes, he shuts the door 
against him, refuses his counsel, rejecteth his receipts, 
quarrels with his medicines ; they are too bitter, or too 
strong and purging, or too sharp and searching ; he will not 
be healed at all, except it may be his own way ^. — Thus we 
have taken a view of the patient, sick, weak, pained, con- 
sumed, deformed, wounded, and sore bruised ; without power 
or help at home, without friends abroad : without sense of 
danger, no desire of change ; patient of his disease, impa- 
tient of his cure ; but one means in the world to help him, 
and he unable to procure it ; and, being offered to him, un- 
willing to entertain it: who can expect after all this, but to 

■ Cccidimui super aoerTum Upidum et in luto : iinde non lolDni inqainiti, 
■d gnriter vulnenui et quatuti tumus : Bern, Ser. 1. in Coena Dom. — Cecidi* 
ams in carcerem, luto pariter et Upidibus plenum, captivi, inquinati, cunquanatL 
Hem Ser. 2. in Octav. Paschse. — Ubens aegrotat, qui medico nen credit, nee 
■or bn m dedinat : Arisi, Ech. 1. 3. — O fortes, quibus medicis opus non est 1 for- 
titodotMa non sanitatis est, sed insanise ; nam et phreneticis nihil fortius ; scd 
<|nnto mqores vires, tanto mors vicinior. Aug, in Psal. 58. BJer. zt. 18. 
•Uv. UL 17. Matth. ix. 26. P 2 Tim. ii. 12. S Prov. i. 24, 25. 2 Chfon. 

Uavi. 16. Esck. zziv. 16. Matth. xxiii. 37. Jer. aiii. 11. 


hear the kuell ring, and to see the grave opened for such a 
sick person as this ? 

Sect, 14. Now let us take a view of the physician. 
Surely an ordinary one would be so far from visiting such a 
patient, that, in so desperate a condition as this, he would 
quite forsake him ; as their use is to leave their patients, 
when they lie a dying. Here then observe the singular 
goodness of this Physician : — 

First, Though other physicians judge of the disease when 
it is brought unto them; yet the patient first feels it, and 
complains of it himself: but this Physician glveth the 
patient the very feeling of his disease, and is fain to take 
notice of that as well as to minister the cure. " He went on 
frowardly in the way of his heart/' saith the Lord, and 
pleased himself in his own ill condition ; " I have seen his 
way, and will heal him ^" 

Secondly, Other patients send for the physician, and use 
many entreaties to be visited and undertaken by him : here 
the Physician comes unsent for, and entreats the sick person 
to be healed. The world is undone by falling off from God, 
and yet God is the first that begins reconciliation ; and the 
stick of it is in the world, and not in him : and therefore 
there is a great emphasis in the apostle's expression, ** God 
was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself," not himself 
unto the world. "He entreats us to be reconciled *.'^ " He 
is found of them that sought him not * ;" and his ofiice is not 
only ' to save/ but ' to seek that which was lost."" 

Thirdly, Other physicians are well used, and entertained 
with respect and honour : but our patient here neglects and 
misuseth his Physician, falls from him, betakes himself unto 
mountebanks and physicians of no value : yei he insists on 
his mercy, and comes when he is forsaken, when he is re- 
pelled : *^ I have spread out my hands, all the day, unto a 
rebellious people "." 

Fourthly^ Other physicians have usually ample and ho- 
nourable rewards * for the attendance thev ^ive : but this 
Physician comes out of love, heals freely; nay, is bountiful 
to his patient ; doth not only heal him, but bestows gifts 

r Isat. Wii. 17, 18. •2 Cor v. 19, 20. t Isai. Uv. 1. a Isai. Ixv. f. 

■ Medicos civitiCe dooivic Julius Caesar. Suet, in Jul. c 4. 


apon him ; gives the visit, gives the physic ; sends the 
ministers and servants, who watch and keep the patient ^. 

Lastly, Other physicians prescribe a '* bitter potion for 
ihe sick person to take ; this Physician drinketh of the 
bitterest himself :^-others prescribe the sore to be lanced ; 
this Physician is wounded and smitten himself: — others 
order the patient to bleed ; here the Physician bleeds him- 
self; — yea, he is not only the physician, but the physic ; 
and gives himself, his own Hesh, his own blood, for a pur- 
gative, a cordial, a plaister to the soul of his patient ; dies 
kimself, that his patient may live, and '* by his stripes we are 
healed '.'' 

Sect. 15. We should, from all this, learn, First.To admire 
the unsearchable riches of the mercy of our God, who is 
pleased in our misery to prevent us with goodness, and 
when we neither felt our disease, nor desired a remedy, is 
pleased to convince us of our sins, " Thou hast fallen by 
thine iniquity : " — To invite us to repentance ; " O Israel, 
return unto the Lord thy God:" — To put words into our 
mouth, and to draw our petition for us ; " Take with you 
words, and say unto him. Take away all iniquity,^ 8ic. — ^To 
famish as with arguments ; " We are fatherless, thoa art mer- 
ciful :" — To encourage us with promises ; " I will heal, I will 
love :^ — ^To give us his ministers to proclaim, and his Spirit to 
apply these mercies unto us. If he did not convince us, that 
iniquity would be a downfal and a ruin unto us ^: we should 
bold it fast, and be pleased with our disease ; like a mad- 
man that quarrels with his cure, and had rather continue mad 
than be healed ^ 

If being convinced, he did not invite us to repentance, we 
should run away from him, as Adam did. No man loves to 
be in the company of an enemy ; much less, when that 
enemy is a judge. They " have turned their back unto me, 
and not their face "*." Adam will hide himself' from the pre- 
tence of the Lord * ;" and Cain will go out ' from the pre- 
tence of the Lord ^' Guilt cannot look upon majesty; 

f Vii murborum precis medentibui ; fori ubes pecuniaro idTocatis fert. 
Tacit. AniuU. 1. 11. 6. * Isii. liii. 5. c pol ! me occiiUttit, amict ; non fcr* 

vftsds, lit: Herat, — Molescut ctt tomnium jucundom videnci qui excitit. Sen, 
•p. 102. bEick. xviii.^. ' Jer. it. 27. •Gen. iii. 8. 

' Geo. vt, 16. 



stubble dares not come near the tire. If we be in our sins, 
we cannot stand before God <. 

If being invited'', he did not ' put words into our mouths/ we 
should not know what to say unto him. We know not where- 
with to come before the Lord, or to bow before the high God, 
if he do not * show us whatis good *.' Where God is the judge, 
mho cannot be mocked or derided ; who knoweth all things; 
and if our heart condemn us, he is greater than our hearts ; and 
wherever we hide, can find us out, and make our sin to find 
us too*^; — where, I say, this God is the judge, there guilt 
stoppeth the mouth, and maketh the sinner speechless ^ 
Nay, the best of us ' know not what to pray for as we ought, 
except the Spirit be pleased to help our infirmities"".' When 
we are taught what to say, — if God do not withdraw his 
anger, we shall never be able to reason with him ° : ^' With* 
draw thine hand from me; let not thy dread make me afraid; 
then I will answer, then I will speak ^" If he do not reveal 
mercy ; if he do not promise love or healing ; ^f be do not 
make it appear that he is a God that beareth prayers ; flesh 
will not dare to come near unto him ^ We can never pray, 
till we can cry, ' Abba, Father ;' we can never call unto him 
but in the ' multitude of his mercies."* As the earth is shut 
and bound up by frost' and cold, and putteth not forth her 
precious fruits, till the warmth and heat of the summer call 
them out ; so the heart, under the cold affections of fear and 
guilt, under the dark apprehensions of wrath and judgement, 
is so contracted, that it knows not to draw near to God : but 
when mercy shines, when the love of God is shed abroad in 
it, then^also the heart itself is shed abroad and enlarged to 
pour out itself unto God. Even when distressed sinners 
pray, their prayer proceeds from apprehensions of mercy : 
for prayer is the child of faith**, and the object of faith is 

Sect. 16. Secondly, The way to prize this mercy, is to 
grow acquainted with our own sickness ; to see our fiace in 

t Ezra iz. 16. ^ Oratio de conscientia procedit : si conscientia erul>escit, 
erubescat oratio : si spiritns reot apad te sit, erubescit conscientia : TerL ex- 
hort. casUt. c. 10. » Mic. vi. 6, 8. k Gal. i\. 7. I John iii. 20. Numb, 
zzxii. 23. 1 Matth. zxiL 12. Rom. iii. 19. « Rom. Tiii. 26. > Job 
K. 13, 14. • Job xUi. 21, 22. p 2 Sam. wil 27. % Rom. z. IS. 
James ▼. 15. 


the glasa of the law ; to consider how odious it renders us 
to God, how desperately miserable in ourselves. The deeper 
the sense of misery, the higher the estimation of mercy. 
When the apostle looked on himself as the chief of sinners, 
then he accounted it a saying " worthy of all acceptation. 
That Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners ^" Till 
we be * sick and weary/ we shall not look after a ' physician 
to heal and ease us* ;' till we be * pricked in our hearts/ we 
riiall not be hasty to enquire after the means of salvation K 
Though the proclamation of pardon be made to *all, that 
wiilV yet none are willing, till they be brought to extremities : 
as men cast not their goods into the sea, till they see they 
mast perish themselves, if they do not. Some men must be 
boQod, before they can be cored. All that God doth to us 
in coDversion, he doth most freely: but a gift is not a gift 
till it be received * ; and we naturally refuse and reject Christ 
when he is oifered y, because he is not offered but upon these 
terms, — ' tl^t we deny ourselves, and take up a cross, and 
follow him :^ therefore, we must be wrought upon by some 
terror or other'. When we find the wrath of God abiding 
«{K>n iiB» and our souls shut under it as in a prison *, and the 
fire of it working and boiling, like poison, in our consciences ; 
then we shall value mercy, and cry for it as the prophet 
dotb, '* Heal me, O Lord, and I shall be healed ; save me, 
and I ahall be saved, for thou art my praise K*" Things ne- 
ceMAry are never to be valued to their uttermost, but in ex* 
tremitiea. When there is a great famine in Samaria, an ass's 
head (which at another time is thrown out for carrion) will 
be more worth, than, in a plentiful season, the whole body 
of an ox. Nay, hunger shall, in such a case, overvote na- 
ture, and devour the very tender love of a mother : the life 
of a child shall not be so dear to the heart, as his flesh to 
the belly of a pined parent*^. As soon as a man finds a ship- 
wreck, a famine, a hell in his soul, till Christ save, feed, deliver 
it,«^immediately Christ will be the desire of that soul, and 
nothing in Heaven or earth valued in comparison of him. 
iThen that which was esteemed the ' foolishness of preaching' 

'1 Tim. i. 36. • Mfttth. ix. 13. xi. 2S. * Acts li. 37. « Rev. zxii. 17. 
SHIMII.T. 17. Johni. 13. 7 Isai. lih. 3 . John i. II. « 3 Cor. v. II. 

» Jolm in. 36. GaI. Hi. 33. ^ Jer. ivii. 14. c 2 Kings r\. 3», 3n. 

X 2 


before, shall be counted ' the power of God, and the wisdom 
of God f then every one of Christ's ordinances (which are 
the 'waters of the temple, for the healing of the sea/ that 
is, of many people**, and the 'leaves of the tree of life/ which 
are for the * healing of the nations %"* — and the ' streams of that 
fountain which is opened in Israel for sin and for undlean- 
ness ^, and the ' wings of the Sun of Righteousness/ where- 
by he conveyeth ' healing, to his church ^, shall be esteemed, 
as indeed they are, the riches, the glory, the treasure, the 
feast, the physic, the salvation of such a soul^/ And a man 
will wait on them with as much diligence and attention, as 
ever the impotent people did at the pool of Bethesda, when 
the angel stirred the water : and endure the healing severity 
of them, not only with patience, but with love and thank- 
fulness ; suffer reason to be captivated, will to be crossed, 
high imaginations to be cast down, every thought to be sub- 
dued, conscience to be searched., heart to be purged, lust to 
be cut off and mortified ; — in all things, will such a sick soul 
be contented to be dieted, restrained, and ordered, by the 
counsel of this heavenly Physician. 

Sect. 17. It is here next to be noted. That God promiseth 
to heal their * backslidings/ The word imports a departing 
from God, or a turning away again. It is quite contrary, 
in the formal nature of it, unto faith and repentance ; and 
implies that which the apostle calls a ' repenting of repent- 
ance K* By faith we come to Christ ^, and cleave to him, 
and lay hold upon him * ; but, by this, we depart, and draw 
back from him, and let him go°^. By the one, we prize 
Christ as infinitely precious, and his ways as holy and 
good"; by the other, we vilify and set them at nought, 
stumble at them, as ways that do not profit ^. For, a man 
having approved of God's way, and entered into covenants 

A EmIc. zUii. 8. • RcT. zxii. 2. f Zach. xiii. 1. f Mai. ui. 2. 

k Rom. xi. 12. Ephea. Ui. 8. 2 Cor. iit. 8, 11. W. 6, 7. Isai. xxv. 6. Rev. 
xix. 9. Luke iv. 18. Heb. ii. 3. James i. 21. John xii. 50. Acts xxriii. 28. 
1 2 Cor. vii. 10. k John ▼!. 37. Venire ad Christum, quid est altud qoam 

credendo convert! .' ^ug, de grat. et lib. arbit. ca. 5. — Transfugas arboribus sus- 
pendunt. Tacit, de morib. Germ.— Transfugas, ubicunque inventi fuerint, quasi 
hostes interficere licet ; 1. 3. s. 6. ad leg. Cornel, de Sicariis. D. ep. 1. 38. D. de 
poenis, s. 2, et 19. capdvis et postllminto, et 1. 3. de Re militari, s. 11. 1. 7. 

1 Heb. Ti. 18. Isai. Ivi. 2, 6. » Heb. x. 13, 28, 29. • Phil. Ui. 8. 

2 P^t. i. 4. • Matth. xxi.42. Acts iv. U. 1 Pet. ii. 7, 8. John xxi. 14, 15. 


with him, after this to go from his word, and fling up his 
bargain, and start aside like a deceitful bow ; of a]l other 
dispositions of the soul, this is one of the worst, to deal 
with our sins as Israel did with their servants p, dismiss 
them, and then take them again. It is the sad fruit of an 
* evil and unbelieving heart *< ;' and God threateneth such per. 
sons to 'lead them forth with the workers of iniquity V ^ 
cattle are led to slaughter, or malefactors to execution. And 
yet we here see God promiseth healing unto such sinners. 

For understanding whereof we are to know, that there is a 
twofold apostasy ; the one, out of impotency of affection 
and prevalency of lust, drawing the heart to look towards the 
old pleasures thereof again ; and it is a recidivation or re- 
lapse into a former sinful condition, out of forgetful ness and 
falseness of heart, for want of the fear of God to balance 
the conscience, and to fix and imite the heart unto him. 
Which was the frequent sin of Israel, to make many pro- 
mises and covenants unto God, and to break them as fast*. 
And this falling from our first love \ growings cold and slack 
in duty, breaking our engagements unto God, and returning 
again to folly, — though it be like a relapse after a disease, 
exceeding dangerous, — yet God is sometimes pleased to for- 
give and heal it. 

The other kind of apostasy is proud and malicious ; 
when, afler the ' taste of the good Word of God, and the 
powers of the world to come,^ men set themselves to hate, 
oppose, persecute godliness ; to do despite to the Spirit of 
grace ; to fling off the holy strictness of Christ's yoke ; to 
swell against the searching power of his word ; to * trample 
upon the blood of the covenant ;"* and when they know the 
spiritualness and holiness of God's ways, the innocency and 
piety of his servants, do yet, notwithstanding, set them* 

pJer.xzxiT. 10, U. q Heb. iii. 12. ' PmIiiicxzv. 5. 'Judges 

iL 11, 12. Psalm cti. 7, 8. ii. 12. 13. < Eorum qui peccant ante quani Deum. 

ooverint, antequam miterationes ejus czperti sunt, anicquam poru\eiint jugum 
nave et onus leve, priutquara deYotionis gratiam ct coniolationes acceperint 
Spirims Sancti ; eorum, inquam, copiosa redemptio est : at eorum qui, post con- 
vcmonem suam, peccatis implicantur, ingiati accepts gratiae, et post roistam 
manam ad antrum retro respiciunt, tepidi et carnales facet ;— eorum utique 
perpaocos ioTenias, qui post hsc redeunt in gradum pristinum: nee amen, si 
quia bujosmodi est, desperamus de eo, tantum et resurgcrc velit cito : quanto 
cairn diotitts permanebit, tanto cvadct difficilius. Bern. Scrm. 3. in Vigil. — Vid. 
Stim. 35. in Cant.— >itfuf . dc Civ. Dei, lib. 6. cap. 30.— -i«M<. PWia. 1. 1. «p. 13. 


selves against them for that reason, though under other pre^* 
tences.^ This is not a weak, but a wilful, and (if I may 
so speak) a strong and a stubborn, apostasy ; a sin which 
wholly hardeneth the heart against repentance, and, by con- 
sequencei is incurable. * To speak against the Son of Man V 
that is, against the doctrine, disciples, ways, servants of 
Christ, — looking on him only as a man, the leader of a sect, 
as roaster of a new way (which was PauPs notion of Christ 
and Christian religion when he persecuted it, and ^ for which 
cause he found mercy ;' for had he done that knowingly, 
which he did ignorantly, it had been a sin incapable of 
mercy',) — thus to sin is a blasphemy that may be pardoned ; 
but to ^ speak against the Spirit V^l^^^ is, to oppose and 
persecute the doctrine, worship, ways, servants of Christ, 
knowing them, and acknowledging in them a spiritual holi* 
ness, and, ^ eo nomine,^ to do it, so that the formal motive of 
malice against them, is the power and lustre of that spirit 
which appeareth in them ; and the formal principle of it, 
neither ignorance, nor self-ends, but very wilfulness, and im- 
mediate malignity. Woe be to that man, whose natural en. 
mity and antipathy against godliness do ever swell to so 
great and daring a height ! " It shall not be forgiven him, 
neither in this world, nor in that which is to come ■ :*^ 
that is, say 8ome% neither in the time of life, nor in the 
point or moment of death, which translates them into the 
world to come. Others ^ not in this life by justification^ 
nor in the world to come by consummate redemption, 
and public judiciary absolution in the last day, which is 
therefore called •' the day of redemption," in which men 
are said to 'find mercy of the Lord*".* For that which 
^H here done in the conscience by the ministry of the 
Woi"^ and efficacy of the Spirit, shall be then publicly and 
udiciall' * pronounced by Christ's own mouth before angels 
and men ^. ^^^^^^ *• ''shall not be forgiven ;" that is, shall 
be plagued and ^^^nished both in this life, and in that to 
come. Give me lear^ *^ ^dd what I have conceived of the 
meaning of this place, tl^<^"gh "<> ^ay condemning the expo- 

o Vid. Beztt Annotat. in Jow. 5. \G. ' Acts xxvi.9. 1 Tim. i. 13. J Vid- 
/fidor . Pelut. lib. 1 . cp. 59. « Matth. xii. 3l » Beza, Calvin, Cariwrighi^ 
against the Rheraistt. «> Chemmt. Diodati. « Ephcs. It. 30. 2 Tim. i. 18. 
d2 Cor. V. 10. • CkrytosL ct ThwpkyUct. Broughfn EipUcat. of ihc h»- 

vclation, cap. 21. p. 301, 302. 

Vers. S, 4.] FOUET££NTH CHAPTER OF H08£A. 311 

titioDS of 80 great and learned men : I take it, *^ By this 
world/ we may understand the church which then was of 
the Jews« — or the present age, which our Saviour Christ then 
lived in. It is not, I think, insolent in the scripture, for the 
word 'age' or 'world' to be sometimes restrained to the 
' church.^ Now as Israel was God's first-born, and the first* 
fruits of his increase'; so the church of Israel is called the 

* church of the first-bom </ and the ' first tabernacle,' and a 

* worldly sanctuary V and * Jerusalem that now is*.** And 
then by the 'world to come/ we are to understand the 
' Christian church/ afterwards to be planted : for so fre- 
quently in scripture is the ' evangelical church ' called the 
' world to come/ and the ' last days,' and the ' ends of the 
world ;' and the things thereunto belonging, ' things to 
come,' which had been hidden from former ages and genera- 
tions, and were by the ministry of the apostles made known 
onto the church in their time, which the prophets and 
righteous men of the former ages did not see nor attain 
unto. Thus it is said, ** In these last days, God hath spoken 
to us by his Son ^ \*^ and " unto angels he did not put in 
subjection the world to come * :** and, " Christ was made a 
Higb^riest of good things to come " :^ and, " the law had a 
shadow of good things to con^e ° ;"" and the times of the gos. 
pel are called, ** ages to come "^ ;" and, " the ends of the 
world c.'' Thus legal and evangelical dispensations are usually 
distinguished by the names of times past, and the last days, 
or times to come *> : — The one, an earthly and temporary ; 
the other, a heavenly and abiding administration : — and so 
the Septuagint render the original word, nr '3m % "everiast- 
ing Father/' which is one of the names of Christ, by Tlcmtp 
Tov fftcXXovro^ oMPve;, " the Father of the world to come/' 

The meaning, then, of the place seems to be this, — That 
sins of high and desperate presumption, committed mali- 
ciously against known light, and against the evidence of 
God's spirit, as they had no sacrifice or expiation allowed 
for them in the former world, or state of the Jewish church, 
but they who in that manner despised Moses and his law, 
though delivered but by angels, " died without mercy * ;"— so 

'Exod. iv.22. Jer. xxxi.9. ii. 3. f Hcb. xii. 23. »» Heb. ix. I. 8. 

'Cd.iT. 25. k Heb. i. I. » Hcb. ii. 5. wHeb. ix. 11. •H«b.x. 1. 

•Epbcs.ii.7. PlCor.x. 11. ^Heb. i.l. Ephet. iti. i», 10. Col. i. 25, 26* 
' Isai. ix. 6. • Numb. xv. 27, 30, 31. Hcb. ii. 2, 3, 4. 


in the ' world to come/ or in the * evangelical church* 
(though grace therein should be more abundantly dtsco- 
yered and administered unto men), yet the same law shonld 
continue stilly as we find it did ^ ; neither the open enemies 
of Christ in the one, nor the false professors of Christ in the 
other, committing this sin, should be capable of pardon. 

This doctrine of apostasy, or backsliding, though worthy 
of a more large explication, I shall here conclude, with add- 
ing but two words more : — 

First, That we should beware, above all other sins, of this, 
of falling in soul as old Eli did in body, ' backward,' and so 
hazarding our salvation. If once we have shaken hands 
with sin, never take acquaintance with it any more; but 
say, as Israel here, " What have I to do any more with 
idols T" The church should be like Mount Sion, '' that can* 
not be moved." It is a sad and sick temper of a church to 
toss from one side to another ; and then especially, when 
she should be healed, to be •* carried about with every 

Secondly, We should not be so terrified by any sin, which 
our soul mourns and labours under, and our heart tumeth 
from, as thereby to be withheld from going to the physi- 
cian for pardon and healing. Had he not great power and 
mercy ; did he not love freely, without respect of persons, 
and pardon freely without respect of sins ; we might then be 
afraid of going to him : but when he extendeth forgiveness 
to all kinds, " iniquity, transgression, sin "," and bath ac- 
tually pardoned the greatest sinners, Manasses, Mary Mag- 
dalen, Paul, publicans, harlots, backsliders ; we should, 
though not presume hereupon to turn God's mercy into poi- 
son, and his grace into wantonness (for mercy itself will not 
save those sinners that hold fast sin, and will not forsake it), 
yet take heed of despairing, or entertaining low thoughts 
of the love and mercy of God : for such examples as these 
are set forth for the encouragement of all ** that shall ever 
believe unto eternal life * ;"" and the thoughts and waya 
which God hath to pardon sin, are " above our thoughts and 
ways," whereby we look on them in their guilt and great* 
ness, many times, as unpardonable ; and therefore are fit 

tHeb. ii. 2, 3, 4, 5. vi. 4, 5, 6. x. 26, 27, 28. »» Ezod. xuiv. 6. 

« 1 Tim. i. 16. 


matter for our faitb, even against nente, to believe and rely 

Sect. 18. Now foUoweth the fountain of this mercy ; '' / 
wiU lave them freety.*^ God's love is a most free and boun- 
tiful love, having no motive or foundation ' but within itself; 
and his free love and grace is the ground of all his other 
mercies to his people : '' he showeth mercy on whom, and 
because he will show mercy ."^ From the beginning to the 
end of our salvation, nothing is primarily active hut free 
grace : " freely loved ■ ;" •* freely chosen • C* ** Christ, the 
gift of free love**:" "his obedience freely accepted for us, 
and bestowed upon us" :" *' justification free ** ;" ** adoption 
free* ;** " faith and repentance free';'' "good works free';'' 
*• salvation free "* .*• Thus the foundation of all mercies is 
free love. We do not first give to Ood, that he may render 
to us again. We turn, we pray, we covenant, we repent, we 
are holy, we are healed, — only because he loves us : and he 
loves us, not because he sees any thing lovely or amiable in 
us, — but because he will show the absoluteness of his own 
will, and the unsearchableness of his own counsel towards 
us. We are not originally denominated good by any thing 
which floweth from us, or is done by us ; but by that which 
is bestowed upon us. Our goodness is not the motive of his 
love ; but his love the fountain of our goodness. None in- 
deed are healed and saved, but those that repent and return ; 
but repentance is only a condition, and that freely given by 
God, disposing the subject for salvation ; not a cause moving 
or procuring God to save us. It is necessary as the means 
to the end, — not as the cause to the effect. That which 
looks least free of any other act of God, his rewarding of 
obedience, is all and only mercy. When we sow in right- 
eousness, we must reap in mercy ^ ; when he renders ac- 
cording to our works, it is because of his mercy ^. 

This is the solid bottom and foundation of all Christian 
comfort. That God loves freely. Were his love to us to 
be measured by our fruitfulness or carriages towards him, 

* Com qaif propter nullam aliam cautam donat, quam at liber latem et muni- 

ficendam excrceat, httc proprie Donatio appcUatur. Julian. D. dc Donationib. 

lib. 1. 7 Uai. lv.57, 58. ■ Deut. vii. 7, 8. • Bphes. i. 5, 6. ^John 

iii. 16. eRofiUT. 15, 18. <> Rom. iii. 24. •Ephes. i.5. 'Phil. 

i-29. 2Ttin. ii. 25. f Ephes. ii. 10. ^ Tit. iii. 5. Acts xt. 1. > Hot. 

X.12. k Pnini Izii. 12. 


each hour and moment might stagger our hope : but he is 
therefore pleased to have it all " of grace, that the promise 
might be made sure ^" This comforts us against the guilt 
of the greatest sins ; for love and free grace can pardon 
what it will. This comforts us against the accusations of 
Satan, drawn from our own unworthiness — ** Tis true, I am 
unworthy ; and Satan cannot show me unto myself more 
vile, than, without his accusations, I will acknowledge my* 
self to be : but that love that gave Christ freely, doth give 
in him more worthiness, than there is, or can be, unworthi- 
ness in me.'" Tliis comforts us in the assured hope of 
glory; because when he loves, he loves to the end ; and no- 
thing can separate from his love. This comforts us in all 
afflictions,-~That the free love of God, who hath predes- 
tinated us thereunto, will wisely order it all unto the good 
of his servants ™. 

Our duty therefore it is. First, To labour for assurance of 
diia free love : it will assist us in all duties ; it will arm us 
against all temptations ; it will answer ail objections that 
can be made against the souPs peace ; it will sustain us in 
all conditions, which the saddest of times can bring us unto. 
'* If God be for us, who can be against us V* Though thoii^ 
sands should be against as to hate us, yet none shall be 
against us to hurt us. 

Secondly, If God love us freely, we should love him 
thankfully ° ; and let love be the salt to season all our sacri- 
fices. For as no benefit is saving unto us, which doth not 
proceed from love in him ; so no duty is pleasing unto him, 
which doth not proceed from love in us °. 

Thirdly, Plead this free love and grace in prayer. When 
we beg pardon, nothing is too great for love to forgive; 
when we beg grace and holiness, nothing is too good for 
love to grant. There is not any one thing which faith can 
manage unto more spiritual advantages, than the free grace 
and love of God in Christ. 

Fourthly, Yet we must so magnify the love of God, as 
that we turn not free grace into wantonness. There is a 
corrupt generation of men, who, under pretence of exalting 
grace, do put disgrace upon the law of God, by taking away 

' Rom. iv.l6. "> Rom. Tin. 29. Heb. zii. 6. "1 John iv. 19. 

• 1 John. ▼. 3. 


the mandatory power thereof from those that are under 
grace ; a doctrine most extremely contrary to the nature of 
this love. For God's love to us, works love in us to him ; 
and our love to him is this, that we '* keep his command- 
ments:" and to keep a commandment, is to confirm and to 
subject my conscience, with willingness and delight, unto 
the rule and preceptive power of that commandment. Take 
away the obligation of the law upon conscience as a rule of 
life, and you take away from our love to God the very mat- 
ter, about which the obedience thereof should be conversant. 
It is DO diminution to love, that a man is bound to obedience; 
nay, it cannot be called ' obedience/ if I be not bound unto 
it: but herein the excellency of our love to God is commend- 
ed, that whereas other men are so bound by the law, that 
tbey fret at it, and swell against it, and would be glad to be 
exempted from it, — they who love God^, and know his 
love to them, delight to be thus bound,— and find infinitely 
more sweetness in the strict rule of God's holy law, than 
any wicked man can 'do in that presumptuous liberty, where- 
in be allows himself to shake off and break the cords of it 

Sect. 19. -Now lastly, when we return with sound repent- 
SDce unto God, then God is pleased to give more than or- 
dinary tastes of the sweetness of his love, by removing 
jodgenoents, which are the fruits of his anger, from us. This 
point falls in with what was handled before on the second 
verse. Therefore, I shall conclude with these two notes : — 

First, That, in all judgements, God will have us look on 
them as fruits of his anger, and take more notice in them of 
his displeasure, than our own sufferings. When wrath is 
gone out, the sword drawn, thousands and ten thousands 
slain in our coasts, Israel given to the spoil, and Jacob unto 
robbers ; a land set on fire with civil flames, and none able 

F Sob lege Mt enim, qui dmore tupplicii qaod lex mhimtiir, son araore jus- 
liiiK, ae teotit abttinere ab opere peccati, noodum liber nee alicnus k Toiimtate 
peocandi. In ipsa enim Tolontate reus e^t, qua mallet, ti fieri poiaet, non ease 
qiood dmeat, at libere faciat quod occulte desiderat. jiugusi. de nat. et ^t. 
cap. 57. torn. 10. p. 103. Et infra, *' Omnia fiunt facilia caritati," cap. 39. 
Nooert terribile ted tuaTe mandatum : De grat. Chriiti, lib. 1. cap. 13.— Suave 
fit quod non dclectabat t De peccat. et merit, et remia. lib. 2. cap. 17^ — Conu. 2. 
EpHt. Pdag. lib, 1. cap. 9.— de doctr. Cbritti, lib. 1. cap. 15.-.-de Spiritu et 
lit. cap. 3. 


to quench them; a kingdom divided against itself; a church, 
which was sometimes the asylum for other exiled and afflict- 
ed Christians to fly for shelter unto, miserably torn by the 
foolish and unnatural divisions of brethren, and dangerously 
threatened by the policy and power of the common enemy, 
who studies how to improve these divisions, to the ruin 
of those that torment them ; our work is to make this con- 
clusion^ — *' Our God is angry -^ a God that loves freely, 
that is infinite in mercy and pity, who doth not afflict 
willingly, nor grieve the children of men ; this should be 
our greatest affliction, and the removal of this anger by 
a universal reformation and conversion unto him, our 
greatest business. And I do verily believe, that England 
must never think of out-living or breaking through this 
anger of God, this critical judgement that is upon it, so as 
to return to that cold and formal complexion, that Laodicean 
temper that she was in before, — till she have so publicly and 
generally repented of all those civil disorders, which removed 
the bounds, and brought dissipation upon public justice : 
and of all those ecclesiastical disorders, which let in corrup- 
tions in doctrine, superstitions in worship, abuses in govern- 
ment, discountenancing of the power of godliness in the 
most zealous professors of it, as that our reformation may 
be as conspicuous, as our disorders have been ; and it may 
appear to all the world, that God hath washed away the 
filth, and purged the blood of England from the midst 
thereof, " by the spirit of judgement, and by the spirit of 

Secondly, That God's love is the true ground of removing 
judgements in mercy from a people. Let all human coun- 
sels be never so deep, and armies never so active, and cares 
never so vigilant, and instruments never so unanimous; 
if God's love come not in, nothing of all these can do a na- 
tion any good at all. Those that are most interested in 
God's love, shall certainly be most secured against his judge- 
ments. Hither our eyes, our prayers, our thoughts must 
be directed. 

Lord, love us, delight in us, choose us for thyself: and 
then, though counsels, and treasures, and armies, and men^ 
and horses, and all second causes fail us ; though Satan 



f^e, and hell threaten, and the foundations of the earth be 
shaken ; though neither the vine, nor the olive, nor the fig- 
tree, nor the field, nor the pastures, nor the herds, nor the 
stall, yield any supplies ; yet we will rejoice in the Lord, 
and glory in the God of our salvation : sin shall be healed : 
anger shall be removed : '^ nothing shall be able to se- 
parate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our 



HOSEA, XIV. 5, 6, 7. 

/ will be as the dew unto Israel : he shall grow as the lily, and 
cast forth his roots as Lebanon. His branches shall spread^ 
and his beauty shall be as the olive-tree, and his smell as 
Lebanon, They that dwell under his sliadow, shall return ; 
they shall revive as the corn, and grow as the vine : the scent 
thereof shall be as the wine of Lebanon, 

Sect. 1. In these verses^ is contained Ood^s answer unto the 
second part of Israel's petition, wherein they desired him to 
do them good, or to receive them graciously. And here God 
promiseth them several singular blessings, set forth by several 
metaphors and similitudes, all answering to the name of 
Ephraim, and the ancient promises made unto him% &c. 
opposite to the many contrary courses, threatened in the for- 
mer parts of the prophecy, under metaphors of a contrary im- 
portance. Here is the ' dew of grace,' contrary to the 
* morning cloud ^ and the ' earthly dew' that passeth away, 
cap. xiii. 3. '' Lilies, olives, vines, spices,^* contrary to 
judgements of '^ nettles, thorns, thistles,^' chap. ix. 16, x. 8. 
** Spreading roots'*^ contrary unto " dry roots," chap. ix. 16. 
** A fruitful vine" bringing forth excellent wine, contrary to 
an " empty vine," bringing fruit only to itself; that is, so 
sour and unsavoury, as is not worth the gathering, chap. 
X. 1. '* Corn growing," instead of " corn taken quite 
away,'' chap. ii. 9, instead of " no stalk, no bud, no meal/' 
chap. viii. 7. " Fruit" promised, instead of'* no fruit," threat- 
ened, chap. ix. 16. " Wine promised in opposition to the 
*' failing of wine," chap. ix. 2. ii. 9. " Sweet wine" oppo- 
site to " sour drink," chap. iv. 1 8. '^ Safe dwelling," instead 

* FoHo-editMNi, page 557. » Deut. xzxiii. 13, 17. 


of " no dwelling,^ chap. ix. 3. " Branches growing" and 
spreading, instead of " branches consumed,'* chap. xi. 6. 
•* Green tree" instead of "dry springs," chap. xiii. 5. And 
all these fruits, " the fruits as of Lebanon,'* which was, of 
all other parts of that country, the most fertile mountaiuy 
(oil of various kinds of the most excellent trees, cedars, cy- 
press, olive, and divers others, affording rich gums and baU 
tams; full also of all kinds of the most medicinal and aro- 
matic herbs, sending forth a most fragrant odour, thereby 
all harmful and venomous creatures were driven from har- 
bouring there: and in the valleys of that mountain were 
most rich grounds for pasture, com, and vineyards, as the 
learned in their descriptions of the Holy Land have observed**. 

The^ original of all these blessings is the "heavenly dew** 
of God's grace and favour (alluding to that abundance of 
dew, which fell on that mountain), descending upon the 
church, as upon a garden, bringing forth lilies, — as upon 
a forest, strengthening the cedars, — as upon a vineyard, 
spreading abroad the branches, — as upon an olive-yard, mak- 
ing the trees thereof green and fruitful, — and as on a rich 
field, receiving the corn. Here is a spiritual beauty, the 
bemuty of the lily, exceeding that of Solomon in all his 
glory; spiritual stability, the roots of the cedars, and other 
goodly trees in that mountain ; spiritual odours, and spices 
of Lebanon; spiritual fruitfulness, and that of all sorts and 
kinds, for the comfort of life. The fruit of the field, " bread 
to strengthen,''— the fruit of the olive-trees, •' oil to refresh," 
— the fruit of the vineyard, " wine to make glad," the heart 
of man **. 

We esteem him a very rich man, and most excellently ac- 
commodated % who hath gardens for pleasure, — and fields 
for com and pasture, — and woods for fuel, for structure, for 
defence, for beauty, and delight, — and vineyards for wine 
nnd oil ; and all other conveniences, both for the necessi- 
ties and delighU of a plentiful life. Thus is the church here 
forth unto us as such a wealthy man, furnished with 

^ jUriekommu in Scpadtm €. — Brocard.^HierAn loc. * Folio-edition, 

psSiS&S. <iPM]aciT. 15. •S^fAtarickiit iw6 fimrtXUft IXafcv l ny^A» 

n)r Adfu^w «lr ttpmr Maynt^ioM V tit ifrw, Muovrra 8* fir ^^or, n«f«>i^ 
«iprT«, m2 nmXm^inr^ tit arpm^v ira2 Ifurri^fiir. Atheiueut, 1. 1. e. 23.— 
CMBnbon, p. 29.~Vid. 1. 4. fT. dc Centibut. 


the unsearchable riches of Christ, with all kind of blessings 
both for sanctity and safety ; as the apostle praiseth God, 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who hath blessed us 
with " all spiritual blessings" in heavenly places in Christy 
viz. election to eternal life, — adoption to the condition of 
sons, and to a glorious inheritance, — redemption from misery 
unto blessedness, — remission of sins,— knowledge of his will, 
— holiness and unblameableness of life, — and the seal of the 
Holy Spirit of promise ; as we find them particularly enume- 
rated, Ephes. i. 3, 13. 

Sect. 2. The words, thus opened, do first afford us one 
general observation, — in that God singleth out so many ex- 
cellent good things by name in relation to that general peti- 
tion, '^ Do us good ;^' that God many times answereth prayer 
abundantly beyond the petitions of his people. They prayed 
at large only for good, leaving it (as it becometh us who 
know not always what is good for ourselves) to his holy will 
and wisdom, in what manner and measure to do good unto 
them ; and he answers them in particular with all kind of 
good things : as, in the former petition, they prayed in ge- 
neral for the forgiveness of sin, — and God in particular pro- 
miseth the healing of their rebellions, which was the greatest 
of their sins. God many times answers the prayers of his 
people, as he did the "seed of Isaac ^,^ with a hundred-fold 
increase. As God's word never returns empty unto him, so 
the prayers of his servants never return empty unto them ; 
and usually the crop of prayer is greater than the seed out 
of which it grew ; as the putting in of a little water into a 
pump, makes way to the drawing out of a great deal more. 
Isaac and Rebecca had lived twenty years together without 
any children, and he grew now in years ; for he was forty years 
old before he married. Hereupon he solemnly prays to God 
in behalf of his wife, because she was barren ; and Ood 
gave him more than it is probable he expected ; for he gave 
him two sons at a births. As the cloud which riseth out of 
the earth many times in thin and insensible vapours, falleth 
down in great and abundant showers ; so our prayers, which 
ascend weak and narrow, return with a full and enlarged 
answer. Qod deals in this point with his children, as Joseph 

f Gen. xxvi. 12. I Gen. xxv.21,22. 


did with his brethren in Egypt : he did not only put com 
into their sacks, but returned tlie money which they brought 
to purchase it ^. So he dealt with Solomon : he did not only 
give him ' wisdom' and gifts of government, which he asked, 
hot farther gave him both ' riches and honour/ which he 
asked not*. The people of Israel, when they were distressed 
by the Ammonites, besought the Lord for help : he turns 
back their prayers, and sends them to their idols to help 
them: they humble themselves, and put away their idols, 
and pray again ; and the highest pitch that their petitions 
moonted unto, was, '' Lord, we have sinned ; do unto us what, 
soever seemeth good unto thee ; only deliver us, we pray thee, 
this day ^^ And God did answer this prayer beyond the 
contents of it: he did not only deliver them from the enemy, 
and so save them, but subdued the enemy under them, and 
delivered him into their hands : he did not only give them 
the relief they desired, but a glorious victory beyond their 
desires ^ God deals with his servants, as the prophet did 
with the woman of Shunem, when he bid her ask what she 
needed, and tell him what she would have him to do for 
tli€ kindness she had done to him, and she found not any 
thing to request at his hands : he sends for her again, and 
makes her a free promise of that which she most wanted and 
desired, and tells her that God would give her a son "". So, 
■MUiy times, God is pleased to give his servants such things 
mft they forget to ask, — or gives them the things which they 
msk% in a fuller measure than their own desires durst to pro- 
pose them. David in his troubles asked life of God, and 
would have esteemed it a great mercy only to have been de- 
livered from the fear of his enemies : and God doth not only 
mnswer him according to the desire of his heart in that parti- 
ciliary and above it too, for be gave him " length of days for 
ever and ever;^ but further settled the crown upon bis head, 
and added ^ honour and majesty' unto his life^ 
And the reasons hereof are principally two: — 
Sect. 3.— L We beg of God according to the sense and 
knowledge which we have of our own wants, and according 
to the measure of that love, which we bear unto ourselves. 

k Gen. Elii. 25. i I Kinp iit. 13. >^ Judse* z. 15. > JuUgct zi. 12. 

2 Kings ir. 16. » Folio- EH i lion, p. 559. • Pwilm ixi. 2. 3, 4, 5. 

vol.. III. Y 



The greater oar love is to oorselves, the more dctiTe and 
importunate will oar petitions be for such good things as 
we need : biit God answers prayers according to his know- 
ledge of us, and according to the love which he beareth 
unto us. Now God knows what things we want, much 
better than we do oarselves ; and he loves our souls much 
better than we love them ourselves ; and therefore he gives 
us more and better things, than our own prayers know how 
to ask of him. A little child will beg none but trifles and 
mean things of his father, because he hath not understand- 
ing to look higher, or to value things that are more excel- 
lent : but his father, knowing better what is good for him, 
bestows on him education, trains him unto learning and 
virtue, that he may be fit to manage and enjoy that inherit- 
ance which he provides for him : — so, <' we know not what 
to ask, as we ought ^;" and when we do know^ our spirits are 
much straitened ; we have but a finite and narrow love onto 
ourselves : but God^s knowledge is infinite, and his love is 
infinite ; and according unto these, are the distributions of 
his mercy. Even the apostle himself, when he was in a£. 
fliction, and buffeted by the messenger of Satan, and vexed 
with a thorn in the flesh, — besought the Lord for nothing 
" but that it might depart fi'om him : " but God had a fiir 
better dnswer in store to the apostle's prayer, and purpoMxi 
to do more for him than he desired, namely, to give him. m 
'sufficiency of grace' to support him, and to 'magnify his 
strength in the infirmity of his servant *i.' When the prophet 
had encouraged men to ' seek the Lord,' and to turn unto 
him, and that upon this assurance ; That he will not only 
hear petitions for mercy and forgiveness, but will 'multiply 
to pardon,' — that is, will pardon more sins than we can con* 
fess (for with him there is not only mercy, but ' plenteous 
redemption"^;') he further strengtheneth our faith, and en- 
courageth our obedience unto this duty, bjthe consideratioo 
of the 'thoughts of God ;'— to wit, his thoughts of love, 
mercy, and peace towards us : '* My thoughts are not your 
thoughts, neither are your ways my ways, saith the Lord : 
for as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my waye 
higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts." 
Isai. Iv. 7, 8, 9. He can pardon beyond our petitions, be- 

P Rom. viii. 26. s 2 Cor. zii. 9. ' Psalm cxiz. 7. 

Vera.6»lS, 7.] FOURTEENTH CliAFlKR OJ^ HOSEA. U23 

cause his thooghU of mercy towards us are beyond our ap- 
prehensions. See the like place, Jer. xxix. 10, 1 1« 12. 

Sect. 4. — 2. Ood answers prayers not always with respect 
to the narrow compass of our weak desires, but with 
respect to his own honour, and to the declaration of his own 
greatness: for he promiseth "to hear us^ that we may 
glorify him */* Therefore he is pleased to exceed our peti- 
tions, and to do for us abundantly abore what we ask or 
think, that our hearts may be more abundantly enlarged, 
and our mouths wide open in rendering ' honour unto him. 
When Perillus', a favourite of Alexander, begged of him a 
portion for his daughter, the king appointed that fifty 
talents should be given unto him, and he answered that 
''ten would be sufficient:" the king replied, that "ten 
were enough for Perillus to ask, but not enough for Alex- 
ander to grant :^ — so God is pleased many times to give more 
than we ask, that we may look upon it not only as an act of 
mercy, but as an act of honour ; and to teach us in all onr 
prayers to move God as well by his glory, as by his mercy. 
So Moses did, when he prayed for pardon unto Israel, lest 
Ood's 'Name should be blasphemed".' So Joshua did, 
when Israel turned their backs before their enemies, — 
" What wilt thou do unto thy great name "?"" So Solomon 
in his prayer at the dedication of the Temple, '^ Hear thou in 
Heaven thy dwelling-place, and do according to all that the 
stranger calleth to dice for : that all the people of the earth 
may know thy name'." So David in his, for Israel, and for 
the performance of God^s promise to the seed of David, " Do 
as thon hast said ; let it even be established, that thy name 
■lay be magnified for ever '."^ So Asa ; '' O Lord, thou art 
oor God ; let not man prevail against thee*.'' So Jehosha- 
phat ; *' Art not thou God in Heaven ? and rulest not thou 
over all the kingdoms of the heathen ? and in thine hand is 
there not power and might, so that none is able to withstand 
thae ^t** &C. So Hezekiah, when he spread the blasphemies 
of Sennacherib before the Lord% "O Lord our God, save us 

* talm 1.12. * lltplkkov M TUMH ^«ir fiKmt^ mhi^^tunos r^ucm roif birymrpUu, 

imUumn tmmfKom'm rdXamm AaSci^* cdroC U f^iHu^of titwfd §tymi M4ttm, 2^ 

y (l#l) iUSiSr, ipio\ r •dx <wmA Mmi. Phtt. Apophthcg. XyUndr. ii. p. 179. 

" Nomb. ziv. 15, 16, 17. * ioib. vii. 9. 7 1 King^ vHi. 43. ' 1 Chron. 

iVii. 23, 24. • 2 Chron. xiv. 11. >» 2 Chron. xx. 6. • Folio Kdition. p. 5fiO. 




[SetlU. V. 

from his hand, that all the kingdoms of the earth may know 
that thou art the Lord, even thou ouly''," So the church of 
God in the lime of distress ; " Help us, O God of our sal- 
vation, for the glory of thy name;" and deliver and purge 
away our sins for thy name's sake: wherefore should t)»e 
heathen say. "Where is their God'?" As every creature 
of God was made for his glory ' ; so every attribute of God 
doth work and put forth itself for his glory. If he show 
mercy, it is to shew the ' riches of his glory ';' — If he execute 
justice, it is to make his ' power known •".' When he putlelli 
forth his power, and doth terrible things, it is to make his 
• name known '.' If he engage his truth, and make his pro- 
mises Yea and Amen, it is for his own glory, and that his 
*name may be magnified in doing what he hath saidV 
Whensoever therefore we pray unto God, and therein im- 
plore his mercy on us, his justice on his enemies, his truth 
to be fu]6tled, his power, wisdom, or any other attribute to 
be manifested towards his people, — the highest and most 
prevailing medium we can use, is the * glory of bis own 
name :' God's ultimate end in working must needs be our 
strongest argument in praying, because therein it appears, 
that we seek his interest in our petitions, as well as, and 
above our own. 

Sect. 6. This serveth, first, to encourage us unto prayer, 
because God doth not only bear and answer prayers, which is 
a sufficient motive unto his servants to call upon him, " O thou 
that hearest prayers, unto thee shall all flesh come';" but 
because he oftentimes exceedeth the modesty, the ignorance, 
the fearfulness of our requests, by giving unto us more than 
we ask. When poor men make requests unto us, we usuaUj 
anawer them as the echo doth the voice;— the answer cnti 
off half (be petition. The hypocrite, in the apostle, (Jaoea 
ii. 16, 16,) when he saw a brother or sister naked or de&b- 
tute of daily food, would " bid him be warmed or filled,"— 
but in the mean time "give him nothing " that was need- 
ful; and ao did rather mock than answer their reqnetts. 

•t l»i. xxivii. 20. « Palm Ixiii. S, 10. f Piov. xti. *. Rom. xi. 36. 

■ Rom. ix. 23. Ephei. i. 1 1, 13. t^ Ram. ix. 17, 22. 2Thes.i.9. > Iw>. 

Uir.1,2,3. k2Cor.l.20. 2Sxm. vil. SS, 26. Eiod, iii. M, 15. xii.i). 

Jaib.Kii. 15. iPulm lxv.3. txvi.!0. IxxxtI. 5,6,7. cii. 17. 

Ven. 5,6,7.] FOURTEENTH CllAPTER OF H08EA. 336 

We shall seldom find amongst men Jael's courtesies "" : giv- 
ing milk to those that ask water, except it be as hers was, 
Kpov Anfoy, munus fcum hamo ", an entangling benefit, 
the better to introduce a mischief. There are not many 
Naamans among us, that when you beg of them one talent, 
will force you to take two"*. But God's answer to our 
prayers is like a multiplying-glass, which renders the request 
moch greater in the answer than it was in the prayer. As 
when we cast a stone into the water, though it be but little 
io itself, yet the circles which come from it, spread wider 
and wider« till it fill the whole pond; — so our petitions, 
though very weak as they come from us, and craving but 
some one or other good thing, yet finding way to the foun- 
tain of life, and unsearchable treasure of mercy which is in 
Christ, are usually answered with many and more spreading 
benefits. The trumpet p exceedingly strengtheneth the 
voice which passeth through it : it goes in at a iiarrow pa»- 
smge, and the voice is but a silent breath, as it comes from 
the mouth ; but it goes out wider with a doubled and mul- 
tiplied vigour : — so our prayers usually go up narrow to God, 
bat they come down with enlarged answers from him again: 
as the root is but of one colour, when the flower which 
groweth out of it, is beautified with variety. 

Now this should be a great encouragement unto us to call 
opon God with sincerity of heart, because he multiplieth to 
pardon, because *' we know not the numbers" of his salva- 
tion "1; ** we cannot count the sum^ of his thoughts towards 
as ^ If there were any man so wealthy, that it were all one 
with him to give pounds or pence, and who usually, when he 
were asked silver, would give gold, — every indigent and ne* 
cessitous person would wait upon this man'*s mercy. Now, 
it is as easy with God to give talents as farthings, as easy to 
over-answer prayers, as to answer them at all. It is as easy 
to the sun to fill a vast palace, as a little closet, with light; as 
easy to the sea, to fill a channel, as a bucket, with water. 
'* He can satisfy with goodness, and answer with wonderful 
and terrible things*.^ Oh! who would not make requests 

■ Judges ▼.21. ■ Seneca. ^ 2 Kinp ▼. 23. P Spiritus notter dariorem 
«ooiim reddit, c^km ilium tuba, per longi canalU anguitiat tractum, potentiorem 
aovitiiiiio exito effbdiL Sen. EpUt. lOS. — Ruhkopf, vol. iii. p. 315. ^ Fnlm 

Usi. IS. r Psalm cxzxiz. 17, IS. • Pialm Izv. 4, 5. 


unto such a Qod, whose usual answer unto prayer is, '' Be it 
unto thee as thou wiltM^ Nay, who answers us beyond 
•' our wills and thoughts";" and measureth forth mercy by 
the greatness of his own grace, and not the narrowness of 
our desires. The shekel * belonging to the sanctuary was^ 
as many learned men think » in weight double to the common 
shekel, which was used in civil matters : — to note unto us, 
that as God expects from us double the care in things be- 
longing unto him, above what we use in the things of the 
world, — so he usually measureth back double unto us again: 
*' good measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running 
OTer, into our bosoms."*^ When the man, sick of the palsy, 
was carried > unto Christ to be healed, — Christ did beyond 
the expectation of those that brought him ; for he not only 
cured him of his disease, but of his sin ; gave him not only 
health of body, but peace of conscience : — First, " Be of 
good cheer, thy sins be forgiven thee ;^ and then, " Arise, 
take up thy bed, and go to thy house '." The thief on the 
cross besought Christ to remember him, when he came into 
his kingdom; but Christ answers him far beyond his petition, 
assuring him that, the very same day, he should be with 
him in Paradise *. The poor man at the gate of the temple 
begged for nothing of Peter and John but a small alms ; 
but they gave him an answer to his request far more worth 
than any other alms could be; namely, such an alms as 
caused him to stand in need of alms no longer, restored him 
in the name of Christ unto sound strength, that he " walked, 
and leaped, and praised God^^ In like manner % doth God 
answer the prayers of his people, not always (it may be) in 
the kind, and to the express will of him that asketh ; but 
for the better, and consequently more to his will than himself 

Sect. 6. Secondly, This should encourage us in prayer to 
beg for an answer, not according to the defect and narrow- 
ness of our own low conceptions, but according to the Ad- 

* Mtttb. zv. 28. « Epbcf . iii. 20. * Hier. in Exek. Ad.-^Pagmm* ii 
Tbetaur.— ff%;ttfna de mensur. Heb. lib. I.e. 1. Sect. 6. l.«-Bn. on Mat. V 
24. — Jun. in Gen. 23.— 3fa«tu« in Joth. 7 .^^Aintworth on Gen. 20. — Ser^r» i 
Joih. 7, q. 5. yFolioEdidon, p. 561. > Matth. ix. 2, 6. • Lo 

zxiii. 42« 43. ^ Acts iii. 6. « Si non secundum ▼olontatem, tamen 

utilitatem. Upd^t^ i i^Xrrc* A 8^ X4ytr9, mapmr^fim, Acrot. apuH Pfuim 
Lacmiic. Apophtheg. Xyland. torn. 2. p. 216. 

Vera.5»6,7.] FOURT££NTtl CUAPTEK OF H08KA. 37 

of God's own abundant mercies. It would not (ilease 
one of us, if a beggar should ask of us gold, or jewels, silk, 
or dainties; we should esteem such a petitioner fuller of 
pride and impudence than of want. But God delights to 
ksTe his people beg great things of him, to implore the per- 
fcmmnce of "exceeding great and precious promises**;" to 
pray for a share in the " unsearchable riches of Christ ;" to 
know things which pass knowled(;e, and to be filled *' with 
the fulness of God*;" to ask " things which eye hath not 
sees, nor ear heard, nor hath entered into the heart of man 
to conceive ^;'^ to ask not as beggars only for un alms, but 
as ' children for an inheritance * ;' not to ask some thing, or 
a iew things, but '* in every thing to let our requests be 
made known unto God**:" because, with Christ, he giveth 
as " freely all things* ;" even " all things richly to enjoy ''.'* 
As Alexander the Great * was well pleased with Anaxarchus 
the philosopher, when he desired a hundred talents of his 
treasurer : " He doth well,** saith he, '' in asking it; and un* 
derstauds his friend aright, who hath one both able and 
willing to give him so great a gift." God allows his children 
m spiritual and heavenly ambition to " covet earnestly the 
best gifts "" ;"— -to aspire unto a kingdom ; and accordingly 
to put op great and honourable requests unto him ; — to 
think what great things Christ hath purchased, what great 
tilings God bath promised and proposed to us ; and to regu- 
late our prayers more by the merits and riches of Christ, 
and by the greatness of God's mercies, tlian by those ap- 
prehensions which we cannot but havcL of our own unwor- 

Sect. 7. Now next from the particulars of the text, 
though many particular observations might be raised, yet I 
shall reduce them unto one general, which may comprehend 
the particulars ; namely, — That whom God loves and par- 
dons, upon them he poureth forth the benediction of his 
grace and Spirit, as the dew of heaven, to quicken them 
anto a holy and fruitful conversation. The general pro- 
Maes nakedly set down before, I ' will heal/ I ' will love,' 
are here further amplified by many excellent metaphors, and 

^SPte. i.4. • Ephes. iii.S, 16, IS. H Cor. ii. 9. I Rom. 

viiL 15, 17, S3. Gal. it. 6, 7. ^ Phil. itr. 6. ^ Rom. vtii. 32. ^ i Tim. 

vi. 17 I Plutarch. » | Cor. xti. 31. 


elegant figures, — which are nine in number, multiplied into 
so many particulars, partly, because of the difficulty of the 
promise to be believed, which is therefore severally incul- 
cated and represented ; — partly, because of the dejectednosa 
of the people under the variety of their former sufferings, 
who are therefore by variety of mercies to be raised up and 
revived ;— -and, partly, to represent the perfection and com- 
pleteness of the blessings intended, which should be of all 
sorts^ and to all purposes. And the foundation of all the 
rest is this, that God promiseth to be as the ' dew * unto 
Israel : for Ephraim having been cursed with much drought 
and barrenness ; now when God blesseth him again, he pro- 
miseth to be unto him, as dew is to the weary and thirsty 
ground, which so refresheth it, that the fruits thereof do 
grow and flourish again. Lilies, flowers, trees, vines, corn, 
are very apt (especially in such hot countries as Judea), 
without much refreshing dew and showers from heaven, to 
dry up and wither away : so would Ephraim have been quite 
consumed by the heavy wrath of God, if he should not, with 
the supplies of his great and holy Spirit, and with his 
heavenly refreshments and loving countenance, revive them 

* Dew,^ in the natural signification of it, importeth a com- 
forting, refreshing, encouraging, and calling forth the fruits of 
the earth, as being of a gentle, insinuating virtue, which lei- 
surely soaketh into the ground : and, in that sense, is mention- 
ed as a blessing", Gen. xxviii. 39. In the mystical and spiritual 
sense of it, it signifieth Christ*; who, by his holy word aod 
heavenly grace dropping down and distilling upon the souk 
of menP, — by his princely favour and loving countenance, 
which is as a cloud of the latter rain i, — by his heavenly 
righteousness, and most spiritual efficacy % — doth so quicken, 
vegetate, and revive the hearts of men, that they, like '' dew 
from the womb of the morning,^ are bom in great abun- 
dance unto him ;— as multitudes of men, and believers, use 
to be expressed in the Scripture by * drops of dew '.' In 
one word, that which dew is to the fields, gardens, vine- 
yards, flowers, fruits of the earth, after a hot and a scorch 

B FoUo-Edition, p. 562. • Chrys, in Ps. li. 7. Ptalm luii. 6. P Oeo 

xx.yH. 2. Job xziz. 22, 23. ^ Prov. xvi. 15. xiz. 12. ' Isti. xx? i. If 

xlv. 8. • Psalm ex. 3. Midi. V. 7. 

Vers. 3,6,7.] FOURTEENTH CHAPTLK OF II08EA. 329 

ing day ; that tbe favour, word, grace, loving countenance, 
and holy Spirit of Christ, will be to tbe drooping and af- 
flicted consciences of his people. 

From this metaphor then we learn, 

1. That we are naturally dry, barren, fruitless,— and ut- 
terly unable to do any good, to bring forth any fruit unto 
God ; — like a heathy and parched land subject to the 
scorching terrors of the wrath of God, and to his burning 
indignation. So Christ compares Jerusalem unto a dry, 
withered tree, fitted unto judgement *. And he assuretli us, 
that, " out of him, we can do nothing " ;" in us, of ourselves, 
there '' dwelleth no good thing \" We are not of ourselves, 
as of ourselves, " sufficient unto any thing ^.^ He is the sud 
that healeth us ' ; — he the rain that disposeth us * ; — he the 
root that deriveth life and nourishment upon us ^. As natu- 
ral, so much more spiritual, fruitfulness hath its ultimate 
resolution into him, who alone is the ' father of the rain,' and 
' begetteth the drops of dew '.' 

Sect. 8. — 2. That the grace of God is like dew to the bar- 
ren and parched hearts of men, to make them fruitful. And 
there are many things, wherein the proportion and resem- 
blance stands : — 

First, None can give it but God : it comes from above ; it 
is of a celestial original ; the nativity thereof is from " the 
womb of the morning."^ Are there any amongst the vanities 
of the Gentiles that can cause rain ? or can the heavens give 
showers ? *' Art not thou he, O Lord our God ? for thou 
hast made all these things ''." And the like we may say, in a 
more strict and peculiar sense, of regeneration. That it is a 
spiritual and * heavenly birth;' it is ** not of blood, nor of the 
will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God." — There 
is DO concurrence or active assistance of the flesh, or of any 
natural abilities unto a birth, which is merely spiritual*. 
Therefore Christ was pleased to go up into Heaven, before 
be shed forth his holy Spirit in abundance on the church*'; 
— ^to teach us, first, that our conversion and sanctification 

« Lake xxtii. 31. • John xv. 4, 5. * Rom. vii. 18. 7 2 Cor. iii. ft. 

*MaLiY.2. • PMlm Izxii. 6. b Revel, xxii. 16. « Hoe. ii. 21,33. 

Job xxKTiti. 28. << Jcr. xit. 23. • John i. 13. Job iii. 5, 6. Jamee 

i. 17, 18. f John %*ii. 39. xti. 17. Acu i. 4, ft. 


comes from above, by a divine teaching', by a spiritnal con* 
viction, by a supernatural and omnipotent traction, by a hea- 
venly calling, by the will of him who alone can give a will 
unto us. No voice can be heard by those that are dead, bat 
" the voice of the Son of Man\" And withal to acquaint us, 
whither the affections and conversations of men, thus sanc- 
tified, should tend, — namely, unto Heaven, — as every thing 
works towards its original, and every part inclines unto the 
whole \ With allusion unto this metaphor of dew or rain, 
the holy Spirit is said to be 'poured^ out upon the 
churches ^ ; and the ' word of grace ' is frequently compared 
unto rain. As it is the seed by which we are enabled to be 
fruitful^ — so it is the rain which softeneth the heart, that it 
may be the better wrought upon by that seminal virtue; 
(Isai. Iv. 10, 1 1 . Heb. vi. 7.) ; whereas false teachers are called 
** clouds without water *" :^ they have no fructifying virtue in 
them. None can give grace but God : it is heavenly in its na- 
ture, therefore it is so in its original: ^Mt stays not for man'':** 
it depends not on the wills, concurrences, preparations, or 
dispositions which arise out of us, but it wholly preventeth 
us ; we are made active by it, but we are not at all antece- 
dently active^ in fitting or disposing ourselves for it. 

Secondly, It is the fruit of a serene p, clear, and quiet 
Heaven: for dew never falleth either in scorching or tem- 
pestuous weather, as philosophers have observed. In *i like 

f lu docet ut qaod quisqae didicerit, non tantum cogooscendo videic, md 
ctiam Tolcndo appetat, agendoque perficiat : Aug. de giat. Christi, cap. 14w^- 
Trahitur miris modis ut velit, ab illo qui novit intus in ipsis hominum corditmi 
opcrari, non ut homines, quod fieri non potest, nolentes credant, sed ut voleiiiet 
ex nolentibus fiant : Aug.Com. 2.Epi8t. Pelag. lib. 1. cap. 19. torn. 10. p. 8S3. 
Interna, occulta, mirabilis, inefiabtlia pot«stas : — Aug. de grat. Christi, cap. 24^--^ 
Occultissima, cfficacissima potcstas -. Aug. cont. 2. Ep. Pelag. 1i. 1. cap. 20.— 
Omni potentissima potestas : Aug, de corrept. ct grat. cap. 14. — < Mode miiablB 
et iDeflhbili agens:'de preedestinat. sanct. cap. 20. * Idque indeclinabiliter atque 
insuperabiliter.' de corrept. et grat. cap. 12. * Intus k patre audiunt atque diHaal» 
qui credunt ;' de praedcst. sanct. cap. 8.—' Vocatio alta et secreta •/ Episu 107^— 
Bernard. Serm. Parv. Serm. 66. ^ John vi. 44, 45. xvi. 8, 9, 10, 11. Heb. 

iii. 1. James i. 18. Phil. ii. 13. John y. 25. Heb. xii. 25. i Col. iii. 1, 2. 

Phil. iii. 20. k Acts ii. 17. lit. iii. 6. 1 Matth. xiii. 18. » Jode 

T. 12. ^ Mic. V. 7. o Pedissequa, non prsevia voluntas ; ^i^. Ep. 

106.—' Giitiam Dei pr«venire dicimus hominum voluntates / Epis. 107. uc veli- 
mut, sine nobis operatur ; cum autem volumus, nobiKum cooperatur ; Aug. de 
grat. etlib. arbitr. ca. 7. p Arist, Meteorolog. lib. i. cap. 10.'— Plin. lib. 2. 

cap. 60. 1 . 1 8. cap. 29. q Folio- Edition, p. 563. 

Vert. 5, 6, 7.] FOUUTKENTIl CIIAPTLK OF 110S£A. 331 

manlier, the grace, favour, and bleBsings of God, are the 
finiits of his reconciled affection towards us. Upon the 
wicked he raineth ** storm and tempest ;^ he showereth 
down on them the fury of his wrath ; and shows himself 
dark, cloudy, gloomy, terrible unto them ^ But unto those 
that fear his name, he openeth a clear and a gracious coun- 
toiance ; and being reconciled unto them, sheddeth abroad 
his love into their hearts, and his peace into their con- 
sciences, like Gideon's dew on the fleece and on the ground, 
as a special evidence of his grace : and therefore the 
Psalmist compares the love and peace that is amongst 
brethren, unto dew, Psalm cxxxiii. 3. which ever falleth 
from a calm, serene, and quiet sky. 

Sect. 9. Thirdly, It is abundant and innumerable : who 
can number the drops of dew on the ground, or the *' hairs 
of little rain?" — for so they are called in the original cvrw*, 
because of their smallness and number \ So Husbai express- 
e€b the multitude of all Israel": '* We will light upon him, 
as the dew falleth upon the ground. ''^ And the multitude of 
believers are said to be bom unto Christ by his sending forth 
the rod of his strength, '' as dew from the womb of the 
morning ' :^ as we find historically verified ^ Such is the 
grace and favour of God unto his people after their conver- 
sion ; unsearchable, it cannot be comprehended or measured, 
Dor brought under any number or account '. Christ is corn- 
ered onto manna ; he was the bread that came down from 
Beaven^ and manna came in mighty abundance, so that there 
was enough for every one to gather ^ It had dew under it, 
and dew over it, as we may conjecture by comparing Exod. 
mri. 14 with Mumb. xi. 9 ; whereunto the Holy Ghost seemeth 
to allude when he speaks of the '* hidden manna' :^' — though 
Uiat may likewise refer unto the pot of manna which was 
kept in the tabernacle ^ ; as our life is said to be " hid with 
Christ,'* now be is in heaven '. By this dew coming along 
with manna is intimated, that the mercies of God in Christ, 

' Psalm xi.C. Uzxiii. 15. Job xx. 23. Nah. i. 3, 8. • DuncmtC$ Siereo- 

^ Bible, vol. i. p. 29'i. t Deut. xxx. 2. "2 Sam. xvii. 12. 

> halm ex. 3. J Acts ii. 41. v. U, 16. vi. 7. ix. 31, 41. xix. 20. 

' Pialmlxsi. 15. cxxxix. 17, 18. • John vi. M), 51. b Exod. 

xw. 16. c Rcy. ii. 17. <* Exod. xvi. 32, 33. Ifeb. ix. 4. • Utd. 

C^.8pidlcs. P- >32, 133. * Col. iii. 3. 


his ' daily mercies* (which are said with allusion, I suppose, 
unto this manna, to be renewed 'every morning V) ^^^ 
his ' hidden mercies/ to wit, the inward comforts of bis 
grace and Spirit, — are all innumerable and past finding out. 
We may say of his mercies, as the psalmist of his command* 
ments, — " I have found an end of all perfection, but these 
are ' exceeding broad ;' " more than eye hath seen, or ear 
heard, or the heart itself is able to comprehend ^ 

Fourthly, It is silent, slow, insensible : while it is falling, 
you cannot say, * Here it is :' — it deceives the eye, and is too 
subtile for that to see it : it deceives the ear, and is too si- 
lent for that to hear it : it deceives the face, and is too thin 
and spiritual for that to feel it. You see it, when it is come; 
but you cannot observe, how it comes. In this manner was 
God pleased to fill the world with the knowledge of his gos- 
pel, and with the grace of his Spirit, by quiet, small, and 
(as it were) by insensible means. '* The kingdom of God 
came not with observation ^ ;** that is, with any visible nota* 
ble splendour, or external pomp, as the Jews expected the 
Messiah to come; but it came with spiritual efficacy, and 
with internal power upon the consciences of men, and spread 
itself over the world by the ministry of a very few despised 
instruments. With respect unto which manner of working, 
the Spirit is compared unto * wind,^ which we hear and feel, 
but " know not whence it comes, nt)r whither it goes ^^ The 
operations of grace are secret and silent upon the conscience: 
you shall find mighty changes wrought, and shall not tell 
how they were wrought. The same man, coming into the 
church, one hour, a swine, a dog, a lion, — and going out 
the next hour, in all visible respects the same, but invisibly 
changed into a lamb. 

Fifthly, It is of a soft and benign nature, which gently 
insinuateth and worketh itself into the ground, and by de^ 
grees moisteneth and mollifieth it, that it may be fitted unto 
the seed whij[:h is cast into it. In like manner, the Spirit, 
the grace, the Word of God, is of a searching, insinuating, 
softening quality : it sinks into the heart, and works itself 
into the conscience ; and from thence makes way for itself 
into the whole man, mind, thoughts, afiections, words, ao- 
tions, fitting them all unto the holy seed that is put into 

I Um. iii. 33. >> 1 Cor. ii. 9. > Uke xvii. 20, 21. ^ John m. S. 


them : — as the earthy being softened and mingled with the 
dew, is the more easily drawn up into those varieties of 
herbs and fraits, that are fed by it. 

Sixthly, It is of a vegetating and quickening nature ; it 
eauseth things to grow and revive again. Therefore the 
prophet calls it " the dew of herbs *," which are thereby re- 
fireshed, and recover life and beauty. Even so the Word 
and Spirit of" grace distilling upon the soul, "as small rain 
upon tender herbs, and as showers on the grass," cause it to 
live the life of God, and to bring forth the fruits of holiness 
and obedience '^. Those parts of the world which are under 
either perpetual frosts, or perpetual scorchings, — are barren 
and fruitless, the earth being closed up, and the sap thereof 
dried away by such distempers: — such is the condition of a 
soul under wrath, that hath no apprehensions of God but in 
firost or fire ; for who can stand " before his cold °?" Who 
can dwell with " everlasting burnings p r" Fear contracteth 
and bindeth up the powers of the soul : it is the greatest in- 
diaposer of all other unto regular action. But when the soul 
can apprehend God as love, find healing in his wings, and 
reviving in bis ordinances, — this love is of an opening and 
expansive quality, calling forth the heart unto duty ; love 
within (as it were) hastening to meet and close with love 
without; the love of obedienpe in us, with the love of favour 
and grace in God. I shut and bar my door against an enemy 
whom I fear, and look upon as armed to hurt me; but I 
open vride my doors, my bosom, unto a friend whom I love, 
and look upon as furnished with counsel, and comfort, and 
benefits to revive me. There is a kind of mutual love be- 
tween dew and the earth : dew loves the earth with a love 
of beneficence, doing it good ; and earth loves the dew 
frith a love of concupiscence, earnestly desiring it, and 
Opening unto it. Such is the love between Christ and the 
aoul, when he appears as dew unto it. He visits the sool 
with a love of mercy, reviving it ; and the soul puts forth 
itself towards him in a love of duty, earnestly coveting as 
well to serve as to enjoy him. 

Lastly, It is of a refreshing and comforting nature, tem- 
pering the heat of those hotter countries, and so causing the 

i Ini. xrn. 19. " Folio- Edition, p. 564. ■ Itti. W. 10, 11. 

• ha\m cxWii. 17. P liai. zuiii. 14. 

334 S£V£X fSEJIMONS ON THE [Serm. V. 

face of things to floarish with beauty and delight. So Qod 
promiseth to be unto his people in their troubles, '' as a clood 
of dew in the heat of harvest ^.^ The spiritual joy i^ 
heavenly comfort, which the peace and grace of God mi- 
nistereth to the consciences of believers % is said to make 
*' the bones flourish like an herb ' :^' as on the other side, 
a broken spirit is said to " dry up the bones *." " Their 
soul/' saith the prophet, *' shall be as a watered gardeq, they 
shall sorrow no more ; I will turn their moufning' into joy, 
and will comfort them "."' 

Sect. 10. By all which we- should learn. First, As to be 
sensible of our own personal and spiritual dryness, barren- 
ness, emptiness of fruit and peace, hard hearts, with red coo* 
sciences, guilty spirits, under our own particular sins ; so^ 
in regard of the whole land, to take notice of that tempest 
of wrath, which, like an east wind out of the wilderness, 
*' drieth up our springs, and spoileth our treasures," as the 
prophet complains ^ ; and to be humbled into penitent reso* 
lutions, as the church here is. If God, who was wont to be 
as dew to our nation, who made it heretofore like a paradise 
and a watered garden, — be now as a tempest, as a consutoidg 
fire unto it, — turning things upside down, — burning the inba- 
bitants of the earth, — causing *' our land to mourn, and our 
joy to wither,** (as the prophet speaks 7;) — this is an evident 
sign, that " the earth is defiled under the inhabitants there- 
of '. Therefore as our sins have turned our dew into blood, 
so our repentance must turn our blood into dew again. If 
ever we look to have a happy peace, we must make it with 
God. Men can give peace only to our bodies, our fields, our 
houses, our purses ; — nor that neither without his over-ruling 
power and providence, who alone manageth all the counsels 
and resolutions of men ; — but he alone can give peace to our 
consciences by the assurance of his love, " which is better 
than life.** And if there should be peace in a nation, made 
up only by human prudence and correspondences, without 
public repentance, and thorough reformation in church, in 
state, in families, in persons, in judgement, inmanners, — 
it would be but like those short interims between the Egyp- 

S Isai. xviii. 4. r Rom. xv. 13. v. 1. Phil. iv. 4. 1 Pet. 1. 8. •J»i. 

Iivl. 14. » Prov. xvii. 22. • Jcr. xxiti. 12, 13. « Hot. xiii. 15, 16. 

7 Joel i. 12. *■ Isai. xxiv. 4, 5. 

Vien. 5,^7.j FOURTEENTH CHAPTKK OF H08EA. 335 

tian plagues *; a respiting only, not a removing of our a£9io 
tioo ; like the shining of the sun on Sodom, before the fire 
and brimstone fell upon it ^. We all cry and call for peace ; 
and while any thing is left, would gladly pay dear, very dear 
to recover it again. But there is no sure and lasting pur- 
chase of it, but by unfeigned repentance and turning unto 
God : this is able to give peace in the midst of war. In the 
■lidat of storm and tempest, Christ is sufficient security to 
the tossed |ship ^. '* This man is the peace, even when the 
Assyrian is in the land ^.'^ Whereas impenitency, even when 
we have recovered an outward peace, leaves us still in the 
midst of most potent enemies : God, Christ, angels, scrip- 
tore, creatures, conscience, sins, curses, all our enemies. 
The apostle tells us, that '^ lusts war against the soul V 
There is a strong emphasis in the word sottly which is more 
worth than all the world ; nothing '^ to be taken in exchange 
for it'. So long as we have our lusts conquered, wc are un- 
der the wofulest war in the world, which doth not spoil us 
of our blood, our money, our coin, our cattle, our houses, our 
children, but of the salvation of immortal souls. Time will 
repair the ruins of other wars ; but eternity itself will not de- 
liver that poor soul, which is lost and fallen in the wars of 

Therefore, if you would have peace as a mercy, get it 
from God ; let it be a dew from heaven upon your conver- 
sion onto him. A * king's favour "^ is said to be as * dew on 
the grass V and as 'a cloud of the latter rain^;' and it 
woald with all joyfulness be so apprehended, if by that 
means the blessing of peace were bestowed upon these dis- 
Creased kingdoms. How much more comfortable would it 
be to have it as a gift from God unto a repenting nation f 
For God can give peace in anger, as well as he doth war. 
A ship at sea may be distressed by a calm, as well as broken 
by a tempest. The cattle which we mean to kill, we do first 
prefer unto some fat pasture : and sometimes God gives over 
ponishing, not in mercy, but in fury ; leaving men to go on 
quietly in their own hearts' lusts, that they who are filthy, may 

• Eiod. vni. 15. iz. 34. ^ Gen. zix. 23, 24. < M«tth. viii. 24, 27. 

^ Mic. V. fi, • 1 Pet. ii. U. ^ Folio-Edition, \\ 565. t Match. 

Mi. 26. »» Pro¥. ix. 12. » Prov. xvi. 15. 


be filthy still K God was exceeding angry with Israel, when 
he gave them their ' hearts'* desire/ and sent them quails ^ 
Many men get their wills from God's anger by murmuring, 
as others do theirs from his mercy by prayer; but then 
there comes a curse along with it. Now therefore when our 
own sword doth devour us, when our land is, " through the 
wrath of the Lord of Hosts, so darkened,^ that the people 
thereof are ''as fuel of the fir^, no man sparing his brother, 
every man eating the flesh of his own arm,^ (it is the sad 
character which the prophet gives of a civil war"*;) let us 
take heed of God^s complaint, " In vain have I smitten your 
children, they receive no correction "/' Let us make it our 
business to recover God. It is he that ** causeth wars to 
cease in the earth "*;** and it is he "who poureth out upon 
men the strength of battle, and giveth them over to the 
spoilers P.*' A sinful nation gains nothing by tiny human 
treaties, policies, counsels, contributions, till by repentance 
they secure their interest in God, and make him on their 
side. God, being prevailed with by Moses in behalf of Is- 
rael, after the horrible provocation of the golden calf, sends 
a message to them : ** I will send an angel before thee, and 
will drive out the Canaanite." And presently it follows, 
"When the people heard these evil tidings, they mourned*'.*' 
What, were these evil tidings, — ^To have an angel to 
protect and lead them ? to have their enemies vanquished ? 
to have possession of a land, flowing with milk and honey? 
was there any thing lamentable in all this? Yes; To 
have all this and much more, and not to have God and 
his presence, — was heavy tidings unto God''s people. And 
therefore Moses never gave God over, till he promised them 
his own presence again ; with which he chose rather to stay 
in a wilderness, than without it to go into the land of Canaan ; 
** If thy presence go not along, carry us not up hence '." 

Sect. 11. Secondly, We should from hence learn, what- 
ever our spiritual wants are, to look up to Heaven for a sup- 
ply of them. Neither gardens, nor woods, nor vineyardb, 
nor fields, nor flowers, nor trees, nor corn, nor spices, will 
flourish or revive, without the dew and concurrence of hea- 

k Pialra Izxxl. 12. Hos. iv. 14, 17. Isai. i. 5. Ezek. zziv. 13. 1 Namb. 

zt. 32, 33. n Isat. iz. 19, 20. » Jer. ii. 30. • Psalm zlvi. 10. 

F I'ai. zlii. 24, 25. q Ezocl. zzxUi. 2, 3, 4. ' Ezod. zzziii. 13, 14, 15. 

Veri.5,6,7.] FOURTEENTH CHAPTER OF H08EA. 337 

▼eDly grace : Christ alone is all in all unto his church, 
lliough the instruments be earthly, yet the virtue which 
gives success unto them, comes from Heaven. 

1. The * beauty of the lilies,^ or as the prophet David calls 
it, " the beauty of holiness/' ariseth from the * dew of the 
Boming*.' He is the ornament, the attire, the comeliness, 
of his spouse. For his people to forget him, is for a maid 
to forget her ornaments, or a spouse her attire '. The per- 
fect beauty of the church, is that comeliness of his, 
which he communicates unto her ''. Of ourselves^ we are 
^wretched, miserable, poor, naked ;" our gold, our riches, 
oar white raiment', we must buy of him ^ He is *'the 
Lord our righteousness, whom therefore we are said to " put 
OQ V He hath made us kings and priests unto our God ' ; 
and being such, he hath provided beautified robes for us, as 
once he appointed for the priests ^. This spiritual beauty 
of holiness in Christ's church, is sometimes compared to the 
marriage-ornaments for a queen ^: sometimes to the choice 
flowers of a garden, roses and lilies'^ : sometimes to a most 
glorioos and goodly structure * : sometimes to the shining 
forth of the moon, and the brightness of the sun^ All the 
united excellences of the creatures ' are too low to adum- 
brate and figure the glories of the church. 

2. The '' root and stability of the church is in and from 
him : he is the ' root of David *.' Except he dwell in us, we 
cannot be rooted nor grounded ^. All our strength and 
sufficiency is from him '. The graft is supported by another 
root, and not by its own. This is the reason of the stability 
of the church, because it is " founded upon a rock "";*' not 
upon Peter, but upon him whom Peter confessed"; upon 

• Ptelm CI. 3. t Jer. ii. 32. « Rxck. xvi. U. > Vide Gul. 

Sittek. CoDTiT. 1. 2. c. 26. 7 Rev. iii. 18. ■ Rom. ziii. U. 

• RcT. T. 10. b Exod. xxviii. 2. Rev. iv. 4, 6. xi. 7, 9. c p^lm 

xir. 14. RcT. xviii. 7, 8. xxi. 2. d Cant. ii. 1,2. • Rev. xxi. 1 1, 23. 

' CanCTU 10. Rev. xii. 1. f Et qu» divisa beatot Eflkiuni, coUecu 

teaoi. CUwL xxi. 34. Gesner, vol. i. p. 311. ^ Folio-Edition, p. 566. 

^Rcv.T.5. k Ephes. iii. 17. 1 Phil. iv. 13. Ephes. vi. 10. 1 Pet. 

v. 10. a Matlh. XVI. 18. ° *A<r^aXi)r dttokoyiaf iw iian^xS^U 6 

nirpts wmf^ aidroB tk icpifvtSa ical BaBi»6v dWtfcro* i^ f ri)y iavroO ixKXiiaiaif 

i Mifm 4maUtaiaw. Itidor, Pelusiot. 1. 1. Ep. 235.^Ut Kdifkmrctur .EcclcsU 

lopo pctnun» quis factus cat pctrm ? Paulum audi diccntern ; ** Petra autero cnt 

Chriutti:*' jivg, in Psalm 1x. vol. 4. p. 438. Super banc peirani quam con* 



the apostles only doctrinallyy but upon Christ personally, as 
" the chief corner-stone, elect and precious,** in whom who- 
soever believeth, shall not be confounded, — or, by failing in 
his confidence, be any ways disappointed and put to shame *". 
This is the difference between the righteousness of crea- 
tion P, and the righteousness of redemption ; the state of the 
world in Adam, and the state of the church in Christ. 
Adam had his righteousness in his own keeping ; and there- 
fore when the power of hell set upon him, he fell from his 
steadfastness. There was no promise given unto him, that 
the gates of Hell should not prevail against him ; being of 
an earthly constitution, he had corruptibility, mutability, in- 
firmity, belonging unto him out of the principles of his be- 
ing. But Christ, the second Adam, is *' the Lord from Hea- 
ven," over whom death hath no claim, nor power: and the 
righteousness and stability of the church is founded and 
hath its original in him. The powers of darkness must be 
able to evacuate the virtue of his sacrifice, — to stop God's 
ears unto his intercession, — to repel and keep back the 
supply and influences of his Spirit, — to keep or recover 
possession against his ejectment, — in one word, to kill him 
again, and to thrust him away from the right hand of the 
Majesty on High, before ever they can blow down or over- 
turn his church. As Plato compared a man, so may we the 
church, unto a tree inverted, with the root above, and the 
branches below. And the root of the tree doth not only 
serve to give life to the branches, while they abide in it, 

fessus es, super banc petram quam cognov'tsti, dioens, '* Tu es Christus, FlHos Dei 
vivi,'*sedtficabo£cclesiain meam : de Verbis Dom. Serm. 13. vol. 5. p. 290. Quid 
est * super banc petram ?' Super banc fidem ; Super id quod dictum est, ' Tu ci 
Christus, Filius Dei :' Tract. 10. in Epist. 1. Joan. — Felix fidei Petra, Petti ore 
confess! Tu es Cbrtstus Filius Dei. Hilar, de Trio. lib. 2. Super banc confessioois 
petram Ecclesiae aedificatio est. lib. 6. 'Evl renJrp rf v4rpf, rovriim, rg witrrm 
rijs SfioXoyias. Ckrysost. in loc. — Vid. Reynold. Conference with Hart. cap. 2. 
divis. 1. — Casauh. Exercitat. ad. Annal. Eccles. xv. c. 12 et 13. — Sixl, Senem, 
1. 6. Annot. 68. 69. « Epbes. ii. 20, 21. 1 Pet. ii. 6. p Istam gntiAm 

non habuit homo primus, qua nunquam vellet, malus esset : Sed sane babalt, te 
qua si permanere vellet, nunquam malus esset. Sed deseruit et desertus es?.— 
Haec prima est gratia, quae data est primo Adam : sed hac potentior est ia sr> 
cundo Adam. Prima est enim qua fit, ut habest homo j usthiam, si velit : tecoB- 
da ergo plus potest qua fit ctiam ut velit, et tantum velit, tantoqnt ardore dOigai, 
ut carnis Toluntatem contraria concupiscentem voluntate Spiricas Tincmt, 
August, de corrept. et grat. cap. 11. et 12. vol. x. p. 507. 

Vert. 5, 6, 7.] FOUETEENTII CHAPTKR OF H08EA. 339 

—but to bold them fast, that none can be able to cut them 

Sect. II. — 3. The growth and spreading abroad the 
braDcbea of the church, is from him, whose name is '* the 
Braoch '." Unto him are all the ends of the earth given 
for a possession, and " all the kingdoms of the worid are to 
be the LordX c^nd his Christ^s.^ In regard of his dispensa- 
tion towards Israel, God's first*bom, so the land of Canaan 
is peculiarly called ' Emmunuers land \* But in regard of 
his latter dispensation, when he sent the *' rod of his strength 
out of Sion," and went forth '' conquering and to conquer ,"" 
and gaye commission to preach the gospel unto every crea- 
ture ; so the whole world is now, under the gospel, become 
Emmanuers land, and he is "King of all the earth*;'' 
^ King of kings, and Lord of lords "•" Gentiles come into 
the light of his church, and kings to the brightness of her 
rising, and " the nation and kingdom that will not serve her, 
shall perish ''/' 8cc. Now every country is Canaan ; and 
every Christian church the Israel of God ; and every rege- 
nerate person born in Sion ; and every spiritual worshipper, 
the circumcision : now Christ is crucified in Galatia, and a 
passover eaten in Corinth, and manna fed on in Pergamus, 
and an altar set up in Egypt, and Gentiles sacrificed, and 
MoDes made children unto Abraham, and temples unto 
God'. la Christ's former dispensation, the church was 
only national amongst the Jews ; but in his latter dispensa- 
tion, it is oecumenical and universal, over all the world ; — 
a spreading tree, mider the shadow of the branches whereof 
shall dwell *' the fowl of every wing ^" 

Sect. 12. — 4. The graces of the Holy Spirit wherewith 
the church is aiiointed, are from him V He is the olive-tree 
which emptieth 'the golden oil' out of himself ^ '*Ofhis 
fttlnesa we all receive, grace for grace ^'* With the same 

n John X.28, 29. r lut. zi. 11. Zach. iii. H. * Isii. viii. 8. 

< IMb zWii. 7. " Rev. xiz. 16. « Isii. Iz. 3, 12. l See John 

iv.2l. Mal.i.ll. Zcph.ii. 11. Gal. ti. 16. lsu.zliv. 5. zit. 1. S^Mch. viii. 23. 
tQm.ii.2S. Pialm Uuvii. 4, 5. PhU.ui.3. Col. ii. 11. G«L iu. 1. 1 Cor. 
V. 7,S. Scv. ii. 17, Isai. ziz. 19, 21, 23. Rom. zv. 16. Luke iii. 8. Epbcs. ii. 11. 
* Enk.zviL 23. • Origo fontiuro et Suminum mare ; viitutum et tcicn- 

(■■nmi Chriamt. Si quia callet ingenio, si quis nitet eloquio, si quit moiibat 
fUcei ; tfide est. Bern, in Cant. Ser. I . *» Zach. iv. 1 2. « Joha i. 16. 

Z 2 



Spirit are we anointed ; animated by the same life ; regene- 
rated to the same nature; renewed unto the same image; 
reserved unto the same inheritance ; dignified, in some 
respecty with the same offices ; made priests to offer spi- 
ritual sacrifices, and kings to subdue spiritual enemies, and 
prophets to receive teaching from God, and to have a du- 
plicate of his law written in our hearts ^. 

6. The • sweet perfume and scent or * smell of Lebanon,' 
which ariseth out of holy duties, the grace which droppeth 
from the lips of the people, the spiritual incense which 
ariseth out of their prayers, the sweet savour^ of the gospel 
which spreadeth itself abroad in the ministry of his Word, 
and in the lives of his servants, — they have all their original 
in him, and from his heavenly dew. Of ourselves, without 
him, as we are " altogether stinking and unclean k," so we 
defile every holy thing which we meddle with ''. Insomuch, 
that God is said, as it were, to stop his nose that he * may 
not smell them ^ :' they are all of them, as they came from 
us, *' gall and wormwood, and bitter clusters ^^* But when 
the Spirit of Christ bloweth ftpon us, and his grace is pour- 
ed into our hearts and lips, then the spices flow out^ : then 
prayer goes up like incense and sweet odours "^ ; then, in- 
stead of corrupt, rotten, contagious communication, our dis- 
courses tend to edifying, and ' minister grace to the hear- 
ers °,' then the * savour of the knowledge of Christ'' mani- 
festeth itself in the mouths and lives of his servants in every 
place where they come ^. 

Sect. 13. — 6. The shadow and refreshment, the refuge 
and shelter of the church against storm and tempest, against 
rain and heat, against all trouble and persecution, — is from 
him alone. He is the only 'defence and covering' that is 
over the * assemblies and glory of Sion p.' The name of the 
Lord is ^ a strong tower,^ unto which the righteous fly and 
are safe'i. So the Lord promiseth, when his people should 

<» 2 Cor. i. 21. John xiv. 19. I Cor. xv. 48, 49. Rom. viii. 17. 1 Ptet i. 5. 
Rev. i. 6. John vi.45. Jer. xxxi. 33. e Folio-Edition, p, 567. ' TW^ 

trpwraytfrrofr woKifpia, r6 ^vixlofta tHu^s «/j /MlXiry/ia Strippeiy eijpai wap WKH mgn, 
-Chrys, ScT. 27. in Gen.— Vid. Lud. CapelL Spicileg. p. 97, dS.—fFeems. Exefch 
Cerem. 1. 1, p. 62, 63. 9 Psalm xiv. 1. Prov. xiii. 5. h Hag. ii. 13, *4 

Prov. xxviii. 9. Isai. i. 11, 15. « Amos v. 21. k Deut. xxix. 18, 32, SS 

> Cant. iv. 16. « Revel, v. 8. n Ephcs- iv. 29. ©2 Cor.xii. 4 

P Isai. iv. 5. q Prov. xviii. 10. 

Vert. 5, 6, 7.] FOURTEENTH CHAFTEU OF H08EA. 341 

be exiles from his temple, and scattered out of their own 
land, that he would himself be a little sanctuary unto them 
in the countries, where they should come^ He is a dwelling- 
place' unto his church in all conditions*; a strength to the 
needy, a refuge from the storm, a shadow from the heat, a 
biding place from the wind, a covert from the tempest, a 
chamber wherein to retire when indignation is kindled ". 
Every history of God's power, every promise of his love, 
every observation and experience of his providence, every 
comfort in his Word, — the knowledge which we have of his 
oame by faith, and the knowledge which we have of it by 
experience, — are so many arguments to trust in him, and so 
many hiding places to fly unto him, against any trouble. 
" What time I am afraid, I will trust in thee '.''—" Why art 
thoa cast down, O my soul ? still trust in God ^.'^ — ** He hath 
delivered, he doth deliver, he will deliver'.**^ Many times the 
children of God are reduced to such extremities, that they 
have nothing to encourage themselves withal but their inte- 
rest in him ; nothing to fly unto for hope but his great name, 
made known unto them by faith in his promises, and by ex- 
perience of his oroodness, power, and providence. This was 
David'^s case at Ziklag * ; and Israelis, at the Red Sea^; and 
Jonah% in the belly of the fish''; and PauKs, in the ship- 
wreck ^. God is never so much glorified by the faith of his 
servants, as when they can hold up their trust in him against 
sight and sense ; and when reason saith, ^ Thou art undone, 
for all helps fail thee,^~can answer in faith, * I am not un- 
done, for he said, / will never fail thee, fwr forsake thee.* 

7. The power which the church hath to rise up above her 
pressures, to outgrow her troubles, to revive after lopping 
and harrowing, to make use of affliction * as a means to flou- 
lisb again, — all this is from him. That in trouble we are not 
overwhelmed, but can say with the apostle, ^^ As dying, and 

' Ezek. zi. 16. • De domo suA nemo extrahi debet auc in jut vocari, 

%ini domus tutissimum cuiquc rcfugium atque reccptaculum. — De in juf Tocan- 

do. P. kg. 18 et 21. * Psalm xc. 1. zci. 1,2. • Isai. zzt. 4. 

sxti.20. zxzii. 2. > Psalm Ixviii. 3. 7 Psalm zlii.5, 11. a 2 Cor. 

i.lO. • 1 Sam. zxz. 6. ^ Ezod. xiv. 10, 13. c Jon. ii.4. 7. 

' Acta zxvii. 20, 25. • Medicamenta quaedam prioa afRigant, ut sanent ; 

et ipn oollyria, nisi sensum iridendi prim claudant, prodette non poftunt : ^ug. 

^. m Matth. qu. 14. — Quo terreri deberct, illo ipso recreatur :^^-coDtumeliam 

teaet caratkmis pignus, &c. Scult, cap. 42. — Obtervat. in Mattb. de malicre 

Syiophaeniisa^ — Plarcs efficimar, quottes roetimur : TertuL Apd. cap. ult. 


behold we live*^; as chastened, and not killed ; as sorrowful, 
yet always rejoicing ; as poor, yet making many rich ; as 
having nothing, and yet possessing all things ;" like the 
corn which dies, and is quickened again ; like the vine that 
is lopped, and spreads again ; — all this is from him who is 
the resurrection and the life ^; who was that grain of wheat 
which, dying, and being cast into the ground, did bring 
forth much fruit**; the branch which grew out of the roots of 
Jesse, when that goodly family was sunk so low as from 
David the king, unto Joseph the carpenter. 

Sect. 14. Lastly, As God is the author of all these bless- 
ings unto his people, so when he bestows them, he doth it in 
perfection: the fruits which this dew produceth, are the fruits 
of Lebanon, the choicest and most excellent of any other. 
If he plant a vineyard, it shall be in a * very fruitful hill,^ 
and with the * choicest plants * ;' * a noble vine, a right seed''.' 
When, in any kind of straits, we have recourse to* the 
creature for supply, — either we find it, like our Saviour''s fig- 
tree, without fruit, — or, like our prophet's vine, as good as 
empty, the fruits thereof not worth the gathering, Hos. x. 1. 
'* Grapes of gall and bitter clusters ;^' full of vanity, windi- 
ness, vexation, disappointment. Friends fail either in their 
love, or in their power. People cry * Hosanna' to-day, and 
' Crucify' to-morrow. Men of low degiee are vanity, and men 
of high degree a lie. Counsels clash, or are puzzled with 
intricacies, and unhappy obstacles, like the wheels in Eze- 
kiel's vision, that seem hampered in one another. Annies, 
like Reuben, unstable as waters, that flow now, and anoo 
ebb, and sink away again. Treasures, like the mountains 
out of which they were first digged, barren and firaitiess; 
better fuel to feed our sins, than water to quench our 
flames ; matter of prey to the wicked, more than of help to 
the miserable. In one word, take any creature- helps in the 
world, and there will be something, nay very much of defect 
in them. All being, but by God's, is mixed with not being. 
And as every man, so every creature else which is nothing 

' 'OXiToi jKoI v«AA<»r SuyaravTcpot, tdxfidkmroi icol rod fiaaiKJkn l^xyf^^^^ 
dwoK^fftuntt worptSa ica2 wiarw fii) dvoX^crcwrcs, TVfiyol kcX frBrlnyi/mw^ 
wrinxoi icol tihopoi, ical iktve4pMf oMtlyovs, &c. Chrys. dc Tribus Pnerit, 
Scr. 2. ill Psalm 50. g John xi. 25. h John xii. 24. > Itw. 

V. 1, 2. k Jer. ii. 21. 1 Folio-Edition, p. 568. 


but creature, is a ' liar/ like Job's brook, or friendship 
which he compareth thereunto, —that vanisheth into nothing 
when there is most need of it" ; — a liar, either byway of per- 
fidiousness, which promiseth and then deceives, — or by way 
of impotency, which undertaketh and then miscarries. But 
whenever God promiseth and undertaketh to bless any man 
or any people, he carrieth on his work to perfection: his 
blessings are all milk and honey, dew and fatness, wine and 
oil, the fruits of Lebanon, Full of sweetness and maturity. — 
' He perfects that which he begins' concerning; his servants *'. 
There doth not one thing fail of all the good he speaks con- 
cerning his people ', ^' they all come to pass, and not one 
faileth^'" The riches which are gotten by human lusts and 
sinful resolutions, do come along with many and piercing 
sorrows >*: but when God blesseth a man with riches, he 
takes away all the sorrow from it*'. The gifts of God are 
all of them like his works, " very good %'" and bring after a 
sabbath, a rest, and peace into the soul with them. 

Sect. 15. Thirdly, We should from hence learn to show 
forth the fruits of this heavenly dew, in those several expres- 
sions, which the prophet here useth, drawn from the consi- 
deration of a *' garden, forest, fruitful field/* heavenly para* 
dise; which is a similitude frequently used by the holy 
Spirit, to note the beauty, sweetness, fruit, comfort, shel- 
ter, protection, which the church of Christ aftbrdeth to the 
members of it^ ; as, on the other side, the wicked are com- 
pared unto " a dry desert, and barren wilderness \** For 
these things as they are promises in regard of God, and so 
matter of comfort, — so are they duties in regard of us, and 
so matter of obedience. 

First, He promiseth, That his people shall *^ grow as the 
lily/' which is the most beautiful " of all flowers \ That they 
shall be ^^ gloriously clothed/* like a king^s daughter, with 
the ^garments of praise,' and the Spirit of holiness >, set 
forth by various metaphors of ^ broidered work," and ^ fine 

■ Job vi. 17, 21. n ptalm czxxviii. 8. Phil. i. 6. • Josh, xxiii. 14. 

f 1 Tim. ▼!. 10. <l Prov. x. 22. ' Gen. i. 31. • lui. xxxv. 1, 2. 

Ivtii. U. Cant. !▼. 12. vi. 16. * Isai. xxxt. 6, 7. xli. 18. Jer. x?ii. 6. 

■ Tanu esc floris lilii dignttis, uc Homerus omnes Sores Tocaveric Xtlpia i 
Jul, Pollus.—V\6,Plin. lib. 21. chap. 1. > Matth. vi. 28, 29. 7 Isai. 

Ixii. 3. 




linen/ and • silk,V and * ornaments,*' and • bracelets/ and 

* chains/ and * jewels/ and ' crowns '.' 

And as it is his promise, so it ought to be our duty and 
endeavour to adorn the gospel of Christ, to be in his gar- 
den as a lily, and not as a nettle or bramble; to walk as be- 
cometh godliness ; to let our light shine before men, that 
they may be won to admire the amiableness of the Lord's 
tabernacle, and glorify God in the hour of their visitation ; 
to be as lights in the midst of a crooked generation*, or as 

* lilies amongst briars ^/ to make it appear that spiritual wis- 
dom causeth the * face to shine %* — that holiness is indeed a 
most beautiful thing, which commendeth us to the eyes of 
God and angels : a robe worn by Christ the king of Saints, 
and by which we are made like unto him, who is the ^* fairest 
of ten thousand, and altogether lovely.** We should take 
heed of any thing whereby our holy profession may be 
blemished, and the name of God defiled by our means : of 
such levity, as is inconsistent with the majesty of holiness; of 
such morosity, as is inconsistent with the meekness of holi- 
ness ; of such drooping, as is inconsistent with the joy of 
holiness ; of such stiffness and sourness, as is inconsistent 
with the lenity of holiness. In one word, we should labour 
by the innocency, purity, elegancy, fragrancy, fruitfulness, — 
by the winning ingenuity, the mild and humble condescen- 
sion, the prudent insinuation, the meek, quiet, and graceful 
managing of a holy life, — to " show forth the praises of 
him that hath called us, and to put to silence the ignorance 
of foolish men -^ who, like blackmoors, despise beauty, — 
like dogs, bark at the shining of the moon, and '* speak evil 
of the things they know not." 

Sect. 16. Secondly**, He promiseth That his church 
should '^ cast out his roots as Lebanon :" though she should 
have the beauty of the lily, yet she should be freed from the 
infirmity of it, an aptness to fade and wither, beautiful to- 
day, and to-morrow cast into the oven. But she should have 
stability like the cedar % which is one of the strongest of 
trees, and least subject to putrefaction ; and therefore the 
church is compared to it ^ and the temple is said to be built 

« Ezek. xvi. 8, 13. » Phil. ii. 15. b Cam. ii. 2. < Ecdes. 

viii. 1. <1 Folio-Edition, p. 569. « Plin, lib. 16. cap. 40.— rfceopAraiL 

Hist. Plant. 1. 3. ' Ezek. zvii. 22, 33. 

Vers. 5, 6, 7.] FOURTEENTH CHAPTER OF H08EA. 345 

of it»; to signify the strength and duration of the church, 
against which the gates of hell should not prevail : (and we 
may by the way observe, that raost of the things here men- 
tioned by our prophet, are also noted to have been in the 
tem|>le, or in the services thereof; lilies, 1 Kings vii. 19, 
22, 26 ; olive-trees, 1 Kings vi. 23, 32, 33 ; spices for in- 
cense, wheat and oil for meat-offerings, wine for drink- 
offerings.) God furnisheth his people with these blessings, 
which may be most properly dedicated unto him. Teaching 
us as often as we receive any gifts from God, presently to 
enquire what relation they have to his temple : how his name 
may be honoured, how his church may be served, how his 
gospel may be furthered, how his peojde may be edified and 
comforted by them, how all our enjoyments may be divided 
as spoils unto Christ •• ; — the power of great men * ; — the 
swords of mighty men ^ ; — the wisdom of learned men ' ; — 
the cunning of crafUmen "" ; — the wealth of rich men **. 
Abraham gave of the spoils to Melchizedec ^ ; and Israel of 
all their wealth, to the tabernacle ^ ; and David and his peo- 
ple of their treasure, to the temple*'. 

And as it is his promise, That the church should thus 
* take root V so we should account it our duty, to be firm, 
stable, constant, unmovable in the truth and in the work 
of the Lord, as a * house built upon a rock.** To stand fast 
and be ' rooted in the truth,' that we may hold the profes- 
sion thereof 'without wavering ;"* not being carried about 
with the ' wind of doctrine,' but knowing whom and what 
we have believed ' ; — to stand fast and be rooted in the love 
of God, that we may be strengthened with might in his ser- 
vice, and may "with purpose of heart cleave unto him," 
being established by his grace'. In the civil law ", till a tree 
hath taken root, it doth not belong to the soil on which it is 

f 1 iCings vi. 15, 16. ^ TmSx*^ avXi^as, otrt worl "Iktor lp^¥, Kal 

Kftpdm W0r\ ntiv *Kir6XKtwos U^oto, Horn. Iliad. H. 82.— Spolia in Tcmplis 
taapendeie antiqoi moriserat. Cic, de Nat. Deor. lib. 2. — Liv. lib. 10. — f^irgiL 
Ma. 7. 1 Isai. Ix. 3. k i Sam. xviii. 17,25,28. Judg. vii.8 1 1 Kingi 

ui. 9, 28. ^ Exod. xxviii. 3. xxxi. 6. » Isai. xxiii. 18. Prov. iii. 9. 

Palm xW. 12. Isai. Ix. 69. 1 Tim. vi. 17, 18, 19. • Hcb. vii. 4. 

P Exod. XXXV. 21. <l 1 Chron. xxix. 2. ' 2 Kings xix. 30. Jcr. xvii. 8. 

• 1 G>r. xvi. 13. Epbes. iv. U. Col. ii. 7. Heb. x. 23. * Ephes. iii. 17. 

Col. i. 11. Hcb. xii.28. xiii. 9. » P. de adquircndo rcrum dominio, 1.7. 

Sect. 13. ec Arborura furtim caisarum, I. 3. Sect. 3. Cod. de Re. viDdicatiooc, 1. !!• 


planted. It is not enough to be in the church, — except, like 
the cedar of Lebanon, we cast forth our roots, and are so 
planted that we flourish in the ** courts of our God, and 
bring forth fruit in our old age *." 

Sect. 17. Thirdly, He promised, That the church should 
* spread forth' her branches, and fill the earth, and grow into 
a great compass and extent, and should send forth her 
"boughs unto the sea, and her branches unto the river ^•;'* 
— that his church should be a universal church over the 
whole world : that as the whole world, in regard of sin, lieth 
in mischiefs, so the whole world should have Christ for its 
propitiation, through faith * ; *' Totus in maligno propter zi- 
zania, Christus propitiatio propter triticum ^." By one 
Spirit we all are baptized into one body "" ; and that one 
body made up of all the churches of the saints'*, even 
of all nations, kindreds, people, tongues '. — No difference 
of persons ; " neither Greek nor Jew, neither circum- 
cision nor uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bond nor 
free, but Christ all, and in all ^;" — No difference of places; all 
that in every place call upon the name of the Lord Jesua, 
both theirs and ours ^ ; — No difference of times : Christ 
" yesterday, and to-day, and the same for ever **." 

And as this is the promise, so we should endeavour ; 

1. To grow ourselves in knowledge and grace ; to let our 
profiting appear unto all men ; to abound in the work of the 
Lord ; to let our graces from the heart, like leaven from the 
middle of the lump, spread abroad, and find their way to all 
the parts and powers of soul and body, that the whole man 
may be '' filled with the fulness of God, and grow up unto 
the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ'." 

2. To labour and endeavour the growth and progress of 
the gospel in others. This is the nature of Grace, to mani- 
fest itself, and, by that means, to allure and gather others to 
its own quality. It is set forth, in scripture, by the names 
of • light,' which shines abroad ; of * ointment and perfume/ 
which cannot be hid ; of ' leaven and salt,' which deriveth 

» Psalm xcii. 12, 13, U. 5 Psalm Ixxx. 9, 10, 11. Dm. U. 34. 

» I John ▼. 19. » 1 John ii. 2. b Au^, Epist. 48. « 1 Cot, 

12, 13. ^ 1 Cor. xiv. 33. « Rev. vii. 9. ' Col. iu. 1 1. 

S 1 Cor. i. 2. ^ Hcb.xiii. 8. > Ephes. iv. 13, 15, 16. Phil. 
ill. 12, 13. 2 Pct.iii. 18. Heb. vi. 1. 


its own nature and relish upon a whole lump. Therefore 
the Holy Ghost was given in " tongues, fiery tongues, and a 
rushing wind ;" all which have a quality of*' sclf-manifesta- 
tion, and notifying themselves unto others. There is an ex- 
cellent place to this purpose in the apostle, Ephes. iv. 15, 16: 
*' But, speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in 
all things, which is the head, even Christ : from whom the 
whole body, fitly joined together and compacted by that 
which every joint supplietli, according to the effectual work- 
ing in the measure of every part, niaketh increase of the 
body unto the edifying of itself in love :" — where the apostle 
sboweth the manner of spiritual increase in the mystical 
body of Christ, by the proportion of the growth of members 
in the natural body. 

And, first, there must be a fellowship between the head 
and members, which in the mystical body here is two- 
fold, iU auTov, and tf ouroO; growing ' into him,'' and receiving 
* from him f — looking, in this work of growth, upon Christ 
first, as the end of that growth unto which it drives : se- 
condly, as the fountain from whence it proceeds : that by 
growth we may have a more intimate and strong communion 
with him, by that virtue wiiich we receive from him. So 
here are two necessary requisites unto this duty of endea- 
vouring the increase of the body ; to have Christ for our 
end unto which we work, — and for our fountain, out of 
which we derive our ability of working. Every true mem- 
ber of Christ is intent and vigilant upon the interest and ho- 
nour of Christ ; and it belongs unto the honour of Christ to 
have a perfect body. The church is his fulness ; he esteems 
himself maimed and incomplete, if that should be finally de- 
ficient in any thing, requisite to the integral perfection of it' : 
and hence it is that every true Christian puts forth the utter- 
most of his endeavours, in his place, to carry on the in- 
crease of his Master's body : as every true-hearted soldier 
that loves his general, is exceeding desirous, and to his 
power endeavours, that every company and regiment under 
his generaPs command may be, in all the offices and mem* 
bers of it, complete. Again ; every member of Chnst, being 
unto him united, doth from him receive of his fulness * grace 

k Folio EdKtan, y. Ti/O. ' Vid. Camrron- dc Ecclo. p.H4, 85, K*». 


for grace,^ and so worketh unto the same ends as the head 
doth. And as the water which first riseth out of the foun- 
tain, doth not stand still there wherein it began, but goeth 
forward till it grow into a great river ; so those who are 
joined unto Christ as a fountain, do, by reason of that vital 
communion which they have with the fountain, carry on the 
growth of the whole body ; and the more vigorous the life of 
Christ is in any part, the more actively doth that part work 
towards the edification of the whole. 

Sect. 18.— 2. Here is further required a fellowship and 
mutual communion of the members of the body, within and 
amongst themselves : unto which is first presupposed the 
organical and harmonious constitution and compacture of 
the body into one, out of which ariseth the form and 
beauty, the strength and firmness, the order and fitness that 
is in it unto those works that are proper to it, — intimated in 
those words, <rvyapfjLo\oyovfjLivov, and avfLSiSa^ofjLtvov, fitly joined 
together and compacted. It is a metaphor drawn from car* 
penters and other artificers, who by several joints do so co- 
aptate and fit the parts of their work unto one another, that 
being put together and fastened, there may one whole struc- 
ture or body grow out of them : and in that body this accu- 
rate fitness and intimateness of the parts one with another, 
produceth an excellent strength, a beautiful order, and a 
ready serviceableness of each part to the other, and of all to 
the whole °*. So Jerusalem is said to be a city * compacted * 
within itself". The ark (a type of the church) had the ribs, 
and planks, and parts thereof so closely fastened into one ano- 
ther, that no water might get in to drown it. And in the ta- 
bernacle, all the curtains thereof were to be 'coupled together' 
into one another °. Christ is all for unity, and joining things 
into one : two natures united in one person, two parties re- 
conciled by one mediator, two people concorporated into 
one church, one Father, one seed, one head, one faith, one 
hope, one love, one worship, one body, one spirit, one end 
and common salvation. ^ Christ is not,^ loves not to be, * di- 
vided.'* This is a fundamental requisite unto the growth of 
the body, the preservation of its unity p. The building must 

m Nulla multituiinis potentia nisi conscntientis, id est, unum sentientis. 
y/u^. de Vera Rclig. cap. 25. Q Psalm cxxii. 3. o Exod. zxvi.3. 

P Possessionem bonitatis lanto latius, quanto concordius individua socioram 


be ' fitly framed together,' if you would have it ' grow into 
a holy temple ' to the Lord \ When there was most unity, 
there was greatest increase in the church ; when they were 
''all of one accord/ of * one heart/ and * one soul/ then the 
Lord ' added to the church daily such as should be saved ^' 
They that cause divisions and dissensions, do not serve the 
Lord Jesus ; and therefore they cannot but hinder the pro* 
gress of his gospel *. As in the natural, so in the mystical 
body, ' solutio continui** tendeth to the paining and grieving 
of that spirit by which the body lives *, and, by consequence, 
hinders the growth of it. Our growth is, by the apostle, 
distributed into growth in knowledge, and growth in grace": 
and divisions in the church are of themselves great hin- 
drances unto ' both these ; unto knowledge, because the 
most usual breaches in the church arise out of diversities of 
opinion, publicly asserted and insisted on by the authors 
and followers of them. And though accidentally, where 
truth is embraced, it is held with more care, and searched 
into with more accurateness, because of the errors that op- 
pose it, (as the fire is hottest in the coldest weather ;) yet 
corrupt doctrine being of the nature of a weed or canker, to 
spread, and eat further and further, it must needs conse- 
quently hinder the spreading, and, in that kind, the growth 
of knowledge. Nor doth it less hinder the growth of grace: 
for while the people of God are all of one heart, and of one 
way, then all their communion runs into this one design of 
mutually edifying, comforting, supporting, encouraging one 
another in their holy faith : but when they are divided and 
broken into faction by different judgements, if there be not 
a greater abundance of humility and spiritual wisdom, the 
spirits of men run out into heats and passions ', and into 
penrerae disputes, and mere notional contentions, which 
have ever been diminutions unto the power of godliness '. 
When there are schisms in the body, the members will not 
have care one of another *. Greatly, therefore, even for his 

posftidct cvitas. — Et tanto earn reperiet ampliorem, quanto arapliuf ibi potuerit 
amare consortem ; Aug. de Civ. Dei, 1. 15. c 5. q Ephes. ii. 21. G)l. ii. 19. 

r Acu ii. 4G, 47. • Rom. xvi. 17, 18. t Ephes. iv. 30, .31. 

• 2 Pet. ill. 18. < Folio-Edition, p. 571. 7 Non tulit Coelius assenC- 

tieatem \ sed exclamavit, Die aliquid contra, ut duo simus.' Stnec. de Ira, 3. lib. 
c. 8. ed. Rohkopf, vol. i. p. 106. « 1 Cor. iii. 3, 4. • 1 Cor. xii. 25. 


own cause, are the sad and dangerous divisions of these 
times to be lamented, when men make use of civil troubles 
to disturb, yea, to tear asunder the unity of the church ; 
when they set up, as in the times of the Donatists, altar 
against altar, and church against church, and make seces- 
sions from the common body, and then one from another, to 
the infinite content and advantage of the common enemies 
of our religion, and hazard of it. It were a blessed thing** 
if we were in a condition capable of the apostle^s exhorta- 
tion, " To speak all the same thing, to be perfectly joined in 
the same mind, and in the same judgement, to be of one 
mind, and to live in peace ^^ But if that cannot be attained 
unto, let us yet all learn the apostle's other lesson, wherein 
we are otherwise minded, to depend upon God for revealing 
his will unto us, '* and whereunto we have attained, to walk 
by the same rule, to mind the same thing ;" to remember 
that every difference in opinion doth not, ought not to, dis- 
sipate or dissolve the unity of God's church. Even in Co* 
rinth, where the people were divided into several parties, yet 
they continued ' one church **.' 

The body thus constituted, and compacted for the in- 
crease thereof: — 

Sect. 19.-— 1. Here are members severally distinct from 
one another; some principal, others ministerial, all concur- 
ring differently unto the service of the whole. If the heart 
should be in the head, or the liver in the shoulder, — if there 
should be any unnatural dislocation of the vital or nutritive 
parts, — the body could not grow, but perish. The way for 
the church to prosper and flourish, is for every member to 
keep in his own rank and order, to remember his own nriea- 
sure, to act in his own sphere, to manage his particular con* 
dition and relations with spiritual wisdom and humility ; the 
eye to do the work of an eye, the hand of a hand. Say not 
as Absalom, '* If 1 were a judge, I would do justice • ;" — but 
consider what state God hath set thee in ; and in that walk 
with God, and adorn the profession of the gospel ^ Remem- 
ber Uzzah: it was a good work he did ; but because he did 

b Unitas interior et unanimitas ipsam quoque multiplicitatem colli^at et coo- 
stringit caritatis glutino et vinculo pacis ; Btniard. in Septuagcsiroa, Scrm. 2. 
e 1 Cor. i. 10. 2 Cor. xiii. 11. ^1 Cor. xi. 18. « 2 Sam. xv. 4. 

f Rom. xii. .3. I Cnr. xii. 8. 11, 29, 30. 2 Cor. x. 13, 14. Ephcs. iv. 7. 


it oat of order <, having no call, God imiote him for his error^. 
There are excellent works which, being done without the call 
of God, do not edify but disturb the body *. Every man 
must walk in the church, as God hath distributed and called ; 
and every man must in the calling, wherein he was called, 
' abide with God ^' 

2. Here are joints and ligaments so fastening these mem- 
bers together, that each one may be serviceable to the in- 
crease of the whole '. There are bands which join the body 
to the head, without which it can neither grow nor live, 
namely, the ' Spirit of Christ,' and * faith' in him'". And 
there are bands which join the parts of the body unto one 
another; as, namely, the same ' holy Spirit °;^ which Spirit of 
grace stirreth up every member to seek the growth and bene- 
fit of the whole". The same sincere love and truth which 
each member beareth unto all the rest, this is called ' a bond 
of perfectness V and 'the bond of peace V Now love is a 
most communicative grace ; it will plant, and water, and 
feed, and spend itself for the good of the whole; it will deny 
itself to serve the body, — as Christ did ^ 

3. Here is a measure belonging unto every part : some are 
in one office, others in another ; some have one gift, others 
another; and all this ' for the perfecting of the saints \* One 
is able to teach, another to comfort, a* third to convince, 
a fourth to exhort, a fifth to counsel ; and every one of these 
is to be directed unto the edification and growth of tlie 
whole". The apostle saith, that *' we are fellow-citizens 
with the saints'"' Now as, amongst fellow-citizens, there 
usetb to be an intercourse of mutual negotiation y, one man 
hath one commodity, and another another, and these they 
usually barter withal ; — so amongst the saints, one man is 
emineDt in one grace, another in another ; and according to 
their mutual indigencies or abilities, they do interchangeably 
minister to one another towards the growth of the whole. 

f Ut Hus, PalUdium ex inccndio cripiens, dum ardcrct templum Mincrvv, 
laminibus privatus est; Plutarth. XyUndr. vol. i. p. 309. E. ^ 2 Sam. 

Ti. 6, 7. » Rom. X. 15. Heb. v. 4. k I Cor vii. 17, 20, 24. » I Cor. ii. 19. 
■ 1 Cor. vi. 17. Rem. viii. 9. Ephes. iii. 17. « 1 Cor. xii. 13. <> I Cor. 

xii. 25, 26. P Col. iii. 14. q Ephe«. iv. 3. ' Gal. v. 13. 

• Ephe*. \w. 11, 12. 1 Cor. xii. 4, 11. t Folic-Edition, p. 572. • Rom. 

xii. 3, 8. Ephes. iv. 7. * Ephcs. ii. 19. J Vid. jlristot. Ethic. 

I 5. c. 8. 


And this is that which is here further requisite to the increase 
of the body, called, 

4. *ETi;^op*jy/a, the ' supply of service,' and the supply of 
nourishment, which one part affords unto another, and so to 
the whole. This is principally from the head to the mem- 
hers, called by the apostle, ' the supply of the Spirit of Jesus 
Christ : "' of whose fulness we receive • grace for grace • ;* 
into whose image we are transformed from glory to glory ■*. 
But it is proportionably between Che members amongst them^ 
selves: for as several particular ingredients make up one 
cordial, — and several instruments concur to the perfecting of 
one iaroriXeiTfSM, or consummate work, — and the beauty of 
every thing ariseth out of the variety, and order, and mutual 
serviceableness that the parts thereof have unto one another; 
so is it in the church too, which Christ hath so tempered to- 
gether, that they might all stand mutually in need of one 
another. Therefore we find the Saints, in Scripture, com- 
municating to one another their experiences, temptations, 
deliverances, comforts, for their mutual edification ^. And 
God's dealings with saints, in particular, are therefore regis* 
tered in Scripture*^; both that we might learn that way of 
building up one another, and that, by their examples, we 
might support our faith, and through patience and experi- 
ence of the Scripture have hope: because what hath been 
done unto one, is, in the like condition, applicable unto 
every otlier •. 

6. After all this there is evspyewt, an ' effectual working/ a 
vis trAaoTix^, or a vis trnrrix^, a faculty to form, and to con- 
coct the matter, which hath been subministered unto life and 
nourishment: — which is the work of faith, and of the Spirit 
of Christ, whereby the soul of a believer, being sensible of 
want, desirous of supply^ and pressing forward unto perfec- 
tion, doth sweetly close with whatsoever the measure of any 
other part hath communicated unto it, converting it into 
growth and nourishment to itself, which the apostle calls 
* the mixing of the Word with faith ^' Now 

« Phil. i. 19. » John i. 16. ^ 2 Cor. iii. 18. <- Ptolm 

zuiv. 3,6. John i. 41, 45. iv. £9. 2 Ck}r. i. 4, 6. Phil. i. 12,13,14. CoU 
ii. 1.2. ^ Spccialiter pronunciata generaliter sapiunt. Cum Deus It- 

raelitas admonet disciplinae, vel objurgat, utique ad omncs hal^ct : Tert, de 
Spcctac. c. 3. « James v. 10, II, 17. Rom. xv. 4. 1 Cor. x. 6. Hclx xULS. 

f Heb. iv. 2. 



Sect.' 20. Fourthly, He promiseth. That the beauty of his 
ohorch shall be as the ' olive-tree ;'* that as she shoul(4 have 
the glory of the lily, the strength and exteusion of the ce- 
dar, so this spreading should not be a vain ostentation, but 
should have, joined with it, the flourishing and fruitfulness of 
the olive. Now the honour of the olive-tree standeth in two 
things: perpetual greenness, and most profitable fruit, which 
•erveth both for light to cause the lamp to burn <, and for 
nourishment to be eaten ** ; in the one respect, it is an em* 
blem of peace; it maketh the face shine' ; — and in the other, 
it is an emblem of grace, and spiritual gifts ^. These arc the 
two most excellent benefits, which God promiseth unto his 
people. " He will speak peace unto them * ;^' and he " will 
give them grace and glory ""/' 

And as he promiseth, so should we practise these things, 
and learn to beautify the gospel of Christ, first, with our good 
works, as the fruits of his grace °; — secondly, with our 
"spiritual joy and comfort, as the fruits of his peace : that 
others, seeing the light and shining forth of a serene, calm, 
and peaceable conscience in our conversation, may thereby 
be brought in love with the ways of God. These two do 
mutoally cherish and increase one another. The more con- 
science we make of fruitfulness, the more way do we make 
for peace ; when the waters of lust are sunk, the dove will 
quickly bring an olive-branch in : — and the more the peace 
of God rules in the heart, the more will it strengthen the 
conscience and care of obedience, out of these consider- 
ations : First, Out of thankfulness for so great a blessing. 
Secondly, Out of fear to forfeit it* Thirdly, Out of wisdom 
to improve and increase it 

Sect. 21. Fifthly, He promiseth. That his church shall 
be as ' the smell of Lebanon,' and that the ' scent of if shall 
be as the 'wine of Lebanon / as elsewhere we find her com- 
pared to a garden of spices ;— she shall be filled with the 

S Eiod. urii. 20. h Lev. vi. 15, 16. i Ptalm civ. 15. 

k I John ii. 20. 1 Psalm ixxxv. 8. Isai. xxxii. 17. » PMlm Ixxxiv. 11. 

* John XV. 8. n "Effrt U rts oZrot, 6^ 8») eawpicof KoKiatffff 0{ ccU 

M rrifmm ardiamif ^votyofurdmw 'Of fi fwr, Sgu U A^Bm^, Sfi V titudpdw, 
te. Hennippus xpqd Aibencuin, 1. I.e. 23.— Cojmim^. p. 29. — Convivta, Ludi, 
Pocola crcbra. Uitguenta, Comnae, Scru par4jifur. I.ucrci I. 4. 112.'». p Ctau 
iv. 12, U. 

VOL. 111. 2 A 



sweet savour of the gospel of Christ. " Thanka lie mito 
God," saith the apostle, " which always causeth us to triumph 
in Christ, and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge 
by us in every place'; for we are unto God a sweet savour of 
Christ*:" — where there are two metaphors, one of a sweet 
ointment^ — the other, of a triumph. The name of Christ i« 
compared to an ointment'; and preaching of the gospel, 
which is making manifest the savour of this ointment, ie 
called the ' bearing of Christ's name ".' Now, this* sweet 
savour is annexed unto a triumphal solemnity ; because, in 
all times of public joy, they were wont to anoint themselvee 
with sweet oil, which is therefore called, ' Oleum fetitisB,' the 
oil of gladness *. (For in times of mourning, they did abstain 
from sweet ointments y.) The gospel therefore being a mes- 
sage of 'great joy V a leading * captivity captive,* and the 
means whereby Christ rideth forth gloriously, * conquering 
and to conquer • ;^ therefore they who brought these good 
tidings, are said to be as a ' sweet savour V whose lips drop 
' sweet-smelling myrrh *^,' and whose doctrine is compared to 
the powders of the merchant**. And the time of the gospel 
is called an ' accepted time, a day of salvation * ;** that is, a 
time of singular joy and solemnity, a continued Easter, or 
festival ^ And here withal he promiseth likewise. That his 
people should offer up spiritual incense and services unto 
him in prayers, thanksgivings, alms, and good works '. 

And as he promiseth, so we should practise these things : 
our care should be to let our lips and lives breathe forth 
nothing but grace and edification ■* ; to be frequent in the 
spiritual sacrifices of prayer, thanksgiving, and good works, 
which may be as an ' odour of a sweet savour^ in the nos- 
trils of God *; — to labour to leave behind us a good name, 
not out of vain-glory, or an empty ambitious affectation of 
honour; but out of the conscience of a holy life, which 
makes the name 'smell better than sweet ointment*".^ 

Sect. 22. Sixthly, He promiseth. That they " who dwell 

r FoHo-tSdition, p. 573. '2 Cor. ii. U, 15. « CanU i. 3. 

» Acts ix. 15. * Pulm xlv. 7, B. Isai. Ixi. 3. 7 2 Sam. ziv. 2. Dw. 

X. 2, 3. • Loke ii. 13. » Psalm xW. 3, 4. Psalm 6x. 2. Rev. vi. 2. 

t> AderaDC uoguenia, coronae ; iocendebantur odores. Cic, Tusc. Qu. 1. 5.«— vid* 
Athenaeum, I. 15. c. 1 1, 12. c Cant. v. 13. ^ Cant. lai. S. 

•2Cor. vi. 2. f 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. fEzck. xx.41. b Col. iv. 6. 

• Phil. iv. 18. Rev. ▼iii.4. k Eccles. vii. 1. 

Ven.5,S, 7.] FOURTEENTH CHAPTER or H08EA. 355 

under bis shadow, Bhall return ;'' which words admit of a 
doable sense, and so infer a double promise and a double 
duty : — 1 .We may, by a ' hysteron proteron/ understand the 
woitls thus, — *' When Israel have repented and are brought 
home to God again, they shall then have security, defence, 
protection, refreshment under the comforts of his grace, 
against all the violence of temptation; as a spreading tree 
doth afibrd a sweet shade unto the weary traveller, and 
shelter him from the injuries of the heat'.^ Whereby is 
signified the secure, quiet, and comfortable condition of 
God's people under the protection of his providence and 

And as he promiseth such a condition, so should we, in 
all our troubles, not trust in an arm of flesh, or betake our- 
sdves to mere human wisdom, and carnal counsels, which 
are too thin shelters against God's displeasure, or the ene- 
mies of the church ; — but we must fly unto him to hide us ; 
we fliust find spiritual refreshment in his ordinances, pro- 
mises, and providence; get his wing to cover us, and his 
presence to be a little sanctuary unto us, and the joy of the 
Lord to be our strength "". When the Lord cometh out of 
his place to punish the inhabitants of the land for their 
toiqnity ; when flood and fire, storm and tempest, the fury 
of anger, the strength of battle, are poured out upon a peo- 
ple ; when a destroying angel is sent abroad with a com- 
missioo to kill and slay "; when Death, the king of terrors, 
rideth up and down in triumph, stripping men of treasures, 
lands, friends, honours, pleasures, making them a house in 
darkness, where master and servant, princes and prisoners, 
are all alike ;— to have then an ark with Noah, a Zoar with 
Lot, a Goshen in Egypt, — ^to have one arm of this olive-tree 
spread over us, — to have one promise out of Clod's Word, one 
sentence from the mouth of Christ promising paradise unto 
OS, — ia infinitely of more value to a languishing spirit, than 
an the diadems of the earth, or the peculiar treasure of 

2. If we take the words in order as they lie, then the 
mercy here promised is. That when God shall restore and 

1 Job tii. 2. liii. ir. 6. Mich. iv. 4. ZeCh. iii. 10. «• F««1m Ini. 2. 

md. 1. I«i. xxvi. 20. Nehcm. viii. 10. • K/fV ix. r>, €. 

2 A 2 


repair his church, they who dwell under the comforts of it, 
should return and be converted to the knowledge and obe- 
dience, which shonld be there taught them : When the 
' Branch of the Lord is beautiful and glorious, and the fruit 
of the earth excellent and comely/ then he that remaineth in 
Jerusalem, 'shall be called holy"";^ then every vessel in 
Judah and Jerusalem shall be inscribed, ' holiness unto the 
LordP;' then ' the heart of the rash shall understand know- 
ledge, and the tongue of the stammerers shall speak 
plainly *».' 

And this should be the endeavour of every one who liveth 
under the shade of this tree, under the purity of God^s ordi- 
nances, under the pious government and constitution of such 
a church or family as is here described, (especially in such 
times, when % on the one side, the world is so much loosened 
and estranged from us ; and, on the other side, reformation 
in the church is so much desired) to convert and turn unto 
the Lord. All endeavours of reformation in a church are 
miserably defective, when they come short of this end, 
which is the ultimate reason of them all, — namely, the re- 
pentance and conversion of those, that dwell under the sha- 
dow of it. When God promiseth to give unto his church 
* the glory of Lebanon,' and the excellency of ' Carmel 
and Sharon,' the consequence of this beauty and reformation 
in the church is, " The eyes of the blind shall be opened, 
the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped, the lame shall leiap, 
the dumb shall sing, the parched ground shall be a pool, the 
thirsty land springs of water *. The wolf, the leopard, the 
lion/ the bear, the asp, the cockatrice, shall be so turned 
from the fierceness and malignity of their natures, that they 
shall not hurt nor destroy in all the holy mountain, but a 
little child shall lead them all \" It is a great happiness 
and advantage to live under the shade of a godly govern- 
ment. Many men have reason to bless God all their days, 
that they were, in their childhood, trained up in such a school, 
where piety was taught them as well as learning, and where 
tiicyhad meansaswellof conversion as of institution; that they 
lived in such a family, where the master of it was of Joshua's 

o Isai. iv. 2, 3. p Zcch. xiv. 20, 21. q Isai. xxxii. 2, 3, 4. 

r Folio-Edition, p. 574. * liai. xxxy. 2, 7. « Isai. xi. 6,9. 

Yen. 5, 6, 7.] FOUET££NTU CHAP! hK OF H08EA. 357 

mind, '* I and my house will serve the Lord **/' Salvation 
comes to a whole house, when the governor thereof is con- 
Terted '. I shall never look upon a church as reformed to 
purpose, till I find reformation work conversion ; till piety, 
and charity, and justice, and mercy, and truth, and humility, 
and gentleness, and goodness, and kindness, and meekness, 
and singleness of heart, and zeal for godliness and mutual 
edification, and the life and power of religion, are more con- 
spicuous than before. When the very head-stone was 
brought forth, and the last work in the building of the 
temple was finished, yet the people must then cry, *' Grace, 
grace unto it ^;" intimating that reformation is never indeed 
consummate, till the blessing of God make it efiectual unto 
those uses, for which it was by him appointed. Church- 
reformation should be like Paul's epistles, which always 
close in duties of obedience. 

Sect. 23. Seventhly, He promiseth. That they *' shall 
revive as the corn, and grow as the vine : ^ in which two 
expressions, are set forth two excellent and wholesome con- 
sequents of affliction. 1. The corn, though it die first', and 
iufier much from frost, hail, snow, tempest, — yet when the 
spring comes, it revives and breaks through it all : so God 
promiseth to his church, in the saddest condition, a reviving 
again, and that it shall be broucrht forth into the light % 
2. The vine when it is pruned and lopped, will not only re- 
vive and spread again, but will bring forth the more fruit, 
and cast forth the more fragrant smell : so God promiseth 
onto his people not only a reviving out of their afflictions, 
(io which respect haply it was that Christ was buried in a 
garden, to note, that death itself doth not destroy our bodies, 
but only sow them ; the dew of herbs will revive them 
again ^;) but further, a profiting by afflictions*, that we may 
say with David, ** It is good for us ;^ when we find it 
''bring forth the peaceable fruits of righteousness, after we 
have been exercised therein. ** 

And as he promiseth these things, so we should learn to 
turn these promises into prayer and into practice. When^ 

• John xxtT. 15. > Luke six. 9. Acts xvi. 33, 34. J Zcch. it. 7. 

• Setnina non, nisi corruptaetdissoluu, fcecundius surgunt : omnia pereundo tcr- 
Tmncnr ; omnia de intehtu refornuntar. 7#rl. Apo). c. 4S. * Eaek. xxxvii. 12. 
liic. Tii. 9. ^ i Cor. xt. 4 1, 44. c Nono afoiiit praeiidem tufilkvcrit. 


we seem in our own eyes cast out of God's sight, yet we 
must BOt cast him out of our sight ; but, as Jonah in the 
whale's belly, and as Daniel in Babylon, ptay towards his 
holy temple still. The woman of C^aan *^ wotild not be 
thrust off with a seeming rejection, not utterly despond 
under a grievous tentation, but, by a singular acumen and 
spiritual sagacity, discerned matter of argument in that 
which looked like a denial ^ Soap and fuller's-earth, at the 
first putting on, seem to stain and to foul clothes, when the 
use and end is to purify them. And God^s frowns and de- 
lays may seem to be the denials of prayer, when, haply, his 
end is to make the granting of them the more comfort. 
Therefore in all troubles we must not give-over looking to- 
wards God, but say with Job, " Though he slay me, I will 
trust in him.'' 

And, after all afflictions, we must learn to express the 
fruit of them, to come out of them refined, as silver out of 
the fire; to have thereby our faitli strengthened, our hope 
confirmed, our love inflamed, our fruit and obedience in- 
creased, our sin taken away, and our iniquities purged ^; to 
be ' chastened and taught 6;^ to ^ be 'chastened and con- 
verted '/ If we have run away from our duties, and been 
cast into a whale's belly for it, — when we are delivered, let us 
be sure to look better to our resolutions afterwards : '' after 
all that is come upon us for our sins, take heed of breakipg 
his commandments again ''." As Job^s riches after his, so we 
should endeavour that our gi-aces after our afflictions may 
be doubled upon us ; and that the scent of our holy example 
may, like spices bruised, or the grapes of Lebanon crushed 
in the wine-press, give a more fragrant smell in the nostrils 
of God and man, *' as the smell of a field, which the Lord 
hath blessed.*" 

quoA homines Tiolentrae objectat. Injuriarum actiones extra stadium. Sedqoui- 
turn livores illi, et cruores et vibices ncgotiantur intendet : coronas scilicet, et glo- 
riam, et dotera, privile^a publica, stipendia civica, imagines, statuas, et qoalem 
potest prsestare seculum dc fama stemitatcm, dc rocmoriA resorrectionera. Pyctes 
ipse non queritur dolere se, nam tuU. Corona premit vulnera, palma sangninem 
obscurat ; plus Tictoria tumet quam injuria. Hanc tu laesum existimabis qaem 
vidcs laetum ? TcrL Scorpiac. c. 6. ed. Lut. 1675, p. 492. ^ Vid. Ckrys, Scr.38. 
in Gen. xvi. 3. • Maith. xv. 27. f Isai. xxvii. 9. f Pinloi 

Ixxxiv. 12. h Folio-Edition, p. 675. i Jer. uutviii. 18. ^ Gsrm 

ia. 13, 14. 

Vert. 5, 6, 7.] FOUIlTt i:\TII CHAPTtU OP HOSE A. 359 

Lastly, He promiseth, That all these should be 'fruits of 
Lebanon/ of the best and perfectest kind. There are many 
evidences of the goodness of God even in the lives of Pagan 
men. We read of Abimelecirs forbearance to sin against 
God'; and of his and Ephron's singular kindness to Abra- 
ham °». No argument more common than this of the vir- 
tues, the temperance, prudence, justice, mercy, patience, 
fidelity, friendships, atiability, magnanimity of many heathen 
men ; insomuch that some have presumed so far as to make 
tbem ^ex congruo°' meritorious, or dispositive to salvation. 
Bat all these are but wild grapes, bitter clusters, the fruits 
of an empty vine, not worth the gathering in order to salva- 
tion : but the graces which God bestoweth upon his church, 
are of a more spiritual and perfect nature, proceeding from 
faitli in Christ, from love of God, from a conscience cleansed 
from dead works, from an intention to glorify God and 
adorn the gospel, from a new nature, and from the Spirit of 
Christ, conforming his servants unto himself; they are not 
grapes of Sodom, but grapes of Lebanon. 

And as he thus blesseth us, in the like manner should we 
Berve him ; not offer unto him the refuse, the halt, and 
blind, and maimed, for sacrifice ; not give unto him of that 
which cost us nothing, but go to Lebanon for all our sacri- 
fices, covet earnestly the best gifts, press forward and la- 
bour to perfect holiness in the fear of God ; give unto him 
our lilies, the beauties of our minority ; and our cedars, the 
strength of our youth ; and our olives, and grapes, and corn, 
and wine: whatever gifts he hath bestowed on us, use 
them unto his service and honour again ; not content our- 
selves with the form of godliness, with the morality of vir- 
tue, with the outside of duties, with the seeds and begin- 
nings of holiness (he hath none, who thinks he hath 
enough); but strive who shall outrun one another unto 
Christ, as Peter and John did towards his sepulchre. It was 
a high pitch which Moses aimed at, when he said, " I be- 
seech thee, show me thy glory °." Nothing would satisfy 

I Geo. zx. 4, 6. <" Gen. xx. 14, 15. xxiii. 10, 11, \y a Vide 

yitgam de Justif. lib. 6. cap. 18, 19, 20. — Andrad. Orthodox. Explicit. 1. 3.— 
JfoUona/. in Johan. v. 6. — Sixt. Senens. Bibliothcc 1. 6. annot. 51. — Collium de 
Animabus Pajan. 1. 1 . cap. 1 1 . ct 20.— Ban. in secundam sccundae qu. 2. art. 8. — 
Grtg. KaUnt. To. 3. disput. 1. Qu. 2. punct. 1 et 4.— £raxm. Praefat. in Qu. 
TuK. Cic — Aug, contra Julian. Pela^. 1* 4. c. 3. • Exod. xxxiii. IS. 

360 SKVEN SERMONS. [Serm.V. 

him but fulness and satiety itself. Be sure that all your 
graces come from Sion, and from Lebanon, that they grow 
in EmmanuePs land : till Christ own them, God will not ac- 
cept them. Moral virtues and outward duties, grapes of 
Sodom, may commend us unto men ; nothing but in- 
ward, spiritual, and rooted graces, the grapes of Le- 
banon, will commend us unto God. To do only the out- 
ward works of duty, without the inward principle, is at best 
but to make ourselves like those mixed beasts, elephants 
and camels, in the civil law^; " operam preestant, naturafera 
est ;^ which, though they do the work of tame beasts, yet 
have the nature of wild ones. Moral virtue % without spi- 
ritual piety, doth not commend any man unto God ; for we 
are not accepted unto him, but in Christ; and we are not in 
Christ but by the Holy Spirit. 

P Reproba pecunia non liberat solventem, 1. 24. Sect. 1. P. de pignoraticia 
actione. <1 Leg. 2. P. ad Leg. Aquil.— iSmfc de Benefic. lib. 7. cap. 19. 

r Vide Aug. de Civit. Dei, lib. 5. cap. 19. et lib. 19. cap. 4. et cap. 25. — Retract. 
1. 1. cap. 3.— de Trin. lib. 14. cap. 1.— de nup. et concupis. 1. 1. c. 3. — oontia Julian. 
Pelag. 1. 4. c. 3. Ad Simplictan. 1. 1. qa. 2. contr. 2. Ep. Pelag. lib. 3. cap. de fide 
et operibus, c 7. Epist. 105, 107, 120, ^•'Prosper, contia G>Uat. c. 13w«-6^rrg. 
Arimin, 1 . dist. 1. q. 3. art. 2. 




Ephraim shall say. What have I to do any more with Idols f 
I have heard him, and observed him. I am like a green Jir- 
tree: from me is thy fruit found. 

Sbct. 1. The conversion of Israel unto God in their trouble, 
was accompanied with a petition and a covenant: — a petition 
imploring mercy and grace from God ; and a covenant, pro- 
mising thanksgivings and obedience unto him. And God is 
pleased, in his answer, to have a distinct respect unto both 
these : for whereas they petition, first, for pardon, that God 
would * take away all iniquity ;' he promiseth ' to heal their 
backslidings^ and to love them freely f — and whereas they 
pray for blessings, ' Receive us into favour, do us good \* 
God likewise maketh promises of that in great variety, ex- 
pressed by the several metaphors of fertility, answering to 
the name and blessings promised formerly unto Ephraim. 
And all this we have handled out of the four preceding 

Now, in this eighth verse, God is pleased not only gra- 
ciously to accept, but further to put to his seal, and to con- 
firm the covenant which they make, — promising, that, by the 
assistance of his Spirit, they should be enabled to do what 
they had undertaken. This is the greatest ground of confi- 
dence that we can have, to bind ourselves in holy covenants 
unto God, even the promise of his strength and assistance, 
enabling us to keep covenant with him. Therefore when 

Ihvid had said, " 1 have sworn, and will perform it, that I 

will keep thy righteous judgements ;'* it follows a little after, 

• Koliu-EditUHi, p. 577. 


*' Accept, I beseech thee, the freewill-offerings of my mouth, 
O Lord, and teach me thy judgements**." David was confi- 
dent, that God would not only accept his covenant, but 
teach him how to keep it; and that made him the more con- 
fident to bind himself by it. 

In the original, the words are only thus, '* Ephraim, what 
have I to do any more with idols ?" which therefore some 
would have to be the words of God spoken unto Ephraim : 
but there is nothing more usual in Scripture, than an ellipsis*^ 
of the verb. And we find this very verb omitted, and yet 
necessary to be supplied, Isai. v. 9.; and in this place, the 
Chaldee paraphrast, and fi*om him the best interpreters, with 
our translators'*, have supplied it. Thus, ' Ephraica shall 
say f and so it is God^s confirmation of the promise which 
penitent Ephraim had made, and his undertaking for him, 
that he should indeed be enabled to perform his covenant. 

•* What have I to do any more with idols ?"] It is * interro- 
gatio cum indignatidne ;' an interrogation not only import- 
ing a negative, ' I will not any more have to do with them/ 
but also a vehement detestation of them, and indignation 
against them: as that of David to Abishai% and that of 
Elisha to Jehoram^ and that of the devil to Christ^. 

'* With idoh,""] The original word signifieth likewise sor- 
rows, and grief of mind, a fit word to express their sin and 
repentance. ^ What have we to do with these idols and sor- 
rows any more? they can produce no good ; they can hear 
no prayers ; they can work no deliverance ; they can bring 
nothing but evil and anguish to us ; and therefore we will 
not follow or seek unto them any more.' — Here then is a so- 
lemn detestation, as of all their other sins, so of that espe- 
cially which had most dishonoured God, most wounded their 
own consciences, and procured most sorrow unto theoi- 
selves ; with God's confirmation of it. 

Next, follow several promises of special mercies. 1. 
Of hearing and answering their prayers : ** I have beard ^' or 
answered '* him ;" or, as others render it, '' 1 will hear him*^ 
2. Of fatherly care and providence over them ; I have " ob- 
served him," or fixed mine eyes ** upon him ;" I have strictly 

t> Psalm czix. 106, 108. c Solum. Grammiit. Sacr. p. 380, 654. 
^ Folio-Edition, p. 578. • Glass. Rhetor. Sacra, Tract. 2. cap. 5. 2 Sam. 

zvi. 10. f 2 Kings iii. 13. B Matth. viii. 29. 


considered his coDdition, that I might proportion my mer- 
cies thereuDto. It is a symbol. First, Of vigilant care» and 
most intent and solicitous inspection and providence : " The 
eye of the Lord is upon them that fear him, upon them that 
hope in his mercy, to deliver their soul from death, and to 
keep them alive in famine ^." — Secondly, Of direction and 
counsel : *' I will instruct thee, and teach thee in the way 
that thou shalt go ;^' — ^^ I will guide (or counsel) thee with 
Hune eye*.^ — Thirdly, Of honour and exaltation: he *' with- 
drawetb not his eyes from the righteous, but with kings are 
they on the throne ;" yea, he doth establish them for ever, 
and they '* are exalted ^^ Lastly, It is an expression of 
' hearing prayers :'' God is said to have his " eye open to the 
supplication of his servants,^ to hearken unto them in all 
that they call upon him for * ; and " the eyes of the Lord are 
upon the righteous, and his ear open unto their cry '"/' The 
church bad before professed herself to be an orphan, that 
stood in need of tuition and protection : and here God 
promiseth to cast his eye, and to place his affection upon 
her ; to look to her ; to be her tutor and guardian ; to 
govern her with his special providence and wisdom ; to 
take notice of her wants, and supply them ; to take notice of 
her desires, and fulfil them ; to take notice of her condition, 
and, accordingly, in all respects to provide for her. 3. Of 
refreshment from the heat and violence of temptations, or 
any kind of afflictions, by the metaphor of a ' fir-tree," 
which, being ever green, and casting forth a large shade, 
doth afford much comfort and reviving to the weary travel- 
ler. 4. Because the fir-tree, though comfortable in regard 
of the shade, is yet unfruitful ; therefore he further pro- 
miseth to be ^' a root of blessings,^' and all kind of spiritual 
graces unto them : " From me is thy fruit found ;** that is^ 
from me is, or shall be thy fruit " ; though the word found 
may here seem to imply and direct unto an enquiry after the 
foundation and original of the fruit here mentioned : ' Though 
all thy fruit of good works and new obedience may seem ta 
proceed from thyself, and to be thine own ; yet if thou be 
careful to enquire after the root of them, thou wilt find that 
they come from us, though they grow upon thee ; and that 

*» Pwlmmi. 18, VJ. * Psalm xxiii. K. k Job xxxvi. 7. 

^ \ Kings Tiii.S'i. » Fialm uxiv. 15. » M4I. ii. 6. I Pet. ii. 22. 



thou bringest them (brtb only by the help, supply, and 
vigour of my grace bestowed on thee. Thou dost them; but 
the power and strength whereby thou dost them^ proceeds 
from me ^' 

Sect. 2. These words then are the sum of God's answer 
which he makes unto the covenant of his people. They 
return ' the calves of their lips;' God hears and accepts 
them. They renounce carnal confidence in men, in horses, 
in idols ; and when they look off, and turn away from these, 
then God looketh upon them with a fatherly eye of care, 
providence, counsel, and protection ; ' I have observed him.^ 
They will not say any more to the work of their hands, ^ Ye 
are our gods/ — nor any longer make lies their refuge; and 
God enables them to do as they have said, and affordeth 
comfort and refreshment unto them, as the shade of a fir- 
tree unto a weary traveller. Lastly, They believe and ac- 
knowledge, that when they are fatherless and destitute of 
all help, there is mercy in God to comfort and provide for 
them; and this God makes ^ood too. Mercy of protection ; 
** I am as a great fir-tree ;" — and mercy of bounty and bene- 
diction; " from me is thy fruit found ;'' — by the one, defend- 
ing them against their fears, — by the other, enabling them 
unto their duties. Thus God doth enlarge and proportioB 
his P mercy to the uttermost extent of Israel's prayer or pro- 
mise; and when they have no help or comfort out of him, 
he himself becomes all in all unto them, making a thorough 
compensation for every thing which they part with for his 
sake, and causing them to find in him alone all that comfort 
and satisfaction to their desires, which in vain they sought 
for in other things. 

The parts are these two generals : First, God's promise 
enabling Israel to perform theirs ; " Ephraim shall say. 
What have I to do any more with idols ?" Secondly, God's 
special regard to their prayers, — *' I have heard him \" — to 
their persons, and*' observed him ;" illustrated by two melft- 
phors, the one, importing protection and defence, *' I am as 
a green fir-tree ;" the other, grace and benediction, ^* from 
me is thy fruit found.'" 

• Ccrtum est nos velle. cum volumus ; sed illc facit, ut vclimus. Ccituin est 
nos faccre, cum facimus ; sed ille facit, ut faciamus. /4ug, Ipse facit, ut iHi fa- 
ciant quae praacepit : illi uon faciunt, ut ipse faciat quod piomisit ;— 4le Pfdcttio, 
Sanct. cap. 10. P Folio- Edition, p. 579. 


Sect. 3. ** Ephraim shall saj/."^] This is God*s speech 
mod promise, setting-to his seal and gracious ratification to 
the covenant that If^rael made, ver. 2, 3.; without the 
which, it would have been null and evnnid. For a man, by 
believing, setteth-to his seal (o the truth of God "* ; so God, 
by assisting, setteth-to his seal to the purpose of man : but 
with this great difference, — nian^s seal is but a subscription 
and confession of that which was firm before ; fur all God^s 
promises are Yea and Amen, and faith doth not put certainty 
into the promise of God ', but into the heart of man con- 
cerning the promises \ Hut God*s seal is a confirmation 
and making efficacious the promise of man, which otherwise 
would vanish into a lie : all our sufiiciency is from him : wo 
can neither will nor do any thing further than we receive 
from him both to will and to do. Pharaoh made promise 
after promise, and broke them as fast*. Israel makes pro- 
mises one while, and quickly starts aside like a deceitful 
bow, as ice which melts in the day, and hardens again in the 
night*; to-day they will, to-morrow they will not again; 
they repent to-day, and to-morrow they repent of their re- 
penting; like the sluggard in his bed, that puts out his arm 
to rise, and then pulls it in again. So unstable and impotent 
is man in all his resolutions, till God say Amen to what he 
purposetb, and " establisheth the heart by his own grace'.*' 
When the waters stood as a wall on the right-hand and on 
the left of Israel, as they passed through the Red Sea, this 
was a work of Code's own power : for water is unstable, and 
cannot keep together by its own strength, nor be contained 
within any bounds of its own. So great a work is it to see 
the mutable wills and resolutions of men, kept close to any 
pioua and holy purposes. 

Sect. 4. The point we learn from hence, is this ; — That 
our conversion and amendment of life is not sufhcienlly pro- 
vided for by any band, obligation, or covenant of our own, 
whereby we solemnly promise and undertake it, — except God 
\m pleaaed, by his free grace, to establish and enable the 
heart unto tbt^ performance of it. Or thus, a penitent man's 
conversion and covenant of new obedience, hath its finnness 

« John iii. 33. ' Rom. iii. 3, 4. 2 Tim. ii. 13. • Rom. iv. 16. 

a Tim.*!. 12. < Exod. viii. 8, 28. ix. 28. u p^^lm Ixxviii. 34, 38. 

Jcr. SUIT. 1&, 16. > Hrh. x\i\. 9. 


In th^ promise and free grace of God. Israel here, in the 
confidence of God's mercy, prays for pardon and blessings ; 
and in the cotifidence of his grace, maketh promise of re* 
formation and amendment of life : but all this is but like a 
written instrument or indenture, which is invalid and of no 
effect, till the parties concerned have mutually sealed and 
set-to their hands. Till God be pleased to promise us, that 
we shall do that which we have promised unto him, and do, 
as it were, make our own covenant for us, — all will prove 
too weak and vanishing to continue. The grace of God 
unto the purposes of men, is like grain to colours dyed, or 
like oil to colours in a table or picture, which makes them 
hold fresh and not fade away. 

There is a necessary and indissolvable dependence of all 
second causes upon the first, without whose influence and 
concurrence they neither live, nor move, nor have, nor con- 
tinue in their being ^ He who is first of causes and last of 
ends, doth use and direct the necessary, voluntary, contin- 
gent motions and activities of all second causes unto what- 
soever ends he himself is pleased to pre-ordain. And this 
the natural and necessary concatenation of things doth re- 
quire, that that which is the absolutest, supremest, first, and 
most independent will, wisdom, and power of all others, — 
should govern, order, and direct all other wills, powers, and 
wisdoms that are subordinate to, and inferior under it, unto 
whatsoever uses and purposes he who hath the absolute 
dominion and sovereignty over all, is pleased to appoint, ft 
cannot be other than a marvellous diminution unto the great- 
ness of God, and a too low esteem of the absoluteness of 
that majesty which belongs unto him, to make any counsels, 
decrees, purposes of his, to receive their ultimate form and 
stamp from the previous and intercurrent casualties or condi- 
tions of the creature. This I have always looked on as the 
principal cause of those dangerous errors concerning grace, 
free- will, and the decrees of God, wherewith the churches* 
of Christ have been so miserably, in the former ages, and in 
this of ours, exercised by the subtilty of Satan, and by the 
pride of corrupt-minded men ; namely,— the too low and 
narrow thoughts and conception which men have framed to 

y Acts x\ii. 28. Hcb. i.3. « Folio- Edition, p. 580. 


ihemselres, of God, — the not acquiescing in his sovereign 
dominion and absolute power of disposing all things which 
he made, unto whatsoever uses himself plcaseth*: into 
which, I am sare, the holy Scripture doth resolve all ^ * 

Sect. 5. Even in the sinful actions of men, God'*s in* 
iueoce and providence hath a particular hand ; as actions, 
his influence ; as sinful, his providence. His influence to 
the natural motion and substance of the action, though not 
to the wickedness of it: for this standeth not in being or 
perfection (else the fountain of being and perfection must 
needs be the first cause of it), but in defect and privation 
of perfection. As when a hand draweth a line by a crooked 
rale, the line is from the hand, but the crookedness of it is 
from the rule : or, as when a man goeth lamely, the motion, 
as motion, is from the natural faculty, but the lameness of 
the motion is from the defect and viciousness of the faculty. 
A swearer could not speak an oath, nor a murderer reach out 
his band to strike a blow, but by the force of those natural 
faculties, which in and from God have all their being and 
working. But that these natural motions are, by profane- 
oeM or malice, directed unto ends morally wicked, this pro- 
ceedeth from the vitiosity and defect which is in the second 
cauae, making use of God^s gifts unto his own dishonour. 
2. The providence of God hath a notable hand in the 
gaidingy ordering, and disposing of these actions, as sinful, 
onto the ends of his own glory, in the declaration of his 
power, wisdom, and justice, — unto which the sins of wicked 
men are perforce carried on, contrary to those ends which 
they themselves in sinning did propose unto themselves. 
As an artificer*" useth the force of natural causes unto artifi- 
cial effects ; as a huntsman useth the natural enmity of the 

• Vtd. jlmg. Enchirid. ad Uarcnt. c. Qfi, 96, 97, UH. ^ Matlh. 

sviii. 25, 26. Rom. ix. 18, 21. xi.33, 36. K))hcs. i. 5, 9, 11. Psalm cxxxv. ti. 
« VkL /tug. de Civ. Dei, lib. 1. cap. 17. et lib. U. cap. 26. qu. super Exoil. li. et 
qusst. 18. de peccat. orig. 1. 2. c. 34 et 40. Kpist. 59. in solut. q. 6. contra Ja- 
liaa. Pelag. lib. 5. cap. 3 et 4 dc Grat. et Lib. Aibit. cap. 20, 21. Epist. lliO et 
141. Ut medici fcedorumanimalium felle aut coagulo utuntur ad morbos sanan- 
dos; Ttd. PltU. de lera nnminis vindicta. — Quid taro elaboratum et distortum, 
qmm cat ille Disoobolot Myronis? Si quia tamen, ut parum rectum, improbet 
opaa» Aonne ab intdlectu artis abfuerit ? QuintU, lib. 2. In^ttt. cap. 13. Spalding, 
¥ol. i. p. 333.— P/u/arrft. Sympos. 1. 5. c. 1.— Vide Fieid of the Church, 1. I. 
cap. 1. — Aug. de Civ. Dei, 1.12. cap. 


dog against the fox or wolF, unto the preservation of the 
lands, which otherwise would be destroyed ; though the 
dog himself by nature is as great an enemy to the lamb as 
the fox. As the Pharisees were as great enemies to religion 
as the Sadducees, yet Paul wisely made use of their enmity 
amongst themselves for his own preservation and deliverance 
from them both. Nothing more usual than for God to ma- 
nage and direct the sins of men, to the bringing about of his 
own purposes and counsels^. But now unto gracious ac- 
tionsy which belong not at all unto nature as nature, but 
only as inspired and actuated with spiritual and heavenly 
principles, — a more singular and notable influence of God is 
required, not only to the substance of the action, but more 
especially to the rectitude and goodness of it : for we have 
no sufficiency of ourselves, not so much as unto the first 
offers and beginnings of good in our thoughts ^. When we 
are bid *' to work out our own salvation with fear and trem- 
bling,'' it must be in dependence ou the power, and in con- 
fidence of the aid of God ; for " it is he that worketh in us, 
both to will and to do ^" When we covenant to turn unto 
God, we must withal " pray unto him to turn us k." God 
commands us " to turn ourselves, and to make us a new 
heart and a new spirit, that we may live^;" but withal be 
telleth us, that it is '* he who gives us one heart, and one 
way, and a new spirit, that we may walk in his statutts '.** 
He giveth us ' posse, velle, agere, proficere ;' the power to 
make us able, — the heart to make us willing, — the act to 
walk,— the proficiency to improve, — the perseverance to fi- 
nish and perfect holiness. David cannot run in the way of 
God's commandments, till he enlarge his heart *". Nothing 
can find the way to Heaven, but that which comes first from 
Heaven *. We cannot give unto God any thing but of his 
own. ** Who am I,*" saith David, '* and what is my people, 
that we should be able to offer so willingly after this sort? 
For all things are of thee, and of thine own we have given 
thee "^r 

d Gen. 1.20. 1 Sam. ii. 25. 1 Kings ii. 26, 27. 2Sam. xii. 11. compared wUk 
2 Sam. xvi. 22. Isai. x. 5, 6, 7. Actt iv. 2e. Psalm Ixxvi. 10. • 2 Cor. iii. ^ 

'» Phil. ii. 11, 12, 13. Z Lam. v. 21. Jcr. xxxi. h £zck.xriii.30, 31,38^ 

i Ezek. xi. 19, 20. Jer. xxxii. 39. ^ r>8alin cxix. 32. 1 John it. 13^ 

«n 1 Chron. xxix. 14. 


Sect. 6. For the further understanding of this point, tnd 
of the sweet concord and concurrence between the will of 
man converted, and the effectual grace of God converting, 
we shall set down these few propositions \ 

1. That there is in man, by nature, a power or faculty 
which we call free-will, wfaereunto belongeth such an indif- 
ferency and indeterminacy in the manner of working, that 
whether a man will a thing, or nill it,— <:hoose it, or turn from 
it, — be doth in neither move contrary to his own natural prin- 
cifrfes of working. A stone, moving downward, doth move 
naturmlly ; upward, contrary to its nature,— and so violently. 
But which way soever the will moves, it moves according to 
the condition of its created being, — wherein it was so made, 
as when it chose one part of a contradiction, it ** retained an 
inward and fundamental habitude unto the other ; like those 
gates, which are so made, as that they open both ways. So 
that as the tongue, which was wont to swear or blaspheme, 
when it is converted, doth, by the force of the same faculty 
of speaking, being newly sanctified, utter holy and gracious 
speeches ; — so the will, which, being corrupted, did choose 
evii and only evil, being sanctified, doth use the same man- 
ner of operation in choosing that which is good ; the created 
nature of it remaining still one and the same, being now 
guided and sanctified by different principles. This we speak 
only with respect to the natural manner of its working : for 
if we speak of liberty in a moral or theological sense i*, so it 
is certain, that the more the will of man doth observe the 
right order of its proper objects, and last end, the more free 
and noble it is ; the very highest perfection of free-will 
standing in an immutable adherency unto God, as the ulti- 
mate end of the creature, — and all ability of receding or 
fidling from him beinp; the deficiency, and not the perfection, 
of free-will : and therefore the more the will of man doth 

• Vid. Calvin* in Ezek. xi. 19, 20. — et Aug. contr. 'J. Epist. Pcltg. jib. 1. 
cip.2. et lib. 2. cap. 5. • Folio-Edition, p. .=>8l. p GUiti^f. dc U- 

bot. CretX. I. I. — Melior eit, cum totut hsret atque constrtngttur incommutibili 
Bono, quam cam indc vcl ad teipsum relazatur: Aug. dc Doct. Christ. 1. 5. c. 22—— 
libero arbtuio male utens homo et se perdidit et ipsum. Sicut enim qui %c oc- 
cidit, otique vivendo te occidit, scd sc occidendo non vivit, nee seiptum potest 
resQSCitve, cum occiderit ; ita cum libero peccaretur arbttrio, victore peccato 
mmissom est et libenim arbitrium : Aug. Enchirid. c. 3U. ct Epist. 107. 

VOL. III. 2 B 

370 SEVEN S£RMON$ OK THE [Serm. VI. 

cast off and reject God, the more base, servile, and captive 
it grows. In which sense we affirm against the papists, That 
by nature, man, since the fall of Adam, hath no free-will or 
natural power to believe and convert unto God, or to pre- 
pare himself thereunto. 

2. In man fallen, and being thereby, universally, in all 
his faculties, leavened with vicious and malignant principles, 
there is a native pravity and corrupt force, which putteth 
forth itself in resisting all those powerful workings of the 
Word and Spirit of grace, that oppose themselves against the 
body of sin, and move the will unto holy resolutions: for 
the wisdom of the flesh cannot be subject to the law of 
God \ The flesh will lust against the spirit, as being con- 
trary thereunto ^ An uncircumcised heart will always resist 
the Holy Spirit*. There is such a natural antipathy between* 
the purity of the Word, and the impurity of the will of man, 
that he naturally refuseth to hear, and snufieth at ity and 
pulleth away the shoulder, and hardeneth the heart, and 
stoppeth the ears, and shutteth the eyes, and setteth up 
strong holds and high reasonings against the ways of God ; 
and is never so well as when he can get ofi* all sights and 
thoughts of God, and be, as it were, without God in the 
world ^ 

3. According to the degrees and remainders of this natu- 
ral corruption, so far forth as it is unmortified and unsub- 
dued by the power of grace, this original force doth propor* 
tionably put forth itself in withstanding and warring against 
the Spirit of God ", even in the regenerate themselves. A 
notable example whereof we have in Asa, of whom it is said, 
that he was wroth with Hanani the Seer, and put him in a 
prison-house, and was in rage with him, when he reproved 
him for his carnal confidence '. And the apostle doth, in 
many words, both state and bewail the warring of the law of 
his members against the law of his mind, — so that when he 
did, with the one, serve the law of God, — he did with the other 

^ Rom. viii. 7. r Gal. v. 17. * Acts vii. 51. t Jet 

V.3. vi. 10, 17, 23. xix. 15. Mai. i. 13. 2 Chroii. xxxvi. 16. « HabittC i 

eis, et mentem resutencem repugnantemquc solicitat, ut ipso conflictu eiiam 
non sit damnabilis, quia non pcrBcit iniquitatem, — sit miserahilis taraea, qa 
non habet paccm : ^u^. de nupt. et concupis. lib. 2. cap. 2. contn Julian. Pel' 
lib. 5. cap. 7. « 2 Chron. xvi. 10. 


aenre tbe law of sin, and was unable to do the thing which 
he would ; and the evil which he would not, he did do by 
the strength of sin that dwelled in him ^. 

Sect. 7. — 4. We are to distinguish of the wills of God, 
which are set forth in Scripture, two manner of ways. There is 
* voluntas signi,' or that will of God, whereby he requires us 
to work, and which he hath appointed to be observed by us ; 
his will signified in precepts and prohibitions. '' This is the 
will of God,*^ saith the apostle, " even your sanctification ■." 
So we are said ** to prove, to try, to do God's will, or that 
which is pleasing in his sight*.*^ — And there is ^voluntas 
beneplaciti ^' the will of his purpose and counsel ; accord- 
ing unto which he himself, in his own secret and unsearch- 
able good pleasure, is pleased to work ; for he worketh all 
Ihin^ after the counsel of his own will ^ Whatsoever the 
Lord pleaseth, that he doth in heaven and earth'. And no 
second causes can do any thing else, though they never so 
proudly break the order of God^s revealed will, but what his 
hand and counsel had before determined*. The will of God*s 
precept and command in every day violated, resisted, and 
broken through by wicked men unto their own destruction. 
**How often would I, and ye would not^!" But the will of 
God's counsel and purpose cannot be resisted nor withstood 
by all the powers of the world; tlie counsel of the Lord must 
stand; and' those very agents that work pur|)08ely to disap- 
point and subvert it, do, by those very workings of theirs, 
bring it to pass : — and when by their own intentions they are 
eoemiea to it, by God'^s wonderful ordering and directing 
they ^ are executioners of it '. 

5. According unto this di^^tinction of God*s will, wc are 
to distinguish of his call. Some are called ' voluntate signi,** 

7 Rom. rii. 14, 15. > 1 Thes. iv.3. • Matih. vii. 21. Kom. sii. 2. 

iobo viii. 29. ^ y^ftitrnPart. 1. qu. 19. art. 11. * Ephcs. i. II. 

* pBlm CXXXV.6. • Acts iv. 28. ^ Matth. xxiii. 37. Jcr. xiii. U. 

I MaUm fiunf k malis contn volunfatem Dei, sed tantae rst illc sapicntis tantse- 

qoe Tirtatis, ut in eosexitus sive fines, quos bonos ct Justus ipse prspscivir, ten- 

dttit omnia, quae volantati ejus virientur ad\ersa : /4't^. dc Civ. Dei, lib. 22. c 1. 

KVa obedionc, alligantur ; nemo leges Omnipotent is evadit :—dc Agonc Christiano, 

6f 7^-Vid. Bra^ir«r(itn. de Cau^ Dei, lib. l.cap. 32. et Huff. de Satut. Kiclor. 

Swti. Scntent. Tract. 1. cap. 13. et de Sacrament, lib. 1. part. 2. cap. 19, 'JO. ct 

V*ct.3.cap. 5, 6, 13, 14, If). — Amtlm. lib. 1. Cur Deus humo, c. 15. Lumbard, 

l«b. 1. (l:st. 17. ^ Kolio-cditiun, p. 582. I Rom. ix. 19. Psalm xxxiii. 1 1. 

CSV. I. prov. xix. 21. Isai. xUi. 10. Jrnh. xxiv. 9, 10. 

2 b2 



by the xfill of his precept, when they have the will of God 
made known unto them, and are thereby persuaded unto the 
obedience of it in the ministry of the gospel: in which sense 
our Saviour saith, '* Many are called, but few chosen''.'' And 
unto those who refuse to come unto him, that they might 
have life, he yet saith, " These things I say, that ye might 
be saved * " — Others are called * voluntate beneplaciti,' — or- 
dained first unto eternal life by the free love and grace of 
God, and then thereunto brought by the execution of that 
his decree and purpose, in the powerful calling and transla- 
ting them from darkness unto light. And this is to be called 
KOTct wpJBao-n, ''according unto purpose *"," namely, the purpose 
and counsel of showing mercy to whom he will show mercy". 
6. They who are called, only as the hen calleth her 
chicken, with the mere outward call or voice of Christ in the 
evangelical ministry, may and do resist this call, and so 
perish. Chorazin, and Bethsaida, and Capernaum, were out- 
wardly called by the most powerful ministerial means that 
ever the world enjoyed, both in doctrine and miracles ; and 
yet our Saviour tells them, that they shall be in a worse con- 
dition in the day of judgement, than Tyre, Sidon, or Sodom*. 
So the prophet complains, " Who hath believed our report, 
or to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed p ?"" which the 
evangelist applies unto the argument of conversion ^ : for so 
the hand or arm of the Lord is said to be with his ministers, 
when, by their ministry, men do turn to the Lord^ And 
the same prophet again, or Christ in him, complains, '' All 
the day long, have I stretched forth my hands unto a disobe- 
dient and gainsaying people '*:" so disobedient and gainsay- 
ing, that we find them resolve sometimes point blank con- 
trary to the call of God \ 

Sect. 8. — 7. They who are called inwardly and spirit- 
ually with a heavenly call, ' vocatione alta ei secundum 
propositum/ with such a call as pursueth the counsel and 
purpose of God for their salvation, though they do resist 

k Matth. zx. ir>. i John ▼. 34, 40. m Vocatio alta ct secreta, qoi 

fit ut legi atque doctrina acoommodemus assensum : Aug. ep. 107.— Vooiio^ 
quA fit credent : de Praedest. Sanct. c. 15, 17. Rom. viii. 28. » Rom. viU. 19 
• Matth. xi. 21, 24. P Isai. Hil. 1. ^ John zii. 37, 40. r Aa 

xi. 21. » Isai. Ixv. 2. Rom. x. 21. » Jcr. xliv. 16, 17. xviii. II, If 

ii. 2.1. Matth. xxiii. 27. 


' quoad pu^ain/ and corruption in them doth strive to bear 
up ag^ainst the grace of Christ, — yet they do not refiist finally 
and * quoad eventum/ unto the repellinrr or defeating of the 
operation of God's effectual grace : but they are thereby 
framed to embrace, approve, and submit unto that call, God 
himself working a good will in them", captivating their 
tlioughts unto the obedience of Christ, and working in them 
that which is pleasing in his own sight'. 

And this is done by a double act : — 

Sect. 9.— I. An act of spiritual teaching, and irradiating 
the mind and judgement with heavenly light, called, by the 
prophet^ ' the writing of the law in the heart, and putting it 
into the inward parts y,^ — and by our Saviour, • the Father^s 
teaching,' John. vi. 45. and the Holy Spirit's '* convincing of 
sin, righteousness and judgement'," — and by the apostle, ^' a 
demonstration of the Spirit and power */' ' a spiritual revela- 
tion of wisdom out of the Word unto the conscience K' For 
though we are to condemn fanatic revelations besides the 
Word, and without it, — yet we must acknowledge spiritual 
revelation, or manifestation of the divine light and power of 
the Word, by the Holy Spirit, in the minds of men convert- 
ed : for the Word of God, being a spiritual object, doth, 
unto the salvifical knowledge of it, require such a spiritual 
quality ^ in the faculty which must know it, as may be able 
to pass a right judgement upon it ; for spiritual things are 
spiritually discerned *'. It is true, the hypocrites and other 
wicked men may have very much notional and intellectual 
knowledge of the scriptures, and those holy things therein 
revealed*; but none of that knowledge amounteth unto that, 

■ lUod nescio quomodo dicitur, ' frustni Deum miscreri nisi not vclimus.' Si 
aum Dens miseretur, etiam volumui ; ad eandem quippe miscricordiam pcrtinet, 
«t vclimus : Aug. ad Simplician. lib. 1. qu. 2. — Hsrc gratia, qiue occulte humanis 
cordlbufl divina largitatc tribuitur, k nullo duro corde reipuitur : ideo quippe 
tfibitirur, ut cordis duritia primitus aufcratur : — De ^Prsdcstin. Sanct. c. 8. et 
coBtr. 2.ep. Pelag. 1. I.e. 10. x Phil. ii. 13. 2 Cor. xix. 5. Heb. xiii. 21. 

7 Jer. uxi. 23. 2 Cor. iii. 3. > John xvi. 8, 11 . a 1 Cor. ii. 4. 

^ Ephcs. i. 17. * Cibus in somnit simillimus est cibii vigilantiom, quo ta- 

men dormientes non aluntur : Aug. conf. I. 3. c 6. Sol non omnes quibot lucet, 
dam caleficit : tic sapientia multos, quot docet, non continuo etiam acccndit : 
aUad etc moltas dlvitias scire, aliud possidere : nee notitia divitcm facit, led 
pottctno : Bern, in Cant. Ser. 23.— Ti(pi|0'is irroXm yvuwit rou S90S, Basil, dc 
hbutfn manente. — Hominii sapientia pietas est : Aug, Enchir. c. 2. de Doctr. 
Chttttiana. I. 2. c. 6, 7.ct 1. I.e. 35. d 1 Cor. ii. U. • Heb. vi. 4. 1 Pfet. ii. 21. 


which is called ' the teaching of God, and a spiritual deoiOD-* 
stration :'* — for the mysteries of the gospel were unto this end 
revealed, that by them we might be brought unto the obe- 
dience of Christ; and therefore the knowledge of them is 
never proportioned or commensurate to the object, till the 
mind be thereby '^ made conformed unto Christ; till the con- 
ceptions which are framed in us touching God, and sin, and 
grace, and heaven, and eternal things, be suitable to those 
which were in the mind of Christ*. Evangelical truths are 
not fitted unto mere intellectual, but unto practical judge- 
ment. It is such a knowledge of Christ, as may fill us with 
the fulness of God '* ; a knowledge that must work commu- 
nion with Christ, and conformity unto him*; a knowledge 
that must produce a good conversation *". ** He that saitli 
he knoweth him, and keepeth not his commandments, is a 
liar, and the truth is not in him K"*' We do not know Christ, 
till we know him as our chiefest good, as our choicest trea- 
sure, as our unsearchable riches, as elect, and precious, and 
desirable, and altogether lovely, and the fairest of ten thou- 
sand, and worthy all acceptation ; in comparison of whom, 
all the world besides is as dung. The knowledge of Christ 
is not seeing only, but seeing and tasting "^. And therefore 
they who, in one sense, are said to have known God, Rom. 
i. 23. are yet in the same place, verse 28. said not to have 
God in their knowledge. It is an excellent speech of the 
philosopher, that '* such as every man is in himself, such 
is the end that he works unto, and such notions he hath of 
that good which is his end." — And therefore it is impossible, 
that a wicked frame of heart can ever look upon any super- 
natural object as his last end, or as principally desirable. If 
I should see a man choose a small trifle before a rich jewel, 
however he should profess to know the excellency, and to 
value the richness, of that jewel ; yet I should conclude, that 
he did not indeed understand the worth of it aright. AikI 
therefore unto the perfect and proper knowledge of super- 
natural things, there is required a special work of the grace 
and spirit of Christ, opening the heart, and working it to a 
spiritual constitution, proportionable to such kind of truths 

f Folio-Edition, p. 583 S 1 Cor. ii. 16. ii Ephcs. iii. 18, 19. 

> Phil. iii. 10. k James iii. 15. 1 1 John ii. .'{, 4. « l^^ln 

xxxiv. 8. cxii. 103. 


tboQt which it is conTersant. The Scripture every where 
tUributeth this work unto Ood "i and his Spirit It is he 
that giveth a heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to 
bear®. It is he that giveth a heart to know him p. It is 
be that roanifesteth himself unto those that love him*>. It 
is he that revealeth unto us by his Spirit the things of God ^ 
It is he that giveth us an understanding*, and that opens the 
understanding to understand the scriptures ^ It is he that 
teacheth us to call Christ ' our Lord ** ;' for the voice of car- 
nal and corrupt reason is, " We will not have this man to 
reign over us '.'' Every man naturally frameth and shapeth 
his notions of doctrinal matters unto the manner of his con- 
science and conversation, embracing that which is consonant, 
and rejecting that which is dissonant, thereunto ^. ** To the 
ODcIean, every thing is unclean," because the very " mind 
and conscience of such men is defiled '.'*' This then is the 
first work in effectual calling, — the opening of the eye of the 
mind rightly to conceive of the things of God, of the guilt 
of sin, of the heaviness of wrath, of the peril of perishing, 
of the weight and moment of damnation and salvatioui of the 
things that concern its everlasting peace, of the righteous- 
ness of Christ, of the beauties of holiness, of the exceeding 
abundant weight of glory, of the comforts of the Holy Spirit, 
and the unspeakable and glorious joy, shed forth into the 
heart by believing. These truths the heart is so convinced 
of, as seriously to ponder them, and to fix its deepest and 
saddest considerations upon them. 

Sect. 10 2. An act of spiritual inclining and effectual 

determining the will of man to embrace the ultimate dictate 
of a mind thus enlightened, — and to make a most free, spon- 
taneous, and joyful choice of supernatural good things thus 
rightly apprehended, upon a clear and deliberate considera- 
tion of tlieir excellency above all other tilings *. This act of 
'choosing' the Lord for our portion and chiefest good, and 
of 'cleaving' unto him, we find often mentioned in the 

B Dcum fcirc nemo |>otest, nisi Deo docentc : sine Deo, non cognoscitur 
Deus: IrenA.A.c. 14. — A Deo di^ccm'.um est quid de Deo intelligendum sit; 

qotm noo, nisi sc Auctore, cognofcitur : Uii, de Trin. 1. 5. o Deut. xxix. 5. 

P JcT. xxif . 7. q John xr. 21. 'I Cor. ii. 10. » 1 John v 20. 

t Luke »iv. 45. Acts xvi. 14. « Matth. xvi. 17. 1 Cor. xU. 3. 

s Luke xix. 14. V Mic. ii. 11 Isai. xxx 10, 11. • Tit. i. 15. 
a PbiL iii. 8. 

376 ft£V£N SERMONS ON THE {Semi. VI. 

Scripture K Fox when the soul of a man is so tlioroughly, by 
God's teaching ^, convinced of the danger and misery of sin, 
wherein, so long as a man continueth, he lives only to dis- 
honour God» and to undo himself; of the benefit of righte- 
ousness in Christ, whereby he is reconciled unto God» and 
adopted unto a glorious inheritance ; and of the beauty of 
holiness^ whereby he is conformed unto Christ bis head, and 
fitted for the inheritance ; these previous acts of heavenly 
teaching, are always seconded with effectual operations upon 
the will, suitable unto themselves : for the liberty of the will 
doth not stand in a peremptory indifierency unto any ob- 
ject whatsoever ; else there should be no liberty in heaven ; 
— this is a defect and imperfection, not any matter of power 
or freedom. ** Misera vis est valere ad nocendum." But 
the liberty of will standeth in this, — that, being a reasonable 
appetite, it is apt to be led one way or another, to choose 
one thing or another*^, according to the dictates of reason, 
and ' servato ordine finis/ with subjection to that which is 
made appear to be the supreme end and happiness of the 
soul: for every faculty is naturally subservient to the ulti* 
mate good of that nature whereof it is a faculty, and should 
monstrously exorbitate from its use and end, if it should put 
forth itself to the destruction, or refuse to close with that 
which is the happiness of the soul unto which it pertains. 
As soon as ever therefore the Spirit of grace doth, by such a 
i^iritual and practical demonstration as hath been described, 
set fortli God in Christ as the supreme and most unquestion- 
able end and happiness of the soul, there are consequently 
suitable impressions upon the will, determining it onto 
operations conform unto such a beautiful and glorious object, 
and enlarging it to run into this centre, to renounce all 
other things, and to cleave only unto this. 

And these acts upon the will are : — 

1. By preventing grace, it is bended and excited unto 
heavenly apparitions, and unto the choice of such spiritual 

^ Deut. xxz. 19. Josh. xziv. 22. Psalm Ixxxiv. 10. Hcb. xi. 25. Acts xi. 23. 
Fwlm cxix. 30, 31, 173. « Operatur Deus in cordibus quid aliud quam vi>. 

luntatem ? Aug. ep. 107. Certum est nos Telle cum volumus ; sed ipse facitvt 
velimus, praebendo vires efficacissimas voluntati :— Dc Grat. ct Lib. Arbit. c. 16. 

Folio-Edition, p. 584. 


good things, the sovereign excellencies whereof have been 
■o tweedy represented. Good is the object of the will : we 
CMiDOt will evil under the notion of evil : and amongst good 
things, that which is by the practical judgement resolved to 
be best, and that, by the teaching of God himself, who nei- 
ther is deceived nor can deceive, is the object of the will's 
dection. And thus God, by his exciting grace, worketh in 
«s ' ipsum velle,^ that every act whereby we choose Christ 
•ad subscribe our name in the call of his soldiers and ser- 
vmnts, answering the call of God by a most cheeriiil consent 

3. By assisting and co-operating grace *, it is farther en- 
abled to pat forth this good will into deed, and so to work 
towards its salvation ^ 

Lastly, By subsequent grace, it is carried on towards per- 
fection, to finish what was begun ; and so to proceed from 
the beginning of faith in vocation, to the end of faith in sal- 
vation,— -the Spirit of Christ working in us, as he himself 
did work for us, unto a ' consummatum est,' saving to "the 
uttermost tliose that come unto God by him ^.^ 

And, by this means, the native obstinacy of the will, both 
io and after conversion, is subdued ; so that it neither doth 
Bor can overcome the grace of God, working eifectually with 
bis Word : First, Because of the purpose of God, to show 
Biercy where he will show mercy, which can in nowise be 
lesisted. Secondly, Because of the power of God, in the 
effectual applying of that mercy unto the souls of men with 
admirable sweetness, with undeniable evidence, with in- 
efiable persuasion, with omnipotent and invincible energy ; 
iHiich no hardness of heart is able to refuse, because the 
proper operation of it is to take away that hardness which 
would refuse it, and that by an act of equal power with that 
'' whereby Christ was raised from the dead," which all the 
world was not able to hinder or prevent \ Thus we see, 
though we desire, and endeavour, and purpose, and cove- 

• Coopenuxio perficit, quod operando indpiC : ut vclimos, sine nobis opcf a* 
tar; cum volumus, nobiscum coopcratur : Aug. de Grmt. et Lib. Arbit. c. 17. — 
Eocbirid. c. 32.— de nac. et grat. cap. 31. cootr. 2. ep. Pelag. 1. 2. cult. — Non 
mihi salBcit, quod semel donavit, nisi semper donaverit : Peto ut accipiam ; et 
com aocepero, lursus peto, &c. Hier. ep. f Isai. aavi. 12. 1 Cor. xv. 10. 

f PhiL i.6. 1 l*et. ii. 10. Ephes. iv. 13. Heb.tii. 25. k Ephts. i. 19. 

Col. B. 12. 1 P^t. i. 5. 


iiaiit conversion and amendment of life ; yet the wbole pro- 
gress of converiiion, our prtunises, our covenants, our abili- 
ties, our SufiicienceB to muke good any thing, du all receive 
their stability from the grace of God. 

Sect. 11. From whence we learn, First, Not to put cod- 
tidence in our own studies, vows, purposes, promises of new 
obedience. "Every man is a liar;" no sooner left unto 
himself, but he becomes a miserable spectacle of weakness 
and mutability. Even Adam in innocency ', when he waa 
to be supported and persevere by his own strength, though 
he had no sin or inward corruption to betray him, how sud- 
denly was he thrown <lown from his excellency by Satan 
with a poor and slender temptation ! how strangely did a 
creature of so high and noble a constitution exchange God 
himself for the fruit of a tree, believe a serpent before a 
Maker, and was so miserably cheated as to suppose, that, by 
casting awav God's image, he should become the more like 
him ! Who could have thought, that David, a man after 
God's own heart, with one miscarrying glance of his eye. 
should have been plunged into such a gulf of sin and misery 
as he fell into ? that eo spiritual and heavenly a soul should 
be so suddenly overcome with so sensual a temptation? that 
so merciful and righteous a man should ao greatly wrong a 
faithful servant, as he did Uriah, and then make the inno- 
cent blood of him whom he wronged, a mantle to palliate 
and to covsr the wrong, and make use of his fidelity to con- 
vey the letters J and instructions for his own ruin? Who 
could have thought, that Lot, so soon after he had been de- 
livered from fire and brimstone, aud vexed with the filthy 
conversation of the Sodomites, should be himself inflamed 
with unnatural incestuous lust? Who could have suspected, 
that Peter, who had his name from a rock, should be so 
soon shaken like a reed, — and after so solemn a protestation 
not to forsake Christ, though all else should, to be driven' 
with the voice of a maid from his steadfastness, and with 
oaths and curses to be the first that denied him? Surely 
"every man," in his best estate, " Is altogether vanity." 

Therefore it behoveth us to be always humbled in the 
sight of ourselves, and to be jealous, Isl. Of our original 

J Ui B(llcini.hon 1>I( 

D-EJilion, (]. &83. 


impoteucy unto the duing of any good, unto the forbearing, 
of any evil, unto the repelling of any temptation by our owr 
power. *• In bis own niiglit, shall no man be strong: ^.'^ To 
be a * sinner/ and to be ' without strength,' are terms equiva- 
lent in the apostle ^ Nay, even where there is a will to do 
good, there is a defect of power to perform it": our 
strength is not in ourselves, but in the Lord, and in the 
power of his might, and in the workintr of his Spitit in our 
inner man \ If but a good thought arise in our mind, or a 
good desire and motion be stirring in our heart, or a good 
word drop from our lip?, — we have great cause to take no- 
tice of the grace of God that offered it to us, and wrought it 
io us, and to admire how any of the fruit of Paradise could 
grow in so heathy a wilderness. 

^d. Of our natural antipathy and reluctancy unto holy 
duties : our aptness to draw back towards perdition ; to re- 
fuse and thrust away the offers and motions of grace ; our 
rebellion which ariseth from the law of the members against 
the law of the mind ; the continual droppings of a corrupt 
heart upon any of the tender buds and sproutings of piety 
that are wrought within us ; our aptness to be weary of 
the yoke, and to shake oH' the burden of Christ from our 
shoulders ®; our natural levity^ and inconstancy of spirit in 
any holy resolutions, continuing as a morning dew, which 
presently is dried up ; beginning in the spirit, and ending in 
the flesh, having interchangeable fits of the one and the 
other; like the polypus, now of one colour, and anon of 
another; now hot with zeal, and anon cold uith security ; 
DOW following Moses with songs of thanks^ivino for de- 
liverance out of Egypt, and, quickly after, thrusting Moses 
away, and in heart returning unto Egypt again. Such a 
discern posed n ess and natural instability there is in the spi- 
rit of a man, that, like strings in an insttument, it is apt to 
be altered with every change of weather : nay, while you are 
playing on it, you must ever and anon be new tuning it ; 
like water heated, which is always offering to reduce itself 
to its own coldness. No longer sun, no longer light; no 

k 9. I Rom. v. 6, H. "> Rom. vii. IH. n Ephct. 

«i. la. iii. 19. Thil. iv. 13. o I»\ xliii. 22. p \U< hab' nt inter 

cuMcia bor.i mores, ()Uccnt sibi ct {)crmancnt. Ix-vis est malitia, sarix* mut^tur. 
Semec, Epiu. 47. Maximum itiilicium e^ malar mcnii«, fluctuatic. Epist. 120, 

longer Clirist, no longer u;race: if his back be at any time 
upou ua, our back will i mined iately be turned from him ; 
like those forgetful crealtires in Seneca, vrho even while they 
are eating, if they happen to louk aside from their meat, 
immediately lose the thought:^ of il, and go about seeking 
for more. 

3d. Of the manifold decays and abatements of the grace 
of God in ub, our aptness to leave our first love''. How did 
Hezekiah fall into an impolitic vain-glory', in showing all 
bis treasures unto the ambassadors of a foreign prince, 
thereby kindling a desire in him to be master of so rich a 
land, as soon as God left him unto himself'. How quickly, 
without continual husbandry, will a garden or vineyard be 
wasted and overgrown with weeds! How easily is a ship, 
when it is at the very shore, carried with a storm back into 
the sea again! How quickly will a curious watch, if it lie 
open, gather dust into the wheels, and be out of order! 
Though, therefore, thou have found sweetness in religion, 
joy in the Holy Spirit, comfort, yea, heaven in good duties, 
power against corruptions, strength against temptations, 
triumph over atllicLions, assurance of God's favour, vigour, 
life, and great eiilargemenl of heart in the ways of godliness; 
yet for all this, be not high-minded, but fear. Remember 
the flower that is wide open in the morning, when the sun 
shines upon it, may be shut up in the evening before night 
come. If the sim had not stood still, Joshua had not taken 
vengeance on the enemy'; and if the Sun of righteous- 
ness do not constantly shine upon us, and supply ub, we 
shall not be able to pursue and carry on any victorious 
affections. While God ' openeth his hand,' thou art ' filled ;' 
but if he ' withdraw his face,' thou wilt be ' troubled ' again ". 
Therefore take heed of resting on thine own wisdom or 
strength. Thoumayest, after all this, grieve theSpirit of God, 
and cause him to depart and hide himself from thee: tliou 
uiayest fall from thy steadfastness, and lose thy wonted cotu- 
forts: thou mayest have a dead winter upou the face of thy 

n • 

' Legclmperiali.inieidictii lini, oici, liquaminii eipoiu- 

tlo; ne Barbaii, giuli 

1 illccii, promptiuj iniradcrrnt lines RoRianonini, Leg. 1. 

Cod. quae tss tiporltii 

i non dcbtanc— El ipud ChinuH, citeri in loca regni >ik 

ictiocA non fldmUiun 

lur, (anium in oiii muilimis concedllur commcicium.— 

BoUTU, in C»uilog. U 

npetioiuni. ' 2 Kingixx. 12, 13. • Josh. ». 13. 


conscience, and be brought to 8uch a sad and disconsolate 
condition, as to conclude that God hath cast thee out of his 
sight, that he hath forgotten to be gracious, and hath shut 
up his loving-kindness in displeasure; to roar out for an- 
guish of spirit, as one whose bones are broken : thy soul 
may draw nigh to the grave, and thy life to the destroyers, 
and thou mayest find it a woful and a most insuperable diflB- 
calty to recover thy life and strength again. It was so with 
Job^. It was so with David '. It' was so with Heman % 
and divers others*. Therefore we should still remember in 
a calm to provide for a storm ; to stir up the graces of God 
continually in ourselves, that they be not quenched ^ ; so 
to rejoice in the Lord, as withal to work out our own salva- 
tion with fear and trembling *" ; never to let the grace of 
God puff us up, or make us forgetful of our own weakness ; 
but, as the apostle saith of himself in regard of God*s grace, 
'• When I am weak, then am I strong **;** so to say of our- 
selves in regard of our own natural corruption, ** When I am 
strong, then I am weak.'* 

Sect. 12. Secondly, This must not so humble us, as to 
deject and dismay us, or make us give over the hope of 
holding out to the end, when our nature is so weak, our 
enemies so strong, our temptations so many ; but we must 
withal be quickened by these considerations, with prayer to 
implore, and with faith to rely on and draw, strength from 
the Word and grace of God ; to have alwavs the window of 
the soul open towards the Sun of righteousness, whereby 
the supplies of his grace to prevent, excite, assist, follow, 
establish us, and carry on every good thing which he hath 
begun for us, may be continually admitted. This is one of 
the most necessary duties for a Christian, To hold constant 
and filed purposes in godliness: the Scripture frequently 
calls upon us for them, that " with purpose of heart we 
should cleave unto God ' :" that we should " continue in 
the grace of God ^ :" that we should be '* rooted and 
grounded in love < :*" that we would ** hold fast the pro- 

vJobz. 16, 17. xiii. 26, 27, 2d. xvi. 9, 13. xix. 15,31. >Psalmli.8. 
UxYit 2, 3, 4. y Folio-EditioQ, p. 586. > Psalm Uxxviit. 

• See Job xxziii. 19, 22. Pulm x. 3, 11. Isai. liv. 6, 11. John ii. 3, 4. 
k 2TuxL i. 6. e Psalmii. 11. Phil. ii. 12, 13. <12 Cor. xii. 10. 

• Acts xi. 23. f Acts xiii. 43. S Rphes. ill. 17. 


fession of our faith without wavering ** :" that we would 
be "steadfast and unmovable, always abounding in the 
work of the Lord * :" that we would look to ourselves, that 
we may not "lose the things which we have wrought^:** 
that we would '^ hold fast and keep the works of Christ 
unto the end ^'^ And it is that which godly men are most 
earnestly solicitous about, and do strive unto with greatest 
importunity. " I have purposed that my mouth shall not 
transgress "*.*" '* Unite my heart to fear thy name".*' " My 
heart is fixed to God, ray heart is fixed ; I will sing and 
Sjive praise**." Therefore in this case it is necessary for us 
to draw nigh unto God, who only can ratify all our pioos 
resolutions ; " who giveth power to the faint, and to them 
that have no power, increaseth strength p;'' who only can 
'* settle and stablish the hearts of men ''." The conscience 
of our duty, the sense of our frailty, the power, malice, and 
cunning of our enemies, the obligation of our covenant, 
should direct the soul perpetually unto God for the supply 
of his grace, — that that may, in all our weaknesses, be suf- 
ficient for us, and " hold us up, that we may be safe," as the 
psalmist speaks ^; and may never, through infirmity or un- 
stableness of spirit, violate our own resolutions. 

Sect. 13.— 3. This is matter of great comfort unto the 
godly, That, in the midst of so many temptations, snares, im- 
pediments, amongst which we walk, — not only the safety of 
our souls, and security of our eternal salvation, but even our 
jiresent condition in this life, our conversion, our obedience, 
all our pious purposes of heart, all the progress we make in 
a holy conversation, — do not depend upon the weakness and 
uncertainty of a human will, but upon the infallible truth, 
the constant promise, the immutable purpose, the invincible 
power, the free love, the absolute grace, the omnipotent 
wisdom and working of God, who doth whatsoever he 
pleaseth both in heaven and earth, and worketh all things 
by the counsel of his own will. " I, the Lord, change not; 
therefore the sons of Jacob are not consumed *." We, poor 
and weak men, change with every wind ; strong to-day, and 

h Hcb. X. 23. » 1 Cor. xv. 58. k 2 John verse 8. » Rer. 

ii . 25, 26. m Psalm xvii. 3. n Psalm Ixxxvi. 1 1. • PuUm 

Uii. 7. P Isai. xl. 29. <» 1 P i. v. 10. ' Pnalm cxix. 117. 
' Mai. iii. G. 



watk to-morrow ; fixed and resolute to-day, shaken and 
staggering to-morrow ; running forward to-day, and revolting 
as fast to-morrow ; no hold to be taken of our promises, no 
traat to be given to our covenants ; like Peter on the water, 
we walk one step, and we sink another. All our comfort 
it this, — our strength and standing is not founded in 
onrBeWes, but in the rock whereon we are built, — and 
in the power of God, by which we are kept through 
fiuth unto salvation, — out of whose hands none are able to 
pluck us. Our very actions are wroui^ht in us, and carried on 
nolo their end by the power of Christ, who hath mercy, 
wisdom, and strength enough to rescue us, as from the 
power of hell and death, so from the danger of our own 
sickly and froward hearts. To see a man, when he is half 
a mile from his eneniy^ draw a sword to encounter him, or 
take up a stone to hit him, would be but a ridiculous spec- 
tacle; for what could he do uith such weapons, by his own 
tttrengthy at such a distance ? But if he mount a cannon, 
and point that level against the enemy; this we do not 
wronder at, though the distance be so p:reat; because, 
though the action be originally his, yet* the effect of it 
proceedeth from the force of the uiateiials and instruments 
which be useth, to wit, the powder, the bullet, the fire, the 
cannon. It seemed absurd, in the eye of the enemy, for 
little David, with a shepherd's bag and a sling, to go 
against Goliath, an armed giant, and it produced in his proud 
heart much disdain and insultation " : but when we hear 
David mention the name of God, in the strength and confi- 
dence whereof he came against so proud an enemy, this 
makes us conclude weak David strong enough to encounter 
with great Goliath. It is not our own streni^th, but the love 
of God, which is the foundation of our triumph over all 
But some will then say'. Since we may be secure, if God^s 

• FoUo-Edkion, in 587. " 1 Sam. xvii. 41, 42, 43. > Rom. 

fui. 309 39. J Doctriiia istius modi apta nata est ad ftccuritatem, omnis re- 

Uponis pestero et perniciem, hominibus ingcnerandam, Sec. Remofutr, in Script. 

DopBMdfl circs artic. 5. p. 2i>9.— Not autem dicimus, humanam voluntaccm 

ttc diviBuat adjovari ad facicndam juttiiiam, ut accipiat Spiriium Sanctum, quo 

ftat iaanimo ejus delccutio dilcctiuque bummi illiu» et incommutubilis Buiii 

Cam id pnmitertt gratia ut moreiemur pcccato, quid aliud faciemu^ si %i%imut in 
eo.iiniutgntisp ftimus in^r.iti ? nrtiuc ritim ()Ui l.iudat brnrficiuni nuMlidni^ 

grace and power alone be our strength, let us then commit 
oursetves and our salvation unto him, and, in the mean time, 
give overall thoughts and care of it ourselves, and live as 
we list; no act of ours can frustrate the counsel of the love 
of God. — To this we answer with the npostle, " God forbid." 
Though the enemies of free grace do thus argue, yet they 
who indeed have the grace of God in their hearts, have bet- 
ter learned Christ, For it ia against the formal nature of the 
grace and Spirit of Christ to suffer those in whom it dwelleth. 
to give over themselves unto security and neglect of God: 
for grace is a vital and active principle ; and doth so work 
in us, as that it doth withal dispose and direct ns unto work, 
ing too. The property of grace is to fight against and to 
kill sin, as being most extremely contrary unto it: and there- 
fore it is a. most irrational way of arguing, to argue from the 
being of grace to the life of sin. " How shail we that are 
dead to sin, live any longer therein'?" If we be dead to 
sill, this is argument enough, in the apostle's judgement, 
why we should set our affections on things above". The 
grace of God doth not only serve to bring salvation, but to 
" leach us to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to lire 
soberly, righteously, and godly in this present world ^" Hfl 
who hath decreed salvation as the end, hath decreed alto 
the antecedent means unto that end to be used in manner, 
suitable to the condition of reasonable and voluntary agents, 
— unto whom it belongs, having their minds by 2;race en- 
lightened, and their wills by grace prevented, to co-operate 
with the same grace in the further pursuance of their salva- 
tion. And if at any time corruption should, in God's chil- 
dren, abuse his grace and efficacy unto such preaumptuoui 
resolutions, they would quickly rue so unreasonable and car- 
nal a way of arguing, by the woful sense of God's displea- 
sure in withdrawing the comrorla of his grace from them, 
which would make them ever tifter take heed how they tunied 
the grace of God into wantonness any more. Certainly, the 
more the servants of God are assured of his assistance, the 
more careful they are in using it unto his own service- Who 
more sure of the grace of God than the apostle Paul, who 

prodenc morboi d 

, &c. Quo! pia 


gloried of it as that that made him what he was? " By the 
grace of God, I am tliat I am ;*' who knew that God's grace 
was aufficient for hioi, and that nothing could separate bin: 
/ram the love of Christ ; who knew whom he had lielieved, 
and that the grace of the Lord was exceeding abundant to- 
wards him ; and yet who more tender and fearful of sin ? 
who more set against corruption, more abundant in duty, 
more pressing unto perfection, than he ? This is the nature 
of grace. To animate and actuate the faculties of the soul in 
Ood^s service, to ratify our covenants, and to enable us to 
peiform them. 

Sect. 14. Fourthly, As it is singular comfort to the ser- 
vants of God, that their own wills and purposes are in God's 
keepiog, and so they cannot ruin themselves ; so it is also, 
that all other men's wills and resolutions are in God's keep- 
ing too, so that they shall not be able to purpose or resolve 
<m any evil against the church, w ithout leave from him. So 
then, first, When the rage and passions of men break out, 
tribe divided against tribe, brother against brother, father 
against child, head against body ; when the band of unity, 
which was wont to knit together this flourishing kingdom, 
is broken like the prophet's stafl', and there withal the 
beauty of the nation miserably withered and decayed, (for 
these two go still together, beauty and hands %) we must 
look on all this as God's own work. It was he that sent an 
evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem, for 
the mntual punishment of the sins of one another. It was 
he who turned the hearts of the Egyptians to hate his peo. 
pie, and to deal subtilely with them '*. He sent the Assyrian 
against his people, giving them a charge to take the spoil 
and the prey, and to tread them down like the mire of the 
streets*. lie appointed the sword of the King of Babylon, 
by his overruling direction, to go against Judah, and not 
against the Ammonites ^ He, by the secret command of 
bis providence, marked some for safety, and gave commis- 
sion to kill and slay others *^. It is he who giveth Jacob for 
a spoil, and Israel to the robbers, and poureth out upon 
ihem the strength of battle *". If there be evil in a city, in 

« Zacli. xi. 10, 14. <1 Psalm cv. 2:>. • Isai. x. 6, 16. ' Eick. 

zzi. 19, 22. f Folio- Edition, p. 588. Ezek. ix. 4, .S. k liiai. xlii. :24, 2&. 

VOL. 111. 2 r 


a kiugdom, the Lord hath done it '. This consideration is 
very useful both to humble us, when we consider that God 
hath a controversy against the land ; and that it is he whoni 
we have to do withal in these sad commotions, that are in the 
kingdoms; and to quiet and silence us^ that we may not 
dare to murmur at the course of his wise and righteoua pro* 
ceedings with us ; and to direct us with prayer, faith, and 
patience to implore, and in his good time to expect, such an 
issue and close^ as we are sure shall be for his own glory, 
and for the manifestation of his mercy towards his people, 
and his justice towards all that are implacable enemies unto 

2. In the troubles of the church, this is matter of singular 
comfort, that however enemies may say, 'this and that we 
will do, hither and thither we will go,' — though they may 
combine together, and be mutually confederate'', and gird 
themselves, and take counsel, and speak the word ; yet, in 
all this, God hath the casting voice. There is little heed to 
be given unto what Ephraim saith, except God say the same: 
without him, whatsoever is counselled, shall come to nought; 
iivhatsoever is decreed or spoken, shall not stand K We have 
a lively hypotyposis or description of the swift, confident, 
and furious march of the great host of Sennacherib towards 
Jerusalem, with the great terrors and consternation of the 
inhabitants in every place where they came, weeping, flying, 
removing their habitations "" ; and when he was advanced 
unto Nob, from which place the city Jerusalem 
seen, he there shook his hand against Jerusalem, threaten- 
ing what he would do unto it. And then when the wateis 
were come to the very neck, and the Assyrian was in the 
height of pride and fury, God sent forth a prohibition 
against all their resolutions ; and that huge army, wbidi 
was, for pride &nd number, like the thick trees of Lebanon, 
were suddenly cut down by a mighty one, to wit, by the 
angel of the Lord, verse 33, 34. compared with Ezek. xxxi* 
3, 10. Isai. xvii. 12, 13, 14, 37, 36. Therefore, 

3. Our greatest business is to apply ourselves to God, 
who alone is the Lord that healeth us, who alone can join 

i Amos iii. 6. Isai. xIt. 7. k Psalmlxxxiii.2, 3. > Is. viit. 9, It. 

« Isai. X. 28, 29, 30, 31. 


the two sticks of Epbraim and Judah, and make them one" — 
that he would still the raging of the sea, and command a 
calm again. He can say, *• Ephraim shall say thus and 
thus ;* — he hath the hearts of kings, and consequently of all 
other men, in his hands ^, and he can turn them as rivers of 
water, which way soever he will ; as men by art can derive 
witers, and divert them from one course to another ; — as 
they did in the siege of Babylon, as historians tell us^, where- 
anto the Scripture seemeth to refer 'i. He can bwvlw, alter, 
divert, overrule the purposes of men as it pleaseth him, re- 
coaciliDg lambs and lions unto one another % making Israel, 
Egypt, and Assyria agree together \ He can say to Balaam, 
' bless,' — when his mind wels to curse *. He can turn the 
wrath of Laban into a covenant of kindness with Jacob"; 
and when Esau had advantage to execute his threats against 
his brother, be can then turn resolutions of cruelty into 
kisses*. And when Saul had compassed David and his men 
round about, and is most likely to take them, he can even 
then take him off by a necessary diversion y. This is die 
comfort of God^s people, That whatever men say, except God 
aaj it too, it shall come all to notliing. He can restrain the 
wrath of men whensoever it pleaseth him, and he will do it 
when it hath proceeded so far as to glorify bis power, and to 
flake way for the more notable manifestation of his good- 
ness to his people '. And thus far of God'*s answer to the 
eovenant of Ephraim ; they promised to renounce idols, and 
here God promiseth that they should renounce them. 

Sbct. 15. Now there are two things more to be observed 
bom this expression, " What have 1 to do any more with 
klols?** 1. That, in true conversion, God maketh our spe- 
cial sin to be the object of our greatest detestation ; which 
piint haUi been opened before. 2. From those words, " any 
more,** that the nature of true repentance is to ' break sin 
dF/ as the expression is, Dan. iv. 27 ; and not to suffer a 
to continue any longer in it*, it makes a man esteem 

■ Esod. 31T.2S. Ezck. xxvii. 19. • Prov. xxi. 1. P lierodot.Uh. I.— 

Xrmphmu Cfjo^md. lib. 7.^-^alianui. Anno mundi. Sect. 5 et 35. Sect. 22.— 
Sr IF. RaUigk, lib. 3. cap. 3. Sect. 5. <1 hai. xliii. 15, 16. xliv. 2.'), 2S. 

kr. L 23. Jer. li. 36. r isai. xi. 6. • lui. xix. 24, 25. t josh. 

udt.lS. a Gen. xxxi. 24, 44. ^ Gen. xxxiii. 4. J 1 Sam. 

ixUu26, 27, 28. « Piialm Ixxvi. 10. • Rom. vi. 1, 2. 

2 c 2 



Serm .■ 

the time past eufficieut to have wrought the will of the Gen- 
tiles ■; and is exceeding thrifty of the time to come, so to 
redeem it. as that God may have all ; doth not linger, not 
delay, nor make objections, or stick at inconveniences, or 
raise doubts whether it be seasonable to go out of Egypt and 
Sodotn or no; is not at the sluggard's language, " niodo et 
raodo," a little more sleep, a little more slumber; nor at 
Agrippa'a language, "Almost thou persuadest'' me;" nor 
at Felix's language, "When 1 have a convenient '^ season, ! 
will send for thee ;" but immediately resolves with Paul, 
" not to confer with flesh and blood V' and makes haste " to 
fly from the wrath to come," while it is yet to come, beForc 
it overtake us*; doth not make anxious or cavilling ques- 
tions, "What shall I do for the hundred talents?" bow 
shall T maintain my life, my credit, my family ? how sbatl I 
keep my friends? how shall 1 preserve mine interests, or 
support mine estate? but ventures the loss of all for the 
'excellency of the knowledge of Christ';' is contented to 
part with a sky full of stars for one Sun of righteousness. 
The converts that return to Christ, come like 'dromedaries.' 
like 'doves,' like ' ships;' no wings, no sails can carry them 
fast enough from their former courees unto him ". Abrabkni 
is up betimes in the morning, though it be to the sacrificing 
of a son '', David makes haste, and delays not, when he i» 
to keep God's commandments'. When Christ called his dis- 
ciples, immediately they left their nets, their ship, their fa- 
ther, and followed him'-. This is the mighty power of re- 
pentance : it doth not give dilatory answers, it doth not say 
to Christ, ' Go away now, and come to-morrow, then I will 
bear thee ; I am not yet old enough, or rich enough ; I have 
not gotten yet pleasure, or honour, or profit, or preferment 
enough by my sins;'— but presently it hears and entertains 
htm: — ' I have sinned enough already to condemn, to shame, 
to slay me; I have spent time and strength enough already 
upon it, for such miserable wages as shame and death come 

' IPct 

iir. 2, 3, 

* Folio-Edition 

p. sas 

>: Ncn «« om 


m veriale con 

Ticlu», ni 

i till I 

m verb 

lenlael lomnolEmi 



sine pwlulDTO,- Scd 


CI raodo 

habebini modutn. J^. 

C(>nf(S(.lib.8.c.&. Dn 

nihi cuiii 







eiaodiici, « 


i. Ibid 

cap. 7. 

■1 Gtt.i. 16. 


ill. 7. 

t Ma(lh.xi<l 

46. Phil 

ii. 7, 8 



li. 6, 7.8, S. 

>> Ocn. 


to; therefore I will never any more have to do with it/ 
This is the sweet and most ingenuous voice of repentance : 
" The thing which I see not, teach me ; and if I have done 
iniquity y I will do no more *.*' There is no sin more contrary 
to repentance than apostasy ; " for godly sorrow worketh re- 
pentance unto salvation,*^ which the soul never finds reason 
to repent of". •* Let us therefore take heed of an evil heart 
of unbelief, in departing from the living God", and of draw- 
ing back unto perdition ° ;*^ of dismissing our sins, as the 
Jews did their servants p, and calling them back again: for 
Satan usually returns with seven more wicked Hpiiits. and 
maketh the last state of such a man worse than the first *<. 
Ground which hath been a long time laid down from tillage 
unto pasture, if afterwards it be new broken, will bring a 
much greater crop of corn than it did formerly, when it was 
a common field : and so the heart which hath been taken 
off from sin, if it return to it again, will be much more fruit- 
ful than before. As lean bodies have many times the strong* 
est appetite, so lust, when it hath been kept lean, returns 
with greater hunger unto those objects which feed it. A 
stream which hath been stopped, will run more violently 
being once o]>ened again. Therefore, in repentance, we must 
shake hands with sin for ever, and resolve never more to tam- 
per with it. 

Sect. 16. Now in that the Lord saith, " I have heard 
him, and observed him," we learn hence. First, That God 
heareth and answereth the prayers only of penitents. When 
a man resolves, ' I will have no more to do with sin,' then, 
not till then, doth his prayer find way to God. Impenitency 
dogs the wing of devotion \ and stops its passage unto Hea- 
ven. The person must be accepted before the petition; 
Christ Jesus is the priest that offereth, and the altar which 
lanctifieth, all our services*. And Christ will not be their 
advocate in heaven, who refuse to have him their king on 
earth. The Scripture is in no point more express than in 
this, ** If I regard iniquity in my heart, the Lord will not 

* Job xuiT. 33. B 2 Cor. vh. 10, 1 1 . » Heb. iii. 12. o Heb. 

X. 39. P Jer* xzziv. 16. n Luke xi. 26. ' Solenne crmt eo«, qui- 

Vm pone manuinon ermnt, sacris arccri. Brision. dc fdrmul. 1. l.^Ectain impic 
initiauooes arcent profmnos : Trrt. Apol. — Quinttim 4 pnece|>cit, untura ab mofi-